264 relations: Adam Tooze, Adolf Galland, Adolf Hitler, Aerial warfare, Air force, Air Forces of the National People's Army, Airframe, Albert Kesselring, Albert Speer, Alexander Löhr, Allied Control Council, Amerikabomber, Anschluss, Attack on Pearl Harbor, Auschwitz concentration camp, Avro Lancaster, Axial compressor, Axis powers, Balkan Campaign (World War II), Balkenkreuz, Basque Country (autonomous community), Battle for The Hague, Battle of Berlin, Battle of Britain, Battle of Crete, Battle of Dunkirk, Battle of Fort Eben-Emael, Battle of France, Battle of Kursk, Battle of Stalingrad, Battle of the Atlantic, Battle of the Bulge, Belgium, Belgrade, Blohm & Voss BV 138, Blohm & Voss BV 222, BMW 003, BMW 801, BMW 802, BMW 803, Bomber B, Bomber destroyer, Bombing of Guernica, Chief of staff, Circus offensive, Colonel, Condor Legion, Czechoslovakia, Dachau concentration camp, Daimler-Benz DB 601, ..., Daimler-Benz DB 603, Daimler-Benz DB 604, Daimler-Benz DB 605, Defence of the Reich, Der Adler, Der Spiegel, Deutsche Luft Hansa, Dive bomber, Dornier Do 17, Dornier Do 18, Dornier Do 19, Dornier Do 217, Dornier Do X, E. R. Hooton, Eastern Front (World War II), Edgar Petersen, Eighth Air Force, Ejection seat, Emergency Fighter Program, English Channel, Erhard Milch, Erich Raeder, Ernst August Köstring, Ernst Heinkel, Ernst Udet, Fallschirmjäger, Feldflieger Abteilung, FET y de las JONS, Fin flash, Fleet Air Arm, Flight (military unit), Flying boat, Focke-Wulf Fw 190, Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor, Francisco Franco, Frederick Taylor (historian), Freezing, Göring Telegram, General der Flieger, Generalfeldmarschall, Geographical distribution of German speakers, German Air Fleets in World War II, German Air Sports Association, German Army (German Empire), German Army (Wehrmacht), German Empire, German occupation of Czechoslovakia, German reunification, German war crimes, German-occupied Europe, Geschwaderkommodore, Giulio Douhet, Gran Sasso raid, Grand admiral, Guernica, Hans Jeschonnek, Heinkel, Heinkel He 111, Heinkel He 115, Heinkel He 119, Heinkel He 162, Heinkel He 177, Heinkel He 51, Heinkel He 70, Heinkel HeS 011, Heinrich Himmler, Hellmuth Felmy, Helmuth Wilberg, Hermann Göring, High Command Trial, Hiwi (volunteer), Hugo Junkers, Hugo Sperrle, Human subject research, Hypothermia, Imperial German Navy, Invasion of Poland, Invasion of Yugoslavia, Jagdgeschwader 1 (World War II), Jagdgeschwader 400, Jagdgeschwader 7, Jagdverband 44, Jagdwaffe, James Corum, Jews, Junkers G.38, Junkers J 1, Junkers Ju 52, Junkers Ju 86, Junkers Ju 87, Junkers Ju 88, Junkers Ju 89, Junkers Jumo 004, Junkers Jumo 205, Junkers Jumo 222, Kampfgeschwader, Kampfgruppe, Karlshagen, Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross, Kriegsmarine, Landsturm, Lieutenant colonel, Lionel Leventhal, Lipetsk (air base), Lipetsk fighter-pilot school, List of flags of the Luftwaffe (1933–45), List of German aircraft projects, 1939–45, List of German World War II jet aces, List of German World War II night fighter aces, List of weapons of military aircraft of Germany during World War II, List of World War II aces from Germany, List of World War II military aircraft of Germany, Luftflotte 2, Luftflotte 5, Luftnachrichten Abteilung 350, Luftstreitkräfte, Luftwaffe Field Division, Luftwaffe serviceable aircraft strengths (1940–45), Luftwaffenhelfer, Madrid, Manfred von Richthofen, Manstein Plan, Marineflieger, Max Immelmann, Mediterranean and Middle East theatre of World War II, Messerschmitt Bf 109, Messerschmitt Me 261, Messerschmitt Me 262, Milch Trial, Military aviation, Military rank, Ministry of Aviation (Nazi Germany), Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Munich, Munich Agreement, National Socialist Flyers Corps, Nationalist faction (Spanish Civil War), Naval aviation, Nazi Germany, Nazi human experimentation, Netherlands, Night fighter, North American P-51 Mustang, Nuremberg trials, Oberkommando der Luftwaffe, Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, Oberst, Oberstleutnant, Oil campaign of World War II, Operation Barbarossa, Operation Bodenplatte, Operation Sea Lion, Operation Weserübung, Organization of the Luftwaffe (1933–45), Oswald Boelcke, Panzer corps, Paratrooper, Peenemünde Airfield, Poland, Pressure vessel, Priwall Peninsula, Propaganda in Nazi Germany, RAF Bomber Command, Ranks and insignia of the Luftwaffe (1935–45), Rechlin–Lärz Airfield, Reich Labour Service, Reichsführer-SS, Reichswehr, Robert Ritter von Greim, Roman numerals, Royal Air Force, Schiffer Publishing, Schnellbomber, Schutzstaffel, Sender Freies Berlin, Shvetsov ASh-73, Sigmund Rascher, Soviet Air Forces, Soviet Union, Spanish Civil War, Staff (military), Stopped at Stalingrad, Strategic bombing, Strategic bombing during World War II, Tarnewitz test site, The Blitz, The Wages of Destruction, Trainer aircraft, Treaty of Versailles, Truppenführung, Uniforms of the Luftwaffe (1935–45), United Kingdom, United States, United States Army Air Forces, Ural bomber, Vivisection, Walther Wever (general), War crime, Weapon, Wehrmacht, Western Front (World War II), Westerplatte, Wieluń, Wing (military aviation unit), Wing root, Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen, World War I, World War II, Wright R-3350 Duplex-Cyclone, X engine, Yugoslav Partisans, 15th Expeditionary Mobility Task Force, 1st Fallschirm-Panzer Division Hermann Göring. 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Adam Tooze (born 1967) is a British historian who is a professor at Columbia University.
Adolf Joseph Ferdinand Galland (19 March 1912 – 9 February 1996) was a German Luftwaffe general and flying ace who served throughout the Second World War in Europe.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Aerial warfare is the battlespace use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare.
An air force, also known in some countries as an aerospace force or air army, is in the broadest sense, the national military branch that primarily conducts aerial warfare.
The Air Forces of the National People's Army (German: Luftstreitkräfte der Nationalen Volksarmee – LSK) was the Air Force of East Germany.
The airframe of an aircraft is its mechanical structure.
Albert Kesselring (30 November 1885 – 16 July 1960) was a German Luftwaffe Generalfeldmarschall during World War II.
Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer (March 19, 1905 – September 1, 1981) was a German architect who was, for most of World War II, Reich Minister of Armaments and War Production for Nazi Germany.
Alexander Löhr (20 May 1885 – 26 February 1947) was an Austrian Air Force commander during the 1930s and, after the annexation of Austria, he was a Luftwaffe commander.
The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in the German language as the Alliierter Kontrollrat and also referred to as the Four Powers (Vier Mächte), was a military occupation governing body of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany and Austria after the end of World War II in Europe.
The Amerika bomber project was an initiative of the German Reichsluftfahrtministerium to obtain a long-range strategic bomber for the Luftwaffe that would be capable of striking the United States from Germany, a round-trip distance of about.
Anschluss ('joining') refers to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938.
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, on the morning of December 7, 1941.
Auschwitz concentration camp was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
The Avro Lancaster is a British four-engined Second World War heavy bomber.
An axial compressor is a compressor that can continuously pressurize gases.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
The Balkan Campaign of World War II began with the Italian invasion of Greece on 28 October 1940.
The Balkenkreuz is a straight-armed cross that was the emblem of the Wehrmacht (German Armed Forces) and its branches from 1935 until the end of World War II.
The Basque Country (Euskadi; País Vasco; Pays Basque), officially the Basque Autonomous Community (Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa, EAE; Comunidad Autónoma Vasca, CAV) is an autonomous community in northern Spain.
The Battle for The Hague took place on 10 May 1940 as part of the Battle of the Netherlands between the Royal Netherlands Army and Luftwaffe Fallschirmjäger (paratroops).
The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, and also known as the Fall of Berlin, was the final major offensive of the European theatre of World War II.
The Battle of Britain (Luftschlacht um England, literally "The Air Battle for England") was a military campaign of the Second World War, in which the Royal Air Force (RAF) defended the United Kingdom (UK) against large-scale attacks by Nazi Germany's air force, the Luftwaffe.
The Battle of Crete (Luftlandeschlacht um Kreta, also Unternehmen Merkur, "Operation Mercury," Μάχη της Κρήτης) was fought during the Second World War on the Greek island of Crete.
The Battle of Dunkirk was a military operation that took place in Dunkirk (Dunkerque), France, during the Second World War.
The Battle of Fort Eben-Emael was a battle between Belgian and German forces that took place between 10 May and 11 May 1940, and was part of the Battle of Belgium and Fall Gelb, the German invasion of the Low Countries and France.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
The Battle of Kursk was a Second World War engagement between German and Soviet forces on the Eastern Front near Kursk (south-west of Moscow) in the Soviet Union, during July and August 1943.
The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was the largest confrontation of World War II, in which Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia.
The Battle of the Atlantic was the longest continuous military campaign in World War II, running from 1939 to the defeat of Germany in 1945.
The Battle of the Bulge (16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945) was the last major German offensive campaign on the Western Front during World War II.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
The Blohm & Voss BV 138 Seedrache (Sea Dragon), but nicknamed Der Fliegende Holzschuh ("flying clog",Nowarra 1997, original German title of the Schiffer book. from the side-view shape of its fuselage) was a World War II German trimotor flying boat that served as the Luftwaffes main seaborne long-range maritime patrol and naval reconnaissance aircraft.
The Blohm & Voss BV 222 Wiking (German: "Viking") was a large, six-engined German flying boat of World War II.
The BMW 003 (full RLM designation BMW 109-003) was an early axial compressor turbojet engine produced by BMW AG in Germany during World War II.
The BMW 801 was a powerful German air-cooled 14-cylinder-radial aircraft engine built by BMW and used in a number of German Luftwaffe aircraft of World War II.
The BMW 802 was a large air-cooled radial aircraft engine, built using two rows of 9 cylinders to produce what was essentially an 18-cylinder version of the 14-cylinder BMW 801.
The BMW 803 was BMW's attempt to build a high-output aircraft engine by coupling two BMW 801 engines back-to-back, driving contra-rotating propellers.
Bomber B was a German military aircraft design competition organised just before the start of World War II to develop a second-generation high-speed bomber for the Luftwaffe.
Historically, several aircraft were designated bomber destroyers prior to and during the Second World War.
The bombing of Guernica (26 April 1937) was an aerial bombing of the Basque town of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War.
The title chief of staff (or head of staff) identifies the leader of a complex organization, institution, or body of persons and it also may identify a principal staff officer (PSO), who is the coordinator of the supporting staff or a primary aide-de-camp to an important individual, such as a president or a senior military officer.
The codename Circus was given to operations of British Royal Air Force (RAF) during World War II where bombers, heavily escorted by fighters, were sent over continental Europe to bring enemy fighters into combat.
Colonel ("kernel", abbreviated Col., Col or COL) is a senior military officer rank below the brigadier and general officer ranks.
The Condor Legion (Legion Condor) was a unit composed of military personnel from the air force and army of Nazi Germany, which served with the Nationalists during the Spanish Civil War of July 1936 to March 1939.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
Dachau concentration camp (Konzentrationslager (KZ) Dachau) was the first of the Nazi concentration camps opened in Germany, intended to hold political prisoners.
The Daimler-Benz DB 601 was a German aircraft engine built during World War II.
The Daimler-Benz DB 603 engine was a German aircraft engine used during World War II.
The Daimler-Benz DB 604 was an experimental German 24-cylinder aircraft engine, which did not progress beyond the initial engine testing phase and was ultimately abandoned in September 1942.
The Daimler-Benz DB 605 is a German aircraft engine, built during World War II.
The Defence of the Reich (Reichsverteidigung) is the name given to the strategic defensive aerial campaign fought by the Luftwaffe over German-occupied Europe and Nazi Germany during World War II.
Der Adler (literally "The Eagle") was a biweekly Nazi propaganda magazine published by the Scherl Verlag, founded by August Scherl, with the support of the Luftwaffe High Command.
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
Deutsche Luft Hansa A.G. (from 1933 styled as Deutsche Lufthansa and also known as Luft Hansa, Lufthansa, or DLH) was a German airline, serving as flag carrier of the country during the later years of the Weimar Republic and throughout Nazi Germany.
A dive bomber is a bomber aircraft that dives directly at its targets in order to provide greater accuracy for the bomb it drops.
The Dornier Do 17, sometimes referred to as the Fliegender Bleistift ("flying pencil"), was a light bomber of Nazi Germany during World War II.
The Dornier Do 18 was a development of the Do 16 flying boat.
The Dornier Do 19 was a German four-engine heavy bomber that first flew on October 28, 1936.
The Dornier Do 217 was a bomber used by the German Luftwaffe during World War II as a more powerful development of the Dornier Do 17, known as the Fliegender Bleistift (German: "flying pencil").
The Dornier Do X was the largest, heaviest, and most powerful flying boat in the world when it was produced by the Dornier company of Germany in 1929.
Edward R. Hooton is a defence writer, who has written several books including publications for the Jane's Information Group.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
Edgar Petersen (26 April 1904 – 10 June 1986) was a German bomber pilot in the Luftwaffe during World War II and recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross of Nazi Germany.
The Eighth Air Force (Air Forces Strategic) (8 AF) is a numbered air force (NAF) of the United States Air Force's Air Force Global Strike Command (AFGSC).
In aircraft, an ejection seat or ejector seat is a system designed to rescue the pilot or other crew of an aircraft (usually military) in an emergency.
The Emergency Fighter Program (literally "Fighter Emergency Program") was the program that resulted from a decision taken on July 3, 1944 by the Luftwaffe regarding the German aircraft manufacturing companies during the last year of the Third Reich.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
Erhard Milch (30 March 1892 – 25 January 1972) was a German field marshal and war criminal who oversaw the development of the Luftwaffe as part of the re-armament of Nazi Germany following World War I. During World War II, he was in charge of aircraft production; his ineffective management resulted in the decline of the German air force and its loss of air superiority as the war progressed.
Erich Johann Albert Raeder (24 April 1876 – 6 November 1960) was a German grand admiral who played a major role in the naval history of World War II.
Ernst-August Köstring (20 June 1876 – 20 November 1953) was a German diplomat and officer who served in World War II.
Ernst Udet (26 April 1896 – 17 November 1941) was a German pilot and air force general during World War II.
Fallschirmjäger is the German word for paratroopers.
Feldflieger Abteilung (FFA, Field Flying Company) was the title of the pioneering field aviation units of what became the Luftstreitkräfte (German air service) by October 1916, during World War I.
The Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (FET y de las JONS) (English: Traditionalist Spanish Phalanx and of the Councils of the National-Syndicalist Offensive) was the sole legal party of the Francoist State in Spain.
A fin flash is part of the national markings of the military aircraft of a number of countries.
The Fleet Air Arm (FAA) is the branch of the British Royal Navy responsible for the operation of naval aircraft.
A flight is a military unit in an air force, naval air service, or army air corps.
A flying boat is a fixed-winged seaplane with a hull, allowing it to land on water, that usually has no type of landing gear to allow operation on land.
The Focke-Wulf Fw 190 Würger (Shrike) is a German single-seat, single-engine fighter aircraft designed by Kurt Tank in the late 1930s and widely used during World War II.
The Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor, also known as Kurier to the Allies, was a German all-metal four-engined monoplane originally developed by Focke-Wulf as a long-range airliner.
Francisco Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.
Frederick Taylor (born 28 December 1947 at Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire) is a British novelist and historian specialising in modern German history.
Freezing, or solidification, is a phase transition in which a liquid turns into a solid when its temperature is lowered below its freezing point.
The Göring Telegram was a message sent by Adolf Hitler's designated successor—Hermann Göring—on 23 April 1945 asking for permission to assume leadership of the crumbling Third Reich.
General der Flieger (en: General of the aviators) was a General of the branch rank of the Deutsche Luftwaffe (en: German Air Force) in Nazi Germany.
Generalfeldmarschall (general field marshal, field marshal general, or field marshal;; abbreviated to Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states and the Holy Roman Empire; in the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, the rank Feldmarschall was used.
In addition to the German-speaking area (Deutscher Sprachraum) in Europe, German-speaking minorities are present in many countries and on all six inhabited continents.
A list of Luftwaffe "Luftflotten" (Air Fleets) and their locations between 1939 and 1945.
The German Air Sports Association (Deutscher Luftsportverband, or DLV e. V.) was an organisation set up by the Nazi Party in March 1933 to establish a uniform basis for the training of military pilots.
The Imperial German Army (Deutsches Heer) was the name given to the combined land and air forces of the German Empire (excluding the Marine-Fliegerabteilung maritime aviation formations of the Imperial German Navy).
The German Army (Heer) was the land forces component of the Wehrmacht, the regular German Armed Forces, from 1935 until it was demobilized and later dissolved in August 1946.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The German occupation of Czechoslovakia (1938–1945) began with the German annexation of Czechoslovakia's northern and western border regions, formerly being part of German-Austria known collectively as the Sudetenland, under terms outlined by the Munich Agreement.
The German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR, colloquially East Germany; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik/DDR) became part of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, colloquially West Germany; German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland/BRD) to form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz (constitution) Article 23.
The governments of the German Empire and Nazi Germany ordered, organized and condoned a substantial number of war crimes in World War I and World War II respectively.
German-occupied Europe refers to the sovereign countries of Europe which were occupied by the military forces of Nazi Germany at various times between 1939 and 1945 and administered by the Nazi regime.
Geschwaderkommodore (short also Kommodore) is a Luftwaffe position or appointment (not rank), originating during World War II.
General Giulio Douhet (30 May 1869 – 15 February 1930) was an Italian general and air power theorist.
The Gran Sasso raid or Operation Eiche ("Oak") was the rescue of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini by German paratroopers led by Major Otto-Harald Mors and Waffen-SS commandos in September 1943, during World War II.
Grand admiral is a historic naval rank, the highest rank in the several European navies that used it.
Guernica, official and Basque name Gernika, is a town in the province of Biscay, in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country, Spain.
Hans Jeschonnek (9 April 1899 – 18 August 1943) was a German Generaloberst and a Chief of the General Staff of Nazi Germany′s Luftwaffe during World War II.
Heinkel Flugzeugwerke was a German aircraft manufacturing company founded by and named after Ernst Heinkel.
The Heinkel He 111 was a German aircraft designed by Siegfried and Walter Günter at Heinkel Flugzeugwerke in 1934.
The Heinkel He 115 was a three-seat World War II Luftwaffe seaplane.
The Heinkel He 119 was an experimental single-propeller monoplane with two coupled engines, developed in Germany.
The Heinkel He 162 Volksjäger (German, "People's Fighter"), the name of a project of the Emergency Fighter Program design competition, was a German single-engine, jet-powered fighter aircraft fielded by the Luftwaffe in World War II.
The Heinkel He 177 Greif ("Griffin") was a large, long-range heavy bomber flown by the Luftwaffe during World War II.
The Heinkel He 51 was a German single-seat biplane which was produced in a number of different versions.
The Heinkel He 70 is a German mail plane and fast passenger aircraft of the 1930s which was also used in auxiliary bomber and aerial reconnaissance roles.
The Heinkel HeS 011 or Heinkel-Hirth 109-011 (HeS - Heinkel Strahltriebwerke) was an advanced World War II jet engine built by Heinkel-Hirth.
Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Germany.
Hellmuth Felmy (May 28, 1885 – December 14, 1965) was a German general (General der Flieger) in the Luftwaffe during World War II.
Helmuth Wilberg (born 1 June 1880, Berlin – died 20 November 1941, near Dresden) was a German officer, the last Luftwaffe General of the Air Force during the Second World War.
Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering;; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German political and military leader as well as one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party (NSDAP) that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945.
The High Command Trial (officially, The United States of America vs. Wilhelm von Leeb, et al.), also known initially as Case No.
The term Hiwi is a German abbreviation of the word Hilfswilliger, meaning "voluntary assistant", or more literally, "willing helper".
Hugo Junkers (3 February 1859 – 3 February 1935) was a German aircraft engineer and aircraft designer.
Hugo Sperrle (7 February 1885 – 2 April 1953) was a German field marshal of the Luftwaffe during World War II.
Human subject research is systematic, scientific investigation that can be either interventional (a "trial") or observational (no "test article") and involves human beings as research subjects.
Hypothermia is reduced body temperature that happens when a body dissipates more heat than it absorbs.
The Imperial German Navy ("Imperial Navy") was the navy created at the time of the formation of the German Empire.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
The invasion of Yugoslavia, also known as the April War or Operation 25, was a German-led attack on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers which began on 6 April 1941 during World War II.
2./JG 13./JG 14./JG 1gruppenStab./JG 1 --> Jagdgeschwader 1 (JG 1) was a German World War II fighter unit or "wing" which used the Messerschmitt Bf 109 and Focke-Wulf Fw 190 aircraft, between 1940 and 1944.
Jagdgeschwader 400 (JG 400) was a Luftwaffe fighter-wing of World War II.
Jagdgeschwader 7 (JG 7) Nowotny was a Luftwaffe fighter wing during World War II and the first operational jet fighter unit in the world.
Jagdverband 44 (JV 44) was a German air unit during World War II.
Jagdwaffe (Fighter Force), was the German Luftwaffes fighter force during World War II.
James Sterling Corum is an American air power historian and scholar of counter-insurgency. He has written several books on counterinsurgency and other topics. He is a retired lieutenant colonel in the US Army Reserve.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
The Junkers G.38 was a large German four-engined transport aircraft which first flew in 1929.
The Junkers J 1, nicknamed the Blechesel ("Tin Donkey" or "Sheet Metal Donkey"), was an experimental monoplane aircraft developed by Junkers & Co.
The Junkers Ju 52/3m (nicknamed Tante Ju ("Aunt Ju") and Iron Annie) is a German trimotor transport aircraft manufactured from 1931 to 1952.
The Junkers Ju 86 was a German monoplane bomber and civilian airliner designed in the early 1930s, and employed by various air forces on both sides during World War II.
The Junkers Ju 87 or Stuka (from Sturzkampfflugzeug, "dive bomber") is a German dive bomber and ground-attack aircraft.
The Junkers Ju 88 was a German World War II Luftwaffe twin-engined multirole combat aircraft.
The Junkers Ju 89 was a heavy bomber designed for the Luftwaffe prior to World War II.
The Junkers Jumo 004, was the world's first production turbojet engine in operational use, and the first successful axial compressor turbojet engine.
The Junkers Jumo 205 aircraft engine was the most famous of a series of aircraft Diesel engines that were the first, and for more than half a century the only successful aviation Diesel powerplants.
The Jumo 222 was a high-power multiple-bank in-line piston aircraft engine design from Junkers, designed under the management of Ferdinand Brandner of the Junkers Motorenwerke.
Kampfgeschwader are the German-language name for (air force) bomber units.
In military history and military slang, the German term Kampfgruppe (pl. Kampfgruppen; abbrev. KG, or KGr in Luftwaffe usage during World War II) can refer to a combat formation of any kind, but most usually to that employed by the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany and its allies during World War II and, to a lesser extent, of the German Empire in World War I. It also referred to bomber groups in Luftwaffe usage, which themselves consisted of three or four Staffeln (squadrons), and usually (but not exclusively) existed within Kampfgeschwader bomber wings of three or four Kampfgruppen per wing.
Karlshagen is a Baltic Sea resort in Western Pomerania in the north of the island Usedom.
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija, Краљевина Југославија; Кралство Југославија) was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe, that existed from 1918 until 1941, during the interwar period and beginning of World War II.
The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes), or simply the Knight's Cross (Ritterkreuz), and its variants were the highest awards in the military and paramilitary forces of Nazi Germany during World War II.
The Kriegsmarine (literally "War Navy") was the navy of Germany from 1935 to 1945.
In German-speaking countries, the term Landsturm was historically used to refer to militia or military units composed of troops of inferior quality.
Lieutenant colonel is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies, most marine forces and some air forces of the world, above a major and below a colonel.
Lionel Leventhal is a British publisher of books on military history and related topics, whose eponymous company was established in 1967.
Lipetsk Air Base (also given as Lipetskiy, Lipetsky, Shakhm 10, and Lipetsk West) is an air base in Lipetsk Oblast, Russia located 12 km northwest of Lipetsk.
The Lipetsk fighter-pilot school (Kampffliegerschule Lipezk, also known as Wivupal from its full German name) was a secret training school for fighter pilots operated by the German Reichswehr at Lipetsk, Soviet Union, because Germany was prohibited by the Treaty of Versailles from operating an air force, and had to find alternative means to continue training and development for the future Luftwaffe.
This article shows a list of flags of the Luftwaffe (1933–1945) which were used in the years between 1933 and 1945 by the German Luftwaffe.
The aircraft in this list include prototype versions of aircraft used by the German Luftwaffe during World War II and unfinished wartime experimental programmes.
This list of German World War II jet aces has a sortable table of notable German jet ace pilots during World War II.
A flying ace or fighter ace is a military aviator credited with shooting down five or more enemy aircraft during aerial combat.
In World War II, the Luftwaffe (German air force), used a variety of weapons to keep their aircraft equipped with the most modern weaponry available at that time, until later in the war when resources got thin.
This is a list of fighter aces in World War II from Germany.
This list covers aircraft of the German Luftwaffe during the Second World War from 1939 to 1945.
Luftflotte 2 (Air Fleet 2) was one of the primary divisions of the German Luftwaffe in World War II.
Luftflotte 5 (Air Fleet 5) was one of the primary divisions of the German Luftwaffe in World War II.
The Luftnachrichten Abteilung 350, abbreviated as OKL/LN Abt 350 and formerly called the (Oberkommando der Luftwaffe Luftnachrichten Abteilung 350), was the Signal Intelligence Agency of the German Air Force, the Luftwaffe, before and during World War II.
The Deutsche Luftstreitkräfte (German Air Force)—known before October 1916 as the Fliegertruppen des deutschen Kaiserreiches (Imperial German Flying Corps) or simply Die Fliegertruppe—was the World War I (1914–18) air arm of the German Army, of which it remained an integral part.
The Luftwaffe Field Divisions (German: Luftwaffen-Feld-Divisionen or LwFD) were German military formations during World War II.
The following table summarizes the operational strength of the German air force, or Luftwaffe, by general category of aircraft.
A Luftwaffenhelfer, also commonly known as a Flakhelfer was, strictly speaking, any member of the auxiliary staff of the German Luftwaffe during World War II.
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.
Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen (2 May 1892 – 21 April 1918), also known as the "Red Baron", was a fighter pilot with the German Air Force during World War I. He is considered the ace-of-aces of the war, being officially credited with 80 air combat victories.
The Manstein Plan is one of the names used to describe the war plan of the German Army during the Battle of France in 1940.
The Marinefliegerkommando is the naval air arm of the German Navy.
Max Immelmann (21 September 1890 – 18 June 1916) PLM was the first German World War I flying ace.
The Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre was a major theatre of operations during the Second World War.
The Messerschmitt Bf 109 is a German World War II fighter aircraft that was the backbone of the Luftwaffe's fighter force.
The Messerschmitt Me 261 Adolfine was a long-range reconnaissance aircraft designed in the late 1930s.
The Messerschmitt Me 262, nicknamed Schwalbe (German: "Swallow") in fighter versions, or Sturmvogel (German: "Storm Bird") in fighter-bomber versions, was the world's first operational jet-powered fighter aircraft.
The Milch Trial (or officially, The United States of America vs. Erhard Milch) was the second of the twelve trials for war crimes the U.S. authorities held in their occupation zone in Germany in Nuremberg after the end of World War II.
Military aviation is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines for the purposes of conducting or enabling aerial warfare, including national airlift (air cargo) capacity to provide logistical supply to forces stationed in a theater or along a front.
Military ranks are a system of hierarchical relationships in armed forces, police, intelligence agencies or other institutions organized along military lines.
The Ministry of Aviation, December 1938 The Ministry of Aviation (Reichsluftfahrtministerium), abbreviated RLM, was a government department during the period of Nazi Germany (1933–45).
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
The Munich Agreement was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation, the "Sudetenland", was coined.
The National Socialist Flyers Corps (Nationalsozialistisches Fliegerkorps; NSFK) was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party that was founded April 15, 1937 as a successor to the German Air Sports Association; the latter had been active during the years when a German air force was forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles.
The Nationalist faction (Bando nacional) or Rebel faction (Bando sublevado) was a major faction in the Spanish Civil War of 1936 to 1939.
Naval aviation is the application of military air power by navies, whether from warships that embark aircraft, or land bases.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Nazi human experimentation was a series of medical experiments on large numbers of prisoners, including children, by Nazi Germany in its concentration camps in the early to mid 1940s, during World War II and the Holocaust.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
A night fighter (also known as all-weather fighter or all-weather interceptor for a period of time post-World War II) is a fighter aircraft adapted for use at night or in other times of bad visibility.
The North American Aviation P-51 Mustang is an American long-range, single-seat fighter and fighter-bomber used during World War II and the Korean War, among other conflicts.
The Nuremberg trials (Die Nürnberger Prozesse) were a series of military tribunals held by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war after World War II.
The Oberkommando der Luftwaffe (OKL), translated as the High Command of the Air Force in English, was the high command of the Luftwaffe.
The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW, "High Command of the Armed Forces") was the High Command of the Wehrmacht (armed forces) of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Oberst is a military rank in several German-speaking and Scandinavian countries, equivalent to Colonel.
Oberstleutnant is a German Army and German Air Force rank equal to lieutenant colonel, above Major, and below Oberst.
The Allied oil campaign of World War II was directed by the RAF and USAAF against facilities supplying Nazi Germany with petroleum, oil, and lubrication (POL) products.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Operation Bodenplatte (Baseplate), launched on 1 January 1945, was an attempt by the Luftwaffe to cripple Allied air forces in the Low Countries during the Second World War.
Operation Sea Lion, also written as Operation Sealion (Unternehmen Seelöwe), was Nazi Germany's code name for the plan for an invasion of the United Kingdom during the Battle of Britain in the Second World War.
Operation Weserübung was the code name for Germany's assault on Denmark and Norway during the Second World War and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign.
Between 1933 and 1945, the organization of the Luftwaffe underwent several changes.
Oswald Boelcke (19 May 1891 – 28 October 1916) PLM was a German flying ace of the First World War credited with 40 victories; he was one of the most influential patrol leaders and tacticians of the early years of air combat.
A panzer corps (Panzerkorps) was a military formation type in Nazi Germany's Wehrmacht during World War II.
Paratroopers are military parachutists—military personnel trained in parachuting into an operation and usually functioning as part of an airborne force.
Peenemünde Airfield is an airfield along the Baltic Sea north of Peenemünde, Germany.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure.
The Priwall Peninsula (German: die Halbinsel Priwall or Der Priwall) is a spit located across from the town of Travemünde at the Trave River estuary, on Germany's Baltic Sea coast.
The propaganda used by the German Nazi Party in the years leading up to and during Adolf Hitler's leadership of Germany (1933–1945) was a crucial instrument for acquiring and maintaining power, and for the implementation of Nazi policies.
RAF Bomber Command controlled the RAF's bomber forces from 1936 to 1968.
The ranks of the Luftwaffe were similar to other branches of the Wehrmacht.
Rechlin–Lärz Airfield (German: Flugplatz Rechlin-Lärz) is an airfield in the village of Rechlin, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.
The Reich Labour Service (Reichsarbeitsdienst; RAD) was a major organisation established in Nazi Germany as an agency to help mitigate the effects of unemployment on the German economy, militarise the workforce and indoctrinate it with Nazi ideology.
Reichsführer-SS ("Reich Leader-SS") was a special title and rank that existed between the years of 1925 and 1945 for the commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS).
The Reichswehr (English: Realm Defence) formed the military organisation of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when it was united with the new Wehrmacht (Defence Force).
Robert Ritter von Greim (born Robert Greim; 22 June 1892 – 24 May 1945) was a German Field Marshal and pilot.
The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
Schiffer Publishing Ltd. (also known as Schiffer Military History) is a family-owned publisher of nonfiction books.
A Schnellbomber (German; literally "fast bomber") is a bomber that relies upon speed to avoid enemy fighters, rather than having defensive armament and armor.
The Schutzstaffel (SS; also stylized as with Armanen runes;; literally "Protection Squadron") was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany, and later throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II.
Sender Freies Berlin (SFB) was the ARD public radio and television service for West Berlin from 1 June 1954 until 1990 and for Berlin as a whole from German reunification until 30 April 2003.
The Shvetsov ASh-73 was an 18-cylinder, air-cooled, radial aircraft engine produced between 1947 and 1957 in the Soviet Union.
Sigmund Rascher (12 February 1909 – 26 April 1945) was a German SS doctor.
The Soviet Air Forces (r (VVS), literally "Military Air Forces") was the official designation of one of the air forces of the Soviet Union.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
A military staff (often referred to as general staff, army staff, navy staff, or air staff within the individual services) is a group of officers, enlisted and civilian personnel that are responsible for the administrative, operational and logistical needs of its unit.
Stopped at Stalingrad: The Luftwaffe and Hitler's Defeat in the East, 1942-1943 is a book that analyzed the role of Hitler's use and control of the Luftwaffe in the Battle of Stalingrad between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union during World War II.
Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in a total war with the goal of defeating the enemy by destroying its morale or its economic ability to produce and transport materiel to the theatres of military operations, or both.
Strategic bombing during World War II was the sustained aerial attack on railways, harbours, cities, workers' housing, and industrial districts in enemy territory during World War II.
The Tarnewitz test site (Erprobungsstelle Tarnewitz) was a Luftwaffe weapons testing facility and airfield in Nazi Germany, built on an artificial peninsula at Boltenhagen on the coast of the Baltic Sea, as one of the four Erprobungsstellen stations of the system of Luftwaffe test establishments headquartered at Rechlin.
The Blitz was a German bombing offensive against Britain in 1940 and 1941, during the Second World War.
The Wages of Destruction is a non-fiction book detailing the economic history of Nazi Germany.
A trainer is a class of aircraft designed specifically to facilitate flight training of pilots and aircrews.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
Truppenführung ("Handling of Combined-Arms Formations") was a German Army field manual published in 2 parts as Heeresdruckvorschrift 300: Part 1, promulgated in 1933, and Part 2 in 1934.
The Luftwaffe was the air force of Nazi Germany prior to and during World War II.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF or AAF), informally known as the Air Force, was the aerial warfare service of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II (1939/41–1945), successor to the previous United States Army Air Corps and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force of today, one of the five uniformed military services.
The Ural bomber was the initial aircraft design program/competition to develop a long-range bomber for the Luftwaffe, created and led by General Walther Wever in the early 1930s.
Vivisection is surgery conducted for experimental purposes on a living organism, typically animals with a central nervous system, to view living internal structure.
Walther Wever (11 November 1887 – 3 June 1936) was a pre-World War II Luftwaffe Commander.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
A weapon, arm or armament is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
The Western Front was a military theatre of World War II encompassing Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Germany. World War II military engagements in Southern Europe and elsewhere are generally considered under separate headings. The Western Front was marked by two phases of large-scale combat operations. The first phase saw the capitulation of the Netherlands, Belgium, and France during May and June 1940 after their defeat in the Low Countries and the northern half of France, and continued into an air war between Germany and Britain that climaxed with the Battle of Britain. The second phase consisted of large-scale ground combat (supported by a massive air war considered to be an additional front), which began in June 1944 with the Allied landings in Normandy and continued until the defeat of Germany in May 1945.
Westerplatte is a peninsula in Gdańsk, Poland, located on the Baltic Sea coast mouth of the Dead Vistula (one of the Vistula delta estuaries), in the Gdańsk harbour channel.
Wieluń (Welun) is a city in central Poland with 22,973 inhabitants (2016).
In military aviation, a wing is a unit of command.
The wing root is the part of the wing on a fixed-wing aircraft that is closest to the fuselage.
Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen (10 October 1895 – 12 July 1945) was a German field marshal of the Luftwaffe (German Air Force) during World War II.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Wright R-3350 Duplex-Cyclone was one of the most powerful radial aircraft engines produced in the United States.
An X engine is a piston engine comprising twinned V-block engines horizontally opposed to each other.
The Yugoslav Partisans,Serbo-Croatian, Macedonian, Slovene: Partizani, Партизани or the National Liberation Army,Narodnooslobodilačka vojska (NOV), Народноослободилачка војска (НОВ); Народноослободителна војска (НОВ); Narodnoosvobodilna vojska (NOV) officially the National Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia,Narodnooslobodilačka vojska i partizanski odredi Jugoslavije (NOV i POJ), Народноослободилачка војска и партизански одреди Југославије (НОВ и ПОЈ); Народноослободителна војска и партизански одреди на Југославија (НОВ и ПОЈ); Narodnoosvobodilna vojska in partizanski odredi Jugoslavije (NOV in POJ) was the Communist-led resistance to the Axis powers (chiefly Germany) in occupied Yugoslavia during World War II.
The Fifteenth Expeditionary Mobility Task Force (15 ETF) was one of two ETFs assigned to the United States Air Force Air Mobility Command (AMC) and was headquartered at Travis Air Force Base, California.
The Fallschirm-Panzer-Division 1.
History of the Luftwaffe (1933-1945), History of the Luftwaffe (1933–1945), History of the Luftwaffe (1939-1945), History of the Luftwaffe (1939–1945), History of the Luftwaffe 1933 - 1945, History of the Luftwaffe during World War II, History of the luftwaffe during world war ii, Lufftwaffe, Luftwaffe (1935-1946), Luftwaffe (1935–1946), Luftwaffe (WWII), Luftwaffe (Wehrmacht), Luftwaffe during World War II, Nazi Air Force, Nazi German air force, Wuftwafa.