327 relations: Acetylcholine, Acid–base homeostasis, Actinopterygii, Adaptation to extrauterine life, Adaptive immune system, Air sac, Airway obstruction, Alveolar duct, Alveolar macrophage, Alveolar septum, American College of Physicians, Amniotic fluid, Amniotic sac, Amphibian, Amphisbaenia, Ancient Greek, Angiotensin, Angiotensin-converting enzyme, Aorta, Aortic arch, Arachnid, Artery, Asbestos, Aspergilloma, Aspergillus fumigatus, Asthma, Atelectasis, Atmosphere of Earth, Atretochoana, Autoimmune disease, Autonomic nervous system, Axial skeleton, Azhdarchoidea, Azygos lobe, Azygos vein, B cell, Bacteria, Bacterial pneumonia, Base of lung, Basement membrane, Beta-2 adrenergic receptor, Bichir, Bird, Bird anatomy, Birth defect, Blood pressure, Blood vessel, Blood–air barrier, Bone morphogenetic protein, Bone morphogenetic protein 4, ..., Book lung, Bornean flat-headed frog, Bowfin, Brachiocephalic artery, Brachiocephalic vein, Bradykinin, Brainstem, Branchiostegal lung, Breathing, Bronchial artery, Bronchial circulation, Bronchiectasis, Bronchiole, Bronchiolitis, Bronchitis, Bronchodilator, Bronchopulmonary segment, Bronchus, Buccal pumping, Caecilian, Cancer staging, Capillary, Carbon dioxide, Cardiothoracic surgery, Carina of trachea, Carp, Cartilage, Catalysis, Catfish, Cellular differentiation, Central nervous system, Chemotherapy, Chest radiograph, Childbirth, Chronic condition, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Churchill Livingstone, Cilium, Circulatory system, Club cell, Coal dust, Coalworker's pneumoconiosis, Coconut crab, Congenital diaphragmatic hernia, Connective tissue, Corticosteroid, Costal cartilage, Crocodilia, Crystal, CT pulmonary angiogram, CT scan, Cystic fibrosis, D-dimer, Deep vein thrombosis, Defensin, Dendritic cell, Descending aorta, Diffusing capacity, Disease, DNAH5, Drain (surgery), Drowning, Ductus arteriosus, Dynein, Edinburgh, Eel, Elsevier, Embryogenesis, Endothelium, Enzyme, Epithelium, Esophagus, Exertion, Exhalation, Fetus, FGF10, Fibroblast growth factor, Fibrosis, Fish, Fissure, Foregut, Frog, Functional residual capacity, Gar, Gas exchange, Gill, Goblet cell, Granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Great vessels, Heart, Hedgehog signaling pathway, Hemothorax, Hering–Breuer reflex, Herring, Homeostasis, Homology (biology), House dust mite, Human, Human embryogenesis, Human mouth, Human variability, Humidity, Hyaline cartilage, Hyperpnea, Immune system, Immunodeficiency, Immunoglobulin A, Infant respiratory distress syndrome, Infection, Inferior vena cava, Inflammation, Inhalation, Intercostal muscle, Interstitial lung disease, Invertebrate, Land snail, Laryngotracheal groove, Larynx, Latin, Leukotriene, Liquid breathing, Liver, Lizard, Lobe (anatomy), Lonchodectidae, Loose connective tissue, Lung abscess, Lung bud, Lung cancer, Lung cancer screening, Lung microbiota, Lung volumes, Lungfish, Lungless salamander, Lymph capillary, Lymphatic vessel, Macrophage, Mammal, Mantle (mollusc), Mechanical ventilation, Mediastinum, Medication, Metastasis, Microscopic scale, Monitor lizard, Morphogenesis, Mucociliary clearance, Mucus, Muscle, Muscles of respiration, Mycosis, NAPSA, Nasal hair, Negative room pressure, Non-small-cell lung carcinoma, Norepinephrine, Obstructive lung disease, Occupational disease, Organ (anatomy), Osteichthyes, Oxygen, Palliative care, Paracrine signalling, Paralanguage, Parasympathetic nervous system, Parenchyma, Patient UK, Phagocytosis, Pharyngeal muscles, Pharynx, Phrenic nerve, Physostome, Plethysmograph, Pleural cavity, Pleural effusion, Pleurisy, Pneumonia, Pneumonitis, Pneumostome, Pneumothorax, Polypterus, Pores of Kohn, Positive pressure, Potential space, Prostaglandin, Protease, Pterosaur, Pubis (bone), Pulmonary alveolus, Pulmonary artery, Pulmonary circulation, Pulmonary contusion, Pulmonary embolism, Pulmonary fibrosis, Pulmonary function testing, Pulmonary hypertension, Pulmonary hypoplasia, Pulmonary pleurae, Pulmonary stretch receptors, Pulmonary surfactant, Pulmonata, Pulmonology, Queensland lungfish, Radiation therapy, Reflex, Renin–angiotensin system, Reptile, Respiration (physiology), Respiratory center, Respiratory disease, Respiratory epithelium, Respiratory system, Respiratory tract, Restrictive lung disease, Rib, Rib cage, Root of the lung, Sarcopterygii, Scorpion, Serotonin, Serous membrane, Shoulder girdle, Silicon dioxide, Skull, Slug, Small-cell carcinoma, Smoking, Smooth muscle tissue, Snail, Snake, Sonic hedgehog, Specialty (medicine), Speech, Spider, Spiracle, Spirometry, Sternum, Stroke, Subclavian artery, Superior vena cava, Surface tension, Surfactant, Surfactant protein A1, Surfactant protein B, Surfactant protein C, Swim bladder, T cell, Tennis, Tetrapod, The BMJ, Thoracic cavity, Thoracic diaphragm, Thoracic wall, Thoracoscopy, Thorax, Thrombus, Tidal volume, Tissue (biology), Tobacco smoking, Toxicity, Trachea, Tracheobronchial lymph nodes, Trout, Tuatara, Tuberculosis, Tupuxuara, Turtle, United States Preventive Services Task Force, Uteroglobin, Vagus nerve, Vascular resistance, Vein, Ventilation/perfusion scan, Vertebral column, Vertebrate, Virus, Vital capacity. 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Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
Acid–base homeostasis is the homeostatic regulation of the pH of the body's extracellular fluid (ECF).
Actinopterygii, or the ray-finned fishes, constitute a class or subclass of the bony fishes.
At the end of pregnancy, the fetus must take the journey of childbirth to leave the reproductive mother.
The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth.
Air sacs are spaces within an organism where there is the constant presence of air.
Airway obstruction is a blockage of respiration in the airway.
Alveolar ducts are tiny ducts that connect the respiratory bronchioles to alveolar sacs, each of which contains a collection of alveoli (small mucus-lined pouches made of flattened epithelial cells).
An alveolar macrophage (or dust cell) is a type of macrophage found in the pulmonary alveolus, near the pneumocytes, but separated from the wall.
The alveolar septum separates adjacent alveoli in lung tissue.
The American College of Physicians (ACP) is a national organization of internal medicineAmerican Board of Medical Specialties -. Retrieved 20 October 2014 physicians (internists)Mercy Cedar Rapids -. Retrieved 20 October 2014—specialists who apply scientific knowledge and clinical expertise to the diagnosis, treatment, and compassionate care of adults across the spectrum from health to complex illness.
The amniotic fluid is the protective liquid contained by the amniotic sac of a gravid Amniote.
The amniotic sac, commonly called the bag of waters, sometimes the membranes, is the sac in which the fetus develops in amniotes.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
Amphisbaenia (called amphisbaenians or worm lizards) is a group of usually legless squamates, comprising over 180 extant species.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Angiotensin is a peptide hormone that causes vasoconstriction and an increase in blood pressure.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme, or ACE, is a central component of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS), which controls blood pressure by regulating the volume of fluids in the body.
The aorta is the main artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries (the common iliac arteries).
The aortic arch, arch of the aorta, or transverse aortic arch is the part of the aorta between the ascending and descending aorta.
Arachnids are a class (Arachnida) of joint-legged invertebrate animals (arthropods), in the subphylum Chelicerata.
An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).
Asbestos is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals, which all have in common their eponymous asbestiform habit: i.e. long (roughly 1:20 aspect ratio), thin fibrous crystals, with each visible fiber composed of millions of microscopic "fibrils" that can be released by abrasion and other processes.
An aspergilloma, also known as a mycetoma or fungus ball, is a clump of mold which exists in a body cavity such as a paranasal sinus or an organ such as the lung.
Aspergillus fumigatus is a fungus of the genus Aspergillus, and is one of the most common Aspergillus species to cause disease in individuals with an immunodeficiency.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Atelectasis is the collapse or closure of a lung resulting in reduced or absent gas exchange.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Atretochoana eiselti is a species of caecilian originally known only from two preserved specimens discovered by Sir Graham Hales in the Brazilian rainforest, while on an expedition with Sir Brian Doll in the late 1800s, but rediscovered in 2011 by engineers working on a hydroelectric dam project in Brazil.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
The axial skeleton is the part of the skeleton that consists of the bones of the head and trunk of a vertebrate.
Azhdarchoidea is a group of pterosaurs within the suborder Pterodactyloidea.
In human anatomy, an azygos lobe is a congenital variation of the upper lobe of the right lung.It is seen in 1% of the population.
The azygos vein is a vein running up the side of the thoracic vertebral column draining itself towards the superior vena cava.
B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bacterial pneumonia is a type of pneumonia caused by bacterial infection.
The base of the lung is broad, concave, and rests upon the convex surface of the diaphragm, which separates the right lung from the right lobe of the liver, and the left lung from the left lobe of the liver, the stomach, and the spleen.
The basement membrane is a thin, fibrous, extracellular matrix of tissue that separates the lining of an internal or external body surface from underlying connective tissue in metazoans.
The beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2 adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRB2, is a cell membrane-spanning beta-adrenergic receptor that interacts with (binds) epinephrine, a hormone and neurotransmitter (ligand synonym, adrenaline) whose signaling, via a downstream L-type calcium channel interaction, mediates physiologic responses such as smooth muscle relaxation and bronchodilation.
Bichirs and the reedfish comprise the Polypteridae, a family of archaic-looking ray-finned fishes and the only family in the order Polypteriformes.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
Bird anatomy, or the physiological structure of birds' bodies, shows many unique adaptations, mostly aiding flight.
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
The blood–air barrier (alveolar–capillary barrier or membrane) exists in the gas exchanging region of the lungs.
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a group of growth factors also known as cytokines and as metabologens.
Bone morphogenetic protein 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by BMP4 gene.
A book lung is a type of respiration organ used for atmospheric gas exchange that is found in many arachnids, such as scorpions and spiders.
The Bornean flat-headed frog (Barbourula kalimantanensis) is a species of frog in the Bombinatoridae family.
Bowfin (Amia calva) are basal bony fishes related to gars in the infraclass Holostei.
The brachiocephalic artery (or brachiocephalic trunk or innominate artery) is an artery of the mediastinum that supplies blood to the right arm and the head and neck.
The left and right brachiocephalic veins (or innominate veins) in the upper chest are formed by the union of each corresponding internal jugular vein and subclavian vein.
Bradykinin is an inflammatory mediator.
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.
A branchiostegal lung is a respiration organ used by some air-breathing arthropods.
Breathing (or respiration, or ventilation) is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange with the internal environment, mostly by bringing in oxygen and flushing out carbon dioxide.
In human anatomy, the bronchial arteries supply the lungs with nutrition and oxygenated blood.
The bronchial circulation is the part of the circulatory system that supplies nutrients and oxygen to the cells that constitute the lungs, as well as carrying waste products away from them.
Bronchiectasis is a disease in which there is permanent enlargement of parts of the airways of the lung.
The bronchioles or bronchioli are the passageways by which air passes through the nose or mouth to the alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs, in which branches no longer contain cartilage or glands in their submucosa.
Bronchiolitis is blockage of the small airway in the lungs due to a viral infection.
Bronchitis is inflammation of the bronchi (large and medium-sized airways) in the lungs.
A bronchodilator is a substance that dilates the bronchi and bronchioles, decreasing resistance in the respiratory airway and increasing airflow to the lungs.
A bronchopulmonary segment is a portion of lung supplied by a specific tertiary bronchus (also called a segmental bronchus) and arteries.
A bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs.
Buccal pumping is "breathing with one's cheeks": a method of ventilation used in respiration in which the animal moves the floor of its mouth in a rhythmic manner that is externally apparent.
Caecilians (New Latin for "blind ones") are a group of limbless, serpentine amphibians.
Cancer staging is the process of determining the extent to which a cancer has developed by growing and spreading.
A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Cardiothoracic surgery (also known as thoracic surgery) is the field of medicine involved in surgical treatment of organs inside the thorax (the chest)—generally treatment of conditions of the heart (heart disease) and lungs (lung disease).
In anatomy, the carina is a ridge of cartilage in the trachea that occurs between the division of the two main bronchi.
Carp are various species of oily freshwater fish from the family Cyprinidae, a very large group of fish native to Europe and Asia.
Cartilage is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, a rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints, and is a structural component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, and many other body components.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Catfish (or catfishes; order Siluriformes or Nematognathi) are a diverse group of ray-finned fish.
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
A chest radiograph, colloquially called a chest X-ray (CXR), or chest film, is a projection radiograph of the chest used to diagnose conditions affecting the chest, its contents, and nearby structures.
Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus by vaginal passage or C-section.
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.
Churchill Livingstone is an academic publisher.
A cilium (the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Club cells, also known as bronchiolar exocrine cells, and originally known as Clara cells, are dome-shaped cells with short microvilli, found in the small airways (bronchioles) of the lungs.
Coal dust is a fine powdered form of coal, which is created by the crushing, grinding, or pulverizing of coal.
Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), also known as black lung disease or black lung, is caused by long-term exposure to coal dust.
The coconut crab (Birgus latro) is a species of terrestrial hermit crab, also known as the robber crab or palm thief.
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a birth defect of the diaphragm.
Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
The costal cartilages are bars of hyaline cartilage that serve to prolong the ribs forward and contribute to the elasticity of the walls of the thorax.
Crocodilia (or Crocodylia) is an order of mostly large, predatory, semiaquatic archosaurian reptiles, known as crocodilians.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
CT pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) is a medical diagnostic test that employs computed tomography (CT) angiography to obtain an image of the pulmonary arteries.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine.
D-dimer (or D dimer) is a fibrin degradation product (or FDP), a small protein fragment present in the blood after a blood clot is degraded by fibrinolysis.
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), is the formation of a blood clot in a deep vein, most commonly the legs.
Defensins are small cysteine-rich cationic proteins found in both vertebrates and invertebrates.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system.
The descending aorta is part of the aorta, the largest artery in the body.
Diffusing capacity of the lung (DL) measures the transfer of gas from air in the lung, to the red blood cells in lung blood vessels.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Dynein heavy chain 5, axonemal is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DNAH5 gene.
A surgical drain is a tube used to remove pus, blood or other fluids from a wound.
Drowning is defined as respiratory impairment from being in or under a liquid.
In the developing fetus, the ductus arteriosus, also called the ductus Botalli, is a blood vessel connecting the main pulmonary artery to the proximal descending aorta.
Dynein is a family of cytoskeletal motor proteins that move along microtubules in cells.
Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.
An eel is any ray-finned fish belonging to the order Anguilliformes, which consists of four suborders, 20 families, 111 genera and about 800 species.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo forms and develops.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.
Exertion is the physical or perceived use of energyNewton's Third Law, Elert, Glenn.
Exhalation (or expiration) is the flow of the breath out of an organism.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
Fibroblast growth factor 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGF10 gene.
The fibroblast growth factors are a family of cell signalling proteins that are involved in a wide variety of processes, most notably as crucial elements for normal development.
Fibrosis is the formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue in a reparative or reactive process.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
In anatomy, a fissure (Latin fissura, plural fissurae) is a groove, natural division, deep furrow, elongated cleft, or tear in various parts of the body also generally called a sulcus, or in the brain a sulcus.
The foregut is the anterior part of the alimentary canal, from the mouth to the duodenum at the entrance of the bile duct, and is attached to the abdominal walls by mesentery.
A frog is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura (Ancient Greek ἀν-, without + οὐρά, tail).
Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) is the volume of air present in the lungs at the end of passive expiration.
Gars (or garpike) are members of the Lepisosteiformes (or Semionotiformes), an ancient holosteian order of ray-finned fish; fossils from this order are known from the Late Jurassic onwards.
Gas exchange is the physical process by which gases move passively by diffusion across a surface.
A gill is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water and excretes carbon dioxide.
Goblet cells are simple columnar epithelial cells that secrete gel-forming mucins, like mucin MUC5AC.
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), formerly known as Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), is a long-term systemic disorder that involves both granulomatosis and polyangiitis.
Great vessels are the large vessels that bring blood to and from the heart.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
The Hedgehog signaling pathway is a signaling pathway that transmits information to embryonic cells required for proper cell differentiation.
A hemothorax is a type of pleural effusion in which blood accumulates in the pleural cavity.
The Hering–Breuer inflation reflex, named for Josef Breuer and Ewald Hering, is a reflex triggered to prevent over-inflation of the lung.
Herring are forage fish, mostly belonging to the family Clupeidae.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
House dust mites (HDM, or simply dust mites) are a large number of mites found in association with dust in dwellings.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Human embryogenesis is the process of cell division and cellular differentiation of the embryo that occurs during the early stages of development.
In human anatomy, the mouth is the first portion of the alimentary canal that receives food and produces saliva.
Human variability, or human variation, is the range of possible values for any characteristic, physical or mental, of human beings.
Humidity is the amount of water vapor present in the air.
Hyaline cartilage is glass-like (hyaline) but translucent cartilage.
Hyperpnea or hyperpnoea is increased depth and rate of breathing.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent.
Immunoglobulin A (IgA, also referred to as sIgA in its secretory form) is an antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune function of mucous membranes.
Infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS), also called neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS), respiratory distress syndrome of newborn, or increasingly surfactant deficiency disorder (SDD), and previously called hyaline membrane disease (HMD), is a syndrome in premature infants caused by developmental insufficiency of pulmonary surfactant production and structural immaturity in the lungs.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
The inferior vena cava (or IVC) is a large vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower and middle body into the right atrium of the heart.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Inhalation (also known as inspiration) happens when oxygen from the air enters the lungs.
Intercostal muscles are several groups of muscles that run between the ribs, and help form and move the chest wall.
Interstitial lung disease (ILD), or diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD), is a group of lung diseases affecting the interstitium (the tissue and space around the air sacs of the lungs).
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
A land snail is any of the numerous species of snail that live on land, as opposed to sea snails and freshwater snails.
The laryngotracheal groove is a precursor for the larynx and trachea.
The larynx, commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the top of the neck of tetrapods involved in breathing, producing sound, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leukotrienes are a family of eicosanoid inflammatory mediators produced in leukocytes by the oxidation of arachidonic acid (AA) and the essential fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by the enzyme arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase.
Liquid breathing is a form of respiration in which a normally air-breathing organism breathes an oxygen-rich liquid (such as a perfluorocarbon), rather than breathing air.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains.
In anatomy, a lobe is a clear anatomical division or extension of an organ (as seen for example in the brain, the lung, liver or the kidney) that can be determined without the use of a microscope at the gross anatomy level.
Lonchodectidae is a group of pterosaurs within the clade Pterodactyloidea.
Loose connective tissue is a category of connective tissue which includes areolar tissue, reticular tissue, and adipose tissue.
Lung abscess is a type of liquefactive necrosis of the lung tissue and formation of cavities (more than 2 cm) containing necrotic debris or fluid caused by microbial infection.
The lung bud sometimes referred to as the respiratory bud forms from the respiratory diverticulum, an embryological endodermal structure that develops into the respiratory tract organs such as the larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs.
Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
Lung cancer screening refers to cancer screening strategies used to identify early lung cancers before they cause symptoms, at a point where they are more likely to be curable.
The lung microbiota, is the pulmonary microbial community consisting of a complex variety of microorganisms found in the lower respiratory tract particularly on the mucous layer and the epithelial surfaces.
Lung volumes and lung capacities refer to the volume of air associated with different phases of the respiratory cycle.
Lungfish are freshwater rhipidistian fish belonging to the subclass Dipnoi.
The Plethodontidae, or lungless salamanders, are a family of salamanders.
Lymph capillaries or lymphatic capillaries are tiny, thin-walled vessels located in the spaces between cells (except in the central nervous system and non-vascular tissues) which serve to drain and process extra-cellular fluid.
The lymphatic vessels (or lymph vessels or lymphatics) are thin-walled vessels structured like blood vessels, that carry lymph.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
The mantle (also known by the Latin word pallium meaning mantle, robe or cloak, adjective pallial) is a significant part of the anatomy of molluscs: it is the dorsal body wall which covers the visceral mass and usually protrudes in the form of flaps well beyond the visceral mass itself.
Mechanical ventilation is the medical term for artificial ventilation where mechanical means is used to assist or replace spontaneous breathing. This may involve a machine called a ventilator or the breathing may be assisted by an anesthesiologist, certified registered nurse anesthetist, physician, physician assistant, respiratory therapist, paramedic, EMT, or other suitable person compressing a bag or set of bellows. Mechanical ventilation is termed "invasive" if it involves any instrument penetrating the trachea through the mouth, such as an endotracheal tube or the skin, such as a tracheostomy tube. There are two main types: positive pressure ventilation, where air (or another gas mix) is pushed into the trachea, and negative pressure ventilation, where air is, in essence, sucked into the lungs. There are many modes of mechanical ventilation, and their nomenclature has been revised over the decades as the technology has continually developed.
The mediastinum (from Medieval Latin mediastinus, "midway") is the central compartment of the thoracic cavity surrounded by loose connective tissue, as an undelineated region that contains a group of structures within the thorax.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.
The microscopic scale (from, mikrós, "small" and σκοπέω, skopéō "look") is the scale of objects and events smaller than those that can easily be seen by the naked eye, requiring a lens or microscope to see them clearly.
The monitor lizards are large lizards in the genus Varanus.
Morphogenesis (from the Greek morphê shape and genesis creation, literally, "beginning of the shape") is the biological process that causes an organism to develop its shape.
Mucociliary clearance, also referred to as mucociliary apparatus or mucociliar clearance (MCC), derived from mucus, cilia (cilia of the tracheal surface epithelium in the respiratory tract) and clearance describes the self-clearing mechanism of the bronchi.
Mucus is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
The muscles of respiration are those muscles that contribute to inhalation and exhalation, by aiding in the expansion and contraction of the thoracic cavity.
Mycosis is a fungal infection of animals, including humans.
Napsin-A is a protein that is encoded in humans by the NAPSA gene.
Nasal hair or nose hair is the hair in the nose.
Negative room pressure is an isolation technique used in hospitals and medical centers to prevent cross-contaminations from room to room.
Non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is any type of epithelial lung cancer other than small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC).
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Obstructive lung disease is a category of respiratory disease characterized by airway obstruction.
An occupational disease is any chronic ailment that occurs as a result of work or occupational activity.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
Osteichthyes, popularly referred to as the bony fish, is a diverse taxonomic group of fish that have skeletons primarily composed of bone tissue, as opposed to cartilage.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to specialized medical and nursing care for people with life-limiting illnesses.
Paracrine signaling is a form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, altering the behavior of those cells.
Paralanguage is a component of meta-communication that may modify meaning, give nuanced meaning, or convey emotion, such as prosody, pitch, volume, intonation, etc.
The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system (a division of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)), the other being the sympathetic nervous system.
Parenchyma is the bulk of a substance.
Patient is an online resource providing information on health, lifestyle, disease and other medical related topics.
In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.
The pharyngeal muscles are a group of muscles that form the pharynx, determining the shape of its lumen, and affecting its sound properties as the primary resonating cavity posterior to the oral cavity.
The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.
The phrenic nerve is a nerve that originates in the neck (C3-C5) and passes down between the lung and heart to reach the diaphragm.
Physostomes are fishes that have a pneumatic duct connecting the gas bladder to the alimentary canal.
A plethysmograph is an instrument for measuring changes in volume within an organ or whole body (usually resulting from fluctuations in the amount of blood or air it contains).
The pleural cavity is the thin fluid-filled space between the two pulmonary pleurae (known as visceral and parietal) of each lung.
A pleural effusion is excess fluid that accumulates in the pleural cavity, the fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs.
Pleurisy, also known as pleuritis, is inflammation of the membranes that surround the lungs and line the chest cavity (pleurae).
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
Pneumonitis or pulmonitis is an inflammation of lung tissue due to factors other than microorganisms.
The pneumostome (or breathing pore) is a feature (the respiratory opening) of the external body anatomy of an air-breathing land slug or land snail.
A pneumothorax is an abnormal collection of air in the pleural space between the lung and the chest wall.
Polypterus is a genus of freshwater fish in the bichir family (Polypteridae) of order Polypteriformes.
The pores of Kohn (also known as interalveolar connections) are discrete holes in walls of adjacent alveoli.
Positive pressure is a pressure within a system that is greater than the environment that surrounds that system.
In anatomy, a potential space is a space that can occur between two adjacent structures that are normally pressed together.
The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals.
A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis: protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
Pterosaurs (from the Greek πτερόσαυρος,, meaning "winged lizard") were flying reptiles of the extinct clade or order Pterosauria.
In vertebrates, the pubic bone is the ventral and anterior of the three principal bones composing either half of the pelvis.
A pulmonary alveolus (plural: alveoli, from Latin alveolus, "little cavity") is a hollow cavity found in the lung parenchyma, and is the basic unit of ventilation.
A pulmonary artery is an artery in the pulmonary circulation that carries deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs.
The pulmonary circulation is the portion of the circulatory system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the right ventricle of the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium and ventricle of the heart.
A pulmonary contusion, also known as lung contusion, is a bruise of the lung, caused by chest trauma.
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).
Pulmonary fibrosis (literally "scarring of the lungs") is a respiratory disease in which scars are formed in the lung tissues, leading to serious breathing problems.
Pulmonary function test (PFT) is a complete evaluation of the respiratory system including patient history, physical examinations, and tests of pulmonary function.
Pulmonary hypertension (PH or PHTN) is a condition of increased blood pressure within the arteries of the lungs.
Pulmonary hypoplasia is incomplete development of the lungs, resulting in an abnormally low number or size of bronchopulmonary segments or alveoli.
The pulmonary pleurae (sing. pleura) are the two pleurae of the invaginated sac surrounding each lung and attaching to the thoracic cavity.
Pulmonary stretch receptors are mechanoreceptors found in the lungs.
Pulmonary surfactant is a surface-active lipoprotein complex (phospholipoprotein) formed by type II alveolar cells.
Pulmonata, or "pulmonates", is an informal group (previously an order, and before that a subclass) of snails and slugs characterized by the ability to breathe air, by virtue of having a pallial lung instead of a gill, or gills.
Pulmonology is a medical speciality that deals with diseases involving the respiratory tract.
The Queensland lungfish (Neoceratodus forsteri), also known as the Australian lungfish, Burnett salmon and barramunda, is a surviving member of the family Neoceratodontidae and order Ceratodontiformes.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
A reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus.
The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) or the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) is a hormone system that regulates blood pressure and fluid balance.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
In physiology, respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.
The respiratory center is located in the medulla oblongata and pons, in the brainstem.
Respiratory disease is a medical term that encompasses pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange possible in higher organisms, and includes conditions of the upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura and pleural cavity, and the nerves and muscles of breathing.
Respiratory epithelium is a type of ciliated epithelium found lining most of the respiratory tract, where it serves to moisten and protect the airways.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration.
Restrictive lung diseases (or restrictive ventilatory defects) are a category of extrapulmonary, pleural, or parenchymal respiratory diseases that restrict lung expansion, resulting in a decreased lung volume, an increased work of breathing, and inadequate ventilation and/or oxygenation.
In vertebrate anatomy, ribs (costae) are the long curved bones which form the rib cage.
The rib cage is an arrangement of bones in the thorax of most vertebrates.
The root of the lung is located at the hilum of each lung, just above the middle of the mediastinal surface and behind the cardiac impression of the lung.
The Sarcopterygii or lobe-finned fish (from Greek σαρξ sarx, flesh, and πτερυξ pteryx, fin) – sometimes considered synonymous with Crossopterygii ("fringe-finned fish", from Greek κροσσός krossos, fringe) – constitute a clade (traditionally a class or subclass) of the bony fish, though a strict cladistic view includes the terrestrial vertebrates.
Scorpions are predatory arachnids of the order Scorpiones.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
In anatomy, serous membrane (or serosa) is a smooth tissue membrane consisting of two layers of mesothelium, which secrete serous fluid.
The shoulder girdle or pectoral girdle is the set of bones in the appendicular skeleton which connects to the arm on each side.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in vertebrates.
Slug, or land slug, is a common name for any apparently shell-less terrestrial gastropod mollusc.
Small-cell carcinoma (also known as "small-cell lung cancer", or "oat-cell carcinoma") is a type of highly malignant cancer that most commonly arises within the lung, although it can occasionally arise in other body sites, such as the cervix, prostate, and gastrointestinal tract.
Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
Snail is a common name loosely applied to shelled gastropods.
Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.
Sonic hedgehog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SHH ("sonic hedgehog") gene.
A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice.
Speech is the vocalized form of communication used by humans and some animals, which is based upon the syntactic combination of items drawn from the lexicon.
Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom.
Spiracles are openings on the surface of some animals, which usually lead to respiratory systems.
Spirometry (meaning the measuring of breath) is the most common of the pulmonary function tests (PFTs).
The sternum or breastbone is a long flat bone located in the center of the chest.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
In human anatomy, the subclavian arteries are paired major arteries of the upper thorax, below the clavicle.
The superior vena cava (SVC) is the superior of the two venae cavae, the great venous trunks that return deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation to the right atrium of the heart.
Surface tension is the elastic tendency of a fluid surface which makes it acquire the least surface area possible.
Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension (or interfacial tension) between two liquids, between a gas and a liquid, or between a liquid and a solid.
Surfactant protein A1 (SP-A1), also known as Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein A1 (PSP-A) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SFTPA1 gene.
Surfactant protein B is an essential lipid-associated protein found in pulmonary surfactant.
Surfactant protein C (SP-C), is one of the pulmonary surfactant proteins.
The swim bladder, gas bladder, fish maw or air bladder is an internal gas-filled organ that contributes to the ability of many bony fish (but not cartilaginous fish) to control their buoyancy, and thus to stay at their current water depth without having to waste energy in swimming.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).
The superclass Tetrapoda (from Greek: τετρα- "four" and πούς "foot") contains the four-limbed vertebrates known as tetrapods; it includes living and extinct amphibians, reptiles (including dinosaurs, and its subgroup birds) and mammals (including primates, and all hominid subgroups including humans), as well as earlier extinct groups.
The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.
The thoracic cavity (or chest cavity) is the chamber of the body of vertebrates that is protected by the thoracic wall (rib cage and associated skin, muscle, and fascia).
For other uses, see Diaphragm (disambiguation). The thoracic diaphragm, or simply the diaphragm (partition), is a sheet of internal skeletal muscle in humans and other mammals that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity.
The thoracic wall or chest wall is the boundary of the thoracic cavity.
Thoracoscopy is a medical procedure involving internal examination, biopsy, and/or resection of disease or masses within the pleural cavity and thoracic cavity.
The thorax or chest (from the Greek θώραξ thorax "breastplate, cuirass, corslet" via thorax) is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals located between the neck and the abdomen.
A thrombus, colloquially called a blood clot, is the final product of the blood coagulation step in hemostasis.
Tidal volume (symbol VT or TV) is the lung volume representing the normal volume of air displaced between normal inhalation and exhalation when extra effort is not applied.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
The trachea, colloquially called the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs.
The tracheobronchial lymph nodes form four main groups.
Trout is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus, Salmo and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae.
Tuatara are reptiles endemic to New Zealand.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Tupuxuara is a genus of large, crested, toothless pterodactyloid pterosaur.
Turtles are diapsids of the order Testudines (or Chelonii) characterized by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs and acting as a shield.
The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) is "an independent panel of experts in primary care and prevention that systematically reviews the evidence of effectiveness and develops recommendations for clinical preventive services".
Uteroglobin, also known as secretoglobin family 1A member 1 (SCGB1A1), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SCGB1A1 gene.
The vagus nerve, historically cited as the pneumogastric nerve, is the tenth cranial nerve or CN X, and interfaces with parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs, and digestive tract.
Vascular resistance is the resistance that must be overcome to push blood through the circulatory system and create flow.
Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.
A ventilation/perfusion lung scan, also called a V/Q lung scan, is a type of medical imaging using scintigraphy and medical isotopes to evaluate the circulation of air and blood within a patient's lungs, in order to determine the ventilation/perfusion ratio.
The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Vital capacity (VC) is the maximum amount of air a person can expel from the lungs after a maximum inhalation.
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