300 relations: ABCG2, Absolute risk reduction, Adenocarcinoma in situ of the lung, Adenocarcinoma of the lung, Adjuvant therapy, Adrenal gland, Adrenocorticotropic hormone, Afatinib, Air pollution, ALDH1A1, Anaplastic lymphoma kinase, Angiogenesis, Anti-tobacco movement in Nazi Germany, Apoptosis, Arsenic, Asbestos, Atelectasis, Autoimmune disease, Azacitidine, BBC, Becquerel, Belinostat, Benzo(a)pyrene, Beryllium, Bhutan, Big Tobacco, Biomass, Biopsy, Blood test, Bone pain, Brachial plexus, Brachytherapy, BRAF (gene), Breast cancer, British Doctors Study, Bronchoscopy, Bronchus, C-Met, Cadmium, Cancer, Cancer immunotherapy, Cancer screening, Cancer staging, Cancer stem cell, Cannabis, Carboplatin, Carcinogen, Carcinoma, Carcinoma in situ, Carina of trachea, ..., CD133, CD44, CD90, Cell growth, Cell nucleus, Cell signaling, Central nervous system, Ceritinib, Chemotherapy, Chest pain, Chest radiograph, Choosing Wisely, Chromium, Cisplatin, Clinical trial, Club cell, Coccidioidomycosis, Coke (fuel), Comorbidity, Confounding, Convulsion, Cough, Crizotinib, Crust (geology), CT scan, CTLA-4, Cubic metre, Cumulative incidence, Curie, Cytopathology, Cytoplasm, Dabrafenib, Dacomitinib, Decitabine, Denosumab, Developing country, Differential diagnosis, Disease surveillance, DNA, DNA methylation, DNA methyltransferase, Docetaxel, Dysphagia, EML4-ALK positive lung cancer, Endoscopic ultrasound, Entinostat, Epidemiology, Epidermal growth factor receptor, Epigenetics, Epithelium, Erlotinib, Etoposide, False positives and false negatives, Fas receptor, Fever, Five-year survival rate, Food and Drug Administration, Fritz Lickint, Gamma ray, Gas, Gefitinib, Gemcitabine, Gender, Gene expression, Genetic disorder, Genetics, Germany, Glycoprotein, Granin, Granuloma, GSK3B, Hamartoma, Hedgehog signaling pathway, Hematite, Hemoptysis, HER2/neu, Heredity, Histology, Histone, Histone deacetylase inhibitor, Histopathology, Histoplasmosis, Hormone, Horner's syndrome, Hospice, Hydralazine, Hypercalcaemia, Immune system, Immunostaining, Immunotherapy, Incidence (epidemiology), Incidental imaging finding, Indoor air quality, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Iodine, Ion, Ionizing radiation, Ipilimumab, Irinotecan, Isotopes of polonium, Keratin 5, Kidney, Kinase tyrosine-based inhibitory motif, Lambert–Eaton myasthenic syndrome, Large-cell lung carcinoma, Ligand, List of cigarette smoke carcinogens, Liver, Lobectomy, Lung, Lung cancer staging, Lung tumor, Lymph node, Lymphovascular invasion, MAPK/ERK pathway, Median, Mediastinoscopy, Mediastinum, Medical diagnosis, Medical guideline, Medical imaging, Medical test, Melanoma, Mesenchyme, Mesothelioma, Metastasis, MicroRNA, Microscope, Monoclonal antibody, MOPP (chemotherapy), Mutation, Nail clubbing, NAPSA, National Cancer Institute, National Health Service (England), Necrosis, Neoadjuvant therapy, Neoplasm, Neural cell adhesion molecule, Neuroendocrine cell, Neuroepithelial cell, Nicotine, Nitrogen dioxide, Nivolumab, NK2 homeobox 1, NNK, Nodule (medicine), Non-small-cell lung carcinoma, Notch signaling pathway, Nucleolus, Onartuzumab, Oncogene, Oncology, Ore Mountains, P110α, Paclitaxel, Palliative care, Pancoast tumor, Panobinostat, Paraneoplastic syndrome, Particulates, Parts-per notation, Passive smoking, PD-L1, Pembrolizumab, Pemetrexed, Performance status, Pericardium, Phrenic nerve, Pleural effusion, Plutonium, Pneumonectomy, Pneumonia, Polymorphism (biology), Positron emission tomography, Prognosis, Programmed cell death protein 1, Prophylactic cranial irradiation, Protein, Protein kinase B, Pulmonary function testing, Pulmonary pleurae, Radiation therapy, Radionuclide, Radium, Radon, RANKL, Ras subfamily, Receptor (biochemistry), Relative risk reduction, Respiratory tract, Romidepsin, Schneeberg, Saxony, Shortness of breath, Sidestream smoke, Signal transduction, Silicon dioxide, Silver, Small-cell carcinoma, Smoking cessation, Solitary pulmonary nodule, Soviet Union, Sputum, Squamous-cell carcinoma of the lung, Stem cell, STK11, Stratospheric sulfur aerosols, Sulfur mustard, Superior vena cava syndrome, Surgeon General of the United States, Surgery, Sympathetic nervous system, Symptom, Synaptophysin, Syncope (medicine), Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, Synergy, Systemic scleroderma, T cell, Targeted therapy of lung cancer, Thoracoscopy, Tissue (biology), Tivantinib, TNM staging system, Tobacco, Tobacco smoking, Topotecan, Trametinib, Tuberculosis, Tumor suppressor, Typical pulmonary carcinoid tumour, Tyrosine kinase, Ultrasound, United Nations, United States Preventive Services Task Force, Uranium, Uteroglobin, Valproate, VATS lobectomy, Vesicle (biology and chemistry), Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, Vinorelbine, Vorinostat, Weakness, Wedge resection, Western world, Wheeze, Wnt signaling pathway, World Health Organization, 1,3-Butadiene. Expand index (250 more) » « Shrink index
ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCG2 gene.
In epidemiology, the absolute risk reduction, risk difference or absolute effect is the change in the risk of an outcome of a given treatment or activity in relation to a comparison treatment or activity.
In situ pulmonary adenocarcinoma (AIS)—previously included in the category of "bronchioloalveolar carcinoma" (BAC)—is a subtype of lung adenocarcinoma.
Adenocarcinoma of the lung (also known as pulmonary adenocarcinoma) is the most common type of lung cancer, and is characterized by distinct cellular and molecular features including gland and/or duct formation and/or production of significant amounts of mucus.
Adjuvant therapy, also known as adjunct therapy, add-on therapy, and adjuvant care, is therapy that is given in addition to the primary or initial therapy to maximize its effectiveness.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, also adrenocorticotropin, corticotropin) is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced by and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
Afatinib, sold under the brand name Gilotrif among others, is a medication used to treat non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC).
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A1, also known as ALDH1A1 or retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (RALDH1), is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ALDH1A1 gene.
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) also known as ALK tyrosine kinase receptor or CD246 (cluster of differentiation 246) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ALK gene.
Angiogenesis is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels.
After German doctors became the first to identify the link between smoking and lung cancer, Germany initiated a strong anti-tobacco movement and led the first public anti-smoking campaign in modern history.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Asbestos is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals, which all have in common their eponymous asbestiform habit: i.e. long (roughly 1:20 aspect ratio), thin fibrous crystals, with each visible fiber composed of millions of microscopic "fibrils" that can be released by abrasion and other processes.
Atelectasis is the collapse or closure of a lung resulting in reduced or absent gas exchange.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
Azacitidine (INN; trade name Vidaza) is a chemical analog of cytidine, a nucleoside in DNA and RNA.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
The becquerel (symbol: Bq) is the SI derived unit of radioactivity.
Belinostat (trade name Beleodaq, previously known as PXD101) is a histone deacetylase inhibitor drug developed by TopoTarget for the treatment of hematological malignancies and solid tumors.
Benzopyrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and the result of incomplete combustion of organic matter at temperatures between and.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan (Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in South Asia.
Big Tobacco is the "big five" largest global tobacco industry companies which are Philip Morris International, British American Tobacco, Imperial Brands, Japan Tobacco International, and China Tobacco.
Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.
A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.
A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.
Bone pain (also known medically by several other names) is pain coming from a bone.
The brachial plexus is a network of nerves formed by the anterior rami of the lower four cervical nerves and first thoracic nerve (C5, C6, C7, C8, and T1).
Brachytherapy is a form of radiotherapy where a sealed radiation source is placed inside or next to the area requiring treatment.
BRAF is a human gene that encodes a protein called B-Raf.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
The British Doctors' Study was a prospective cohort study which ran from 1951 to 2001, and in 1956 provided convincing statistical proof that tobacco smoking increased the risk of lung cancer.
Bronchoscopy is an endoscopic technique of visualizing the inside of the airways for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
A bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs.
c-Met, also called tyrosine-protein kinase Met or hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MET gene.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Cancer immunotherapy (sometimes called immuno-oncology, abbreviated IO) is the use of the immune system to treat cancer.
Cancer screening aims to detect cancer before symptoms appear.
Cancer staging is the process of determining the extent to which a cancer has developed by growing and spreading.
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are cancer cells (found within tumors or hematological cancers) that possess characteristics associated with normal stem cells, specifically the ability to give rise to all cell types found in a particular cancer sample.
Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae.
Carboplatin, sold under the trade name Paraplatin among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of forms of cancer.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells.
Carcinoma in situ (CIS), also known as in situ neoplasm, is a group of abnormal cells.
In anatomy, the carina is a ridge of cartilage in the trachea that occurs between the division of the two main bronchi.
CD133 antigen, also known as prominin-1, is a glycoprotein that in humans is encoded by the PROM1 gene.
The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell–cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration.
Thy-1 or CD90 (Cluster of Differentiation 90) is a 25–37 kDa heavily N-glycosylated, glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored conserved cell surface protein with a single V-like immunoglobulin domain, originally discovered as a thymocyte antigen.
The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction).
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Ceritinib (INN, trade name Zykadia) is a prescription-only drug used for the treatment non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Chest pain is pain in any region of the chest.
A chest radiograph, colloquially called a chest X-ray (CXR), or chest film, is a projection radiograph of the chest used to diagnose conditions affecting the chest, its contents, and nearby structures.
Choosing Wisely is a United States-based health educational campaign, led by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM).
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
Cisplatin is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of cancers.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
Club cells, also known as bronchiolar exocrine cells, and originally known as Clara cells, are dome-shaped cells with short microvilli, found in the small airways (bronchioles) of the lungs.
Coccidioidomycosis, commonly known as "cocci", "Valley fever", as well as "California fever", "desert rheumatism", and "San Joaquin Valley fever", is a mammalian fungal disease caused by Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii.
Coke is a fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, usually made from coal.
In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional diseases or disorders co-occurring with (that is, concomitant or concurrent with) a primary disease or disorder; in the countable sense of the term, a comorbidity (plural comorbidities) is each additional disorder or disease.
In statistics, a confounder (also confounding variable, confounding factor or lurking variable) is a variable that influences both the dependent variable and independent variable causing a spurious association.
A convulsion is a medical condition where body muscles contract and relax rapidly and repeatedly, resulting in an uncontrolled shaking of the body.
A cough is a sudden and often repetitively occurring, protective reflex, which helps to clear the large breathing passages from fluids, irritants, foreign particles and microbes.
Crizotinib (trade name Xalkori, Pfizer) is an anti-cancer drug acting as an ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase) and ROS1 (c-ros oncogene 1) inhibitor, approved for treatment of some non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) in the US and some other countries, and undergoing clinical trials testing its safety and efficacy in anaplastic large cell lymphoma, neuroblastoma, and other advanced solid tumors in both adults and children.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
CTLA4 or CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4), also known as CD152 (cluster of differentiation 152), is a protein receptor that, functioning as an immune checkpoint, downregulates immune responses.
The cubic metre (in British English and international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures) or cubic meter (in American English) is the SI derived unit of volume.
Cumulative incidence or incidence proportion is a measure of frequency, as in epidemiology, where it is a measure of disease frequency during a period of time.
The curie (symbol Ci) is a non-SI unit of radioactivity originally defined in 1910.
Cytopathology (from Greek κύτος, kytos, "a hollow"; πάθος, pathos, "fate, harm"; and -λογία, -logia) is a branch of pathology that studies and diagnoses diseases on the cellular level.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
Dabrafenib (trade name Tafinlar, GSK2118436) is a drug for the treatment of cancers associated with a mutated version of the gene BRAF.
Dacomitinib (PF-00299804) is an experimental drug candidate under development by Pfizer for the treatment of non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC).
Decitabine (trade name Dacogen), or 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, acts as an Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitor.
Denosumab (trade names Prolia and Xgeva) is a human monoclonal antibody for the treatment of osteoporosis, treatment-induced bone loss, metastases to bone, and giant cell tumor of bone.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
In medicine, a differential diagnosis is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features.
Disease surveillance is an epidemiological practice by which the spread of disease is monitored in order to establish patterns of progression.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule.
In biochemistry, the DNA methyltransferase (DNA MTase) family of enzymes catalyze the transfer of a methyl group to DNA.
Docetaxel (DTX), sold under the brand name Taxotere among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.
Dysphagia is the medical term for the symptom of difficulty in swallowing.
EML4-ALK positive lung cancer is a medical term that refers to a primary malignant lung tumor whose cells contain a characteristic abnormal configuration of DNA wherein the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) gene is fused to the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene.
Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) or echo-endoscopy is a medical procedure in which endoscopy (insertion of a probe into a hollow organ) is combined with ultrasound to obtain images of the internal organs in the chest, abdomen and colon.
Entinostat, also known as SNDX-275 and MS-275, is a benzamide histone deacetylase inhibitor undergoing clinical trials for treatment of various cancers.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR; ErbB-1; HER1 in humans) is a transmembrane protein that is a receptor for members of the epidermal growth factor family (EGF family) of extracellular protein ligands.
Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Erlotinib hydrochloride (trade name Tarceva) is a drug used to treat non-small cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer and several other types of cancer.
Etoposide, sold under the brand name Etopophos among others, is a chemotherapy medication used for the treatments of a number of types of cancer.
In medical testing, and more generally in binary classification, a false positive is an error in data reporting in which a test result improperly indicates presence of a condition, such as a disease (the result is positive), when in reality it is not present, while a false negative is an error in which a test result improperly indicates no presence of a condition (the result is negative), when in reality it is present.
The first apoptosis signal receptor (Fas or FasR), also known as apoptosis antigen 1 (APO-1 or APT), cluster of differentiation 95 (CD95) or tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 6 (TNFRSF6) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FAS gene.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
The five-year survival rate is a type of survival rate for estimating the prognosis of a particular disease, normally calculated from the point of diagnosis.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Fritz Balduin Lickint (1 October 1898 – 7 July 1960) was a German internist and social democrat, who investigated scientifically health problems and social problems related to alcohol and tobacco, described in the 1920s cancer of the lung from smoking and, the cancer pathway alongside the respiratory and upper digestive tract.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
Gefitinib (ZD1839) (INN,, trade name Iressa) is a drug used for certain breast, lung and other cancers.
Gemcitabine, sold under the brand name Gemzar, among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.
Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.
Granin (chromogranin and secretogranin) is a protein family of regulated secretory proteins ubiquitously found in the cores of amine and peptide hormone and neurotransmitter dense-core secretory vesicles.
Granuloma is an inflammation found in many diseases.
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta, also known as GSK3B, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GSK3B gene.
A hamartoma is a mostly benign, focal malformation that resembles a neoplasm in the tissue of its origin.
The Hedgehog signaling pathway is a signaling pathway that transmits information to embryonic cells required for proper cell differentiation.
Hematite, also spelled as haematite, is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides.
Hemoptysis is the coughing up of blood or blood-stained mucus from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs.
Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2, also known as CD340 (cluster of differentiation 340), proto-oncogene Neu, Erbb2 (rodent), or ERBB2 (human), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ERBB2 gene.
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
In biology, histones are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes.
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC inhibitors, HDACi, HDIs) are chemical compounds that inhibit histone deacetylases.
Histopathology (compound of three Greek words: ἱστός histos "tissue", πάθος pathos "suffering", and -λογία -logia "study of") refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the manifestations of disease.
Histoplasmosis (also known as "Cave disease", "Darling's disease", "Ohio valley disease", "reticuloendotheliosis", "spelunker's lung" and "caver's disease") is a disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Horner's syndrome is a combination of symptoms that arises when a group of nerves known as the sympathetic trunk is damaged.
Hospice care is a type of care and philosophy of care that focuses on the palliation of a chronically ill, terminally ill or seriously ill patient's pain and symptoms, and attending to their emotional and spiritual needs.
Hydralazine, sold under the brand name Apresoline among others, is a medication used to treat high blood pressure and heart failure.
Hypercalcaemia, also spelled hypercalcemia, is a high calcium (Ca2+) level in the blood serum.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
In biochemistry, immunostaining is any use of an antibody-based method to detect a specific protein in a sample.
Immunotherapy is the "treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response".
Incidence in epidemiology is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time.
In medical imaging, an incidental finding (commonly known as an "incidentaloma") is an unanticipated finding which is not related to the original diagnostic inquiry.
Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and structures, especially as it relates to the health and comfort of building occupants.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
Ipilimumab (trade name Yervoy) is a monoclonal antibody that works to activate the immune system by targeting CTLA-4, a protein receptor that downregulates the immune system.
Irinotecan, sold under the brand name Camptosar among others, is a medication used to treat colon cancer, and small cell lung cancer.
Polonium (84Po) has 33 isotopes, all of which are radioactive, with between 186 and 227 nucleons.
Keratin 5, also known as KRT5, K5, or CK5, is a protein that is encoded in humans by the KRT5 gene.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
The term Kinase tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (KTIM) was coined by a group of immunology researchers from McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Abu-Dayyeh I. et al.,2008.
Lambert–Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by muscle weakness of the limbs.
Large-cell carcinoma (LCC) is a heterogeneous group of undifferentiated malignant neoplasms that lack the cytologic and architectural features of small cell carcinoma and glandular or squamous differentiation.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
Commercial tobacco smoke is a mixture of more than 5000 chemicals.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Lobectomy means surgical excision of a lobe.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
In medicine, lung cancer staging is the assessment of the extent to which a lung cancer has spread from its original source.
Lung tumors are neoplastic tumors of the lung These include: Primary tumors of the lung/pulmonary system.
A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.
Lymphovascular invasion (LVI or lymphovascular space invasion) is spread of a cancer to the blood vessels and/or lymphatics.
The MAPK/ERK pathway (also known as the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway) is a chain of proteins in the cell that communicates a signal from a receptor on the surface of the cell to the DNA in the nucleus of the cell.
The median is the value separating the higher half of a data sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half.
Mediastinoscopy is a procedure that enables visualization of the contents of the mediastinum, usually for the purpose of obtaining a biopsy.
The mediastinum (from Medieval Latin mediastinus, "midway") is the central compartment of the thoracic cavity surrounded by loose connective tissue, as an undelineated region that contains a group of structures within the thorax.
Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.
A medical guideline (also called a clinical guideline or clinical practice line) is a document with the aim of guiding decisions and criteria regarding diagnosis, management, and treatment in specific areas of healthcare.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
A medical test is a medical procedure performed to detect, diagnose, or monitor diseases, disease processes, susceptibility, and determine a course of treatment.
Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes.
Mesenchyme, in vertebrate embryology, is a type of connective tissue found mostly during the development of the embryo.
Mesothelioma is a type of cancer that develops from the thin layer of tissue that covers many of the internal organs (known as the mesothelium).
Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.
A microRNA (abbreviated miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA molecule (containing about 22 nucleotides) found in plants, animals and some viruses, that functions in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.
A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell.
MOPP is a combination chemotherapy regimen used to treat Hodgkin's disease.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Nail clubbing, also known as digital clubbing, is a deformity of the finger or toe nails associated with a number of diseases, mostly of the heart and lungs.
Napsin-A is a protein that is encoded in humans by the NAPSA gene.
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of eleven agencies that are part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the publicly funded national healthcare system for England and one of the four National Health Services for each constituent country of the United Kingdom.
Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.
Neoadjuvant therapy is the administration of therapeutic agents before a main treatment.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), also called CD56, is a homophilic binding glycoprotein expressed on the surface of neurons, glia and skeletal muscle.
Neuroendocrine cells are cells that receive neuronal input (neurotransmitters released by nerve cells or neurosecretory cells) and, as a consequence of this input, release message molecules (hormones) to the blood.
Neuroepithelial cells are the "stem cells" of the nervous system, deriving from actual stem cells in several different stages of neural development.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula.
Nivolumab, marketed as Opdivo, is a medication used to treat cancer.
NK2 homeobox 1 (NKX2-1), also known as thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), is a protein which in humans is encoded by the NKX2-1 gene.
Nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK), also known as 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, is one of the key tobacco-specific nitrosamines which play an important role in carcinogenesis.
In medicine, nodules are solid, elevated areas of tissue or fluid inside or under the skin with a diameter greater than 0.5 centimeters.
Non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is any type of epithelial lung cancer other than small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC).
The Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved cell signaling system present in most multicellular organisms.
The nucleolus (plural nucleoli) is the largest structure in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.
Onartuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody designed for the treatment of cancer.
An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer.
Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.
The Ore Mountains or Ore Mountain Range (Erzgebirge; Krušné hory; both literally "ore mountains") in Central Europe have formed a natural border between Saxony and Bohemia for around 800 years, from the 12th to the 20th centuries.
The phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha (the HUGO-approved official symbol.
Paclitaxel (PTX), sold under the brand name Taxol among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.
Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to specialized medical and nursing care for people with life-limiting illnesses.
A Pancoast tumor is a tumor of the pulmonary apex.
Panobinostat (trade name Farydak) is a drug by Novartis for the treatment of various cancers.
A paraneoplastic syndrome is a syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) that is the consequence of cancer in the body, but unlike mass effect, is not due to the local presence of cancer cells.
Atmospheric aerosol particles, also known as atmospheric particulate matter, particulate matter (PM), particulates, or suspended particulate matter (SPM) are microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in Earth's atmosphere.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
Passive smoking is the inhalation of smoke, called second-hand smoke (SHS), or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), by persons other than the intended "active" smoker.
Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) also known as cluster of differentiation 274 (CD274) or B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD274 gene.
Pembrolizumab (formerly MK-3475 and lambrolizumab, trade name Keytruda) is a humanized antibody used in cancer immunotherapy.
Pemetrexed (brand name Alimta) is a chemotherapy drug manufactured and marketed by Eli Lilly and Company.
In medicine (oncology and other fields), performance status is an attempt to quantify cancer patients' general well-being and activities of daily life.
The pericardium is a double-walled sac containing the heart and the roots of the great vessels.
The phrenic nerve is a nerve that originates in the neck (C3-C5) and passes down between the lung and heart to reach the diaphragm.
A pleural effusion is excess fluid that accumulates in the pleural cavity, the fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
A pneumonectomy (or pneumectomy) is a surgical procedure to remove a lung.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
Prognosis (Greek: πρόγνωσις "fore-knowing, foreseeing") is a medical term for predicting the likely or expected development of a disease, including whether the signs and symptoms will improve or worsen (and how quickly) or remain stable over time; expectations of quality of life, such as the ability to carry out daily activities; the potential for complications and associated health issues; and the likelihood of survival (including life expectancy).
Programmed cell death protein 1, also known as PD-1 and CD279 (cluster of differentiation 279), is a protein found on the surface of cells that has a role in regulating the immune system's response to the cells of the human body by down-regulating the immune system and promoting self tolerance by suppressing T cell inflammatory activity.
Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) or prophylactic cranial radiotherapy (PCRT) is a technique used to combat the occurrence of metastasis to the brain in highly aggressive cancers that commonly metastasize to brain, most notably small-cell lung cancer.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protein kinase B (PKB), also known as Akt, is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that plays a key role in multiple cellular processes such as glucose metabolism, apoptosis, cell proliferation, transcription and cell migration.
Pulmonary function test (PFT) is a complete evaluation of the respiratory system including patient history, physical examinations, and tests of pulmonary function.
The pulmonary pleurae (sing. pleura) are the two pleurae of the invaginated sac surrounding each lung and attaching to the thoracic cavity.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88.
Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.
Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa- ligand (RANKL), also known as tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 11 (TNFSF11), TNF-related activation-induced cytokine (TRANCE), osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL), and osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNFSF11 gene.
Ras is a family of related proteins which is expressed in all animal cell lineages and organs.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
In epidemiology, the relative risk reduction is a measure calculated by dividing the absolute risk reduction by the control event rate.
In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration.
Romidepsin, also known as Istodax, is an anticancer agent used in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and other peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs).
Schneeberg is a town in Saxony’s district of Erzgebirgskreis.
Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.
Sidestream smoke is smoke which goes into the air directly from a burning cigarette, cigar, or smoking pipe.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Small-cell carcinoma (also known as "small-cell lung cancer", or "oat-cell carcinoma") is a type of highly malignant cancer that most commonly arises within the lung, although it can occasionally arise in other body sites, such as the cervix, prostate, and gastrointestinal tract.
Smoking cessation (also known as quitting smoking or simply quitting) is the process of discontinuing tobacco smoking.
A solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) or coin lesion is a mass in the lung smaller than 3 centimeters in diameter.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Sputum is mucus and is the name used for the coughed-up material (phlegm) from the lower airways (trachea and bronchi).
Squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung is a type of non-small-cell lung carcinoma and is more common in men than in women.
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
Serine/threonine kinase 11 (STK11) also known as liver kinase B1 (LKB1) or renal carcinoma antigen NY-REN-19 is a protein kinase that in humans is encoded by the STK11 gene.
Stratospheric sulfur aerosols are sulfur-rich particles which exist in the stratosphere region of the Earth's atmosphere.
Sulfur mustard, commonly known as mustard gas, is the prototypical substance of the sulfur-based family of cytotoxic and vesicant chemical warfare agents known as the sulfur mustards which have the ability to form large blisters on exposed skin and in the lungs.
Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS), is a group of symptoms caused by obstruction of the superior vena cava (a short, wide vessel carrying circulating blood into the heart).
The Surgeon General of the United States is the operational head of the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (PHSCC) and thus the leading spokesperson on matters of public health in the federal government of the United States.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
Synaptophysin, also known as the major synaptic vesicle protein p38, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SYP gene.
Syncope, also known as fainting, is a loss of consciousness and muscle strength characterized by a fast onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery.
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is characterized by excessive unsuppressible release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) either from the posterior pituitary gland, or an abnormal non-pituitary source.
Synergy is the creation of a whole that is greater than the simple sum of its parts.
Systemic scleroderma, also called diffuse scleroderma or systemic sclerosis, is an autoimmune disease of the connective tissue.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
Targeted therapy of lung cancer refers to using agents specifically designed to selectively target molecular pathways responsible for, or that substantially drive, the malignant phenotype of lung cancer cells, and as a consequence of this (relative) selectivity, cause fewer toxic effects on normal cells.
Thoracoscopy is a medical procedure involving internal examination, biopsy, and/or resection of disease or masses within the pleural cavity and thoracic cavity.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Tivantinib (ARQ197; by Arqule, Inc.) is an experimental small molecule anti-cancer drug.
The TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours (TNM) is a notation system that describes the stage of a cancer which originates from a solid tumour with alphanumeric codes.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).
Topotecan (trade name Hycamtin) is a chemotherapeutic agent that is a topoisomerase inhibitor.
Trametinib (trade name Mekinist) is a cancer drug.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
A tumor suppressor gene, or antioncogene, is a gene that protects a cell from one step on the path to cancer.
Typical pulmonary carcinoid tumour is a subtype of pulmonary carcinoid tumour.
A tyrosine kinase is an enzyme that can transfer a phosphate group from ATP to a protein in a cell.
Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) is "an independent panel of experts in primary care and prevention that systematically reviews the evidence of effectiveness and develops recommendations for clinical preventive services".
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Uteroglobin, also known as secretoglobin family 1A member 1 (SCGB1A1), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SCGB1A1 gene.
Valproate (VPA), and its valproic acid, sodium valproate, and valproate semisodium forms, are medications primarily used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder and to prevent migraine headaches.
Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy is an approach to lung cancer surgery.
In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.
Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is a type of thoracic surgery performed using a small video camera that is introduced into the patient's chest via small incisions.
Vinorelbine (NVB), sold under the brand name Navelbine among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.
Vorinostat (rINN) also known as suberanilohydroxamic acid (suberoyl+anilide+hydroxamic acid abbreviated as SAHA) is a member of a larger class of compounds that inhibit histone deacetylases (HDAC).
Weakness or asthenia is a symptom of a number of different conditions.
Wedge resection is a surgical procedure to remove a triangle-shaped slice of tissue.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
A wheeze (formally called "sibilant rhonchi" in medical terminology) is a continuous, coarse, whistling sound produced in the respiratory airways during breathing.
The Wnt signaling pathways are a group of signal transduction pathways made of proteins that pass signals into a cell through cell surface receptors.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
1,3-Butadiene is the organic compound with the formula (CH2.
Bronchial cancer, Bronchogenic Carcinoma, Bronchogenic carcinoma, Cancer of the lung, Carcinoma of the lung, Causes of lung cancer, Lung (cancer), Lung Cancer, Lung carcinoma, Lung neoplasia, Lung neoplasm, Lung neoplasms, Lungs Cancer Healing, Neoplasia of the lung, Pulmonar cancer, Pulmonary cancer, Rare lung cancers, Smoking and lung cancer, Symptoms of lung cancer, Trachea/bronchus/lung cancers, Treatment of Rare Lung Cancers, Treatment of rare lung cancers.