84 relations: Alexander Kemurdzhian, Apache Point Observatory, Apollo program, Bulldozer, Chernobyl disaster, Chernobyl liquidators, Civil defense, Closed city, Colonization of the Moon, Computer Games Magazine, Corner reflector, East Germany, Electric battery, Exploration of the Moon, Google Lunar X Prize, Helical antenna, Ionizing radiation, Isotopes of polonium, Laser, Laser rangefinder, Lavochkin, LK (spacecraft), Luna 17, Luna 21, Luna programme, Lunar Laser Ranging experiment, Lunar orbit, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Lunar rover, Lunokhod 1, Lunokhod 2, Magnetometer, Mare Imbrium, Mars Exploration Rover, Mars Pathfinder, Metre, Moon landing, NASA, Odometer, Operating temperature, Opportunity (rover), Orbiter, Parking orbit, Particle detector, Penetrometer, Photodetector, Photometer, Pluton (complex), Polonium, Professional video camera, ..., Proton-K, Radioactive decay, Radioisotope heater unit, Radiometer, Retroreflector, Richard Garriott, Rille, Robot, Robotic spacecraft, Sample-return mission, Shovel, Simferopol, Slow-scan television, Soil mechanics, Solar cell, Solar panel, Sotheby's, Soviet crewed lunar programs, Soviet space program, Spirit (rover), Sun, SVT2, Tank on the Moon, Trans-lunar injection, Transmissometer, Ultraviolet, University of California, San Diego, Urban-type settlement, X-ray, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray telescope, Zond program, Zvezda (moonbase). Expand index (34 more) » « Shrink index
Alexander Leonovich Kemurdzhian (Ալեքսանդր Լևոնի Քեմուրջյան, Алекса́ндр Лео́нович Кемурджиа́н; 4 October 1921 – 25 February 2003) Obituary was a pioneering scientist, of Armenian heritage, in the space flight program of the Soviet Union.
The Apache Point Observatory (APO; obs. code: 705) is an astronomical observatory located in the Sacramento Mountains in Sunspot, New Mexico, United States, approximately south of Cloudcroft.
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.
A bulldozer is a crawler (continuous tracked tractor) equipped with a substantial metal plate (known as a blade) used to push large quantities of soil, sand, rubble, or other such material during construction or conversion work and typically equipped at the rear with a claw-like device (known as a ripper) to loosen densely compacted materials.
The Chernobyl disaster, also referred to as the Chernobyl accident, was a catastrophic nuclear accident.
Liquidators were the civil and military personnel who were called upon to deal with consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear disaster in the Soviet Union on the site of the event.
Civil defense or civil protection is an effort to protect the citizens of a state (generally non-combatants) from military attacks and natural disasters.
A closed city or closed town is a settlement where travel or residency restrictions are applied so that specific authorization is required to visit or remain overnight.
The colonization of the Moon is a proposed establishment of permanent human communities or robotic industries on the Moon.
Computer Games Magazine was a computer gaming print magazine, founded in 1988 as the United Kingdom publication Games International.
A corner reflector is a retroreflector consisting of three mutually perpendicular, intersecting flat surfaces, which reflects waves back directly towards the source, but translated.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.
The physical exploration of the Moon began when Luna 2, a space probe launched by the Soviet Union, made an impact on the surface of the Moon on September 14, 1959.
The Google Lunar XPRIZE (GLXP), sometimes referred to as Moon 2.0, was a 2007–2018 inducement prize space competition organized by the X Prize Foundation, and sponsored by Google.
A helical antenna is an antenna consisting of one or more conducting wires (monofilar, bifilar, or quadrifilar with 1, 2, or 4 wires respectively) wound in the form of a helix.
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
Polonium (84Po) has 33 isotopes, all of which are radioactive, with between 186 and 227 nucleons.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
A laser rangefinder is a rangefinder that uses a laser beam to determine the distance to an object.
NPO Lavochkin (НПО Лавочкина, OKB-301, also called Lavochkin Research and Production Association or shortly Lavochkin Association, LA) is a Russian aerospace company.
The LK (ЛК, from Лунный корабль, "Lunniy korabl", meaning "Lunar craft"; GRAU index: 11F94) was a piloted lunar lander developed in the 1960s as a part of the Soviet attempts at human exploration of the Moon. Its role was analogous to the American Apollo Lunar Module (LM). Several LK articles were flown without crew in Earth orbit, but no LK ever reached the Moon. The development of the N1 launch vehicle required for the Moon flight suffered setbacks (including several launch failures), and the first Moon landings were achieved by US astronauts. As a result, both the N1 and the LK programs were cancelled without any further development.
Luna 17 (Ye-8 series) was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 17.
Luna 21 (Ye-8 series) was an unmanned space mission, and its spacecraft, of the Luna program, also called Lunik 21, in 1973.
The Luna programme (from the Russian word Луна "Luna" meaning "Lunar" or "Moon"), occasionally called Lunik or Lunnik by western media, was a series of robotic spacecraft missions sent to the Moon by the Soviet Union between 1959 and 1976.
The ongoing Lunar Laser Ranging experiment measures the distance between Earth and the Moon using laser ranging.
In astronomy, lunar orbit (also known as a selenocentric orbit) is the orbit of an object around the Moon.
The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is a NASA robotic spacecraft currently orbiting the Moon in an eccentric polar mapping orbit.
A lunar rover or Moon rover is a space exploration vehicle (rover) designed to move across the surface of the Moon.
Lunokhod 1 (Луноход, moon walker in Russian; Аппарат 8ЕЛ № 203, vehicle 8ЕЛ№203) was the first of two unmanned lunar rovers landed on the Moon by the Soviet Union as part of its Lunokhod program.
Lunokhod 2 (Луноход-2, moon walker) was the second of two unmanned lunar rovers landed on the Moon by the Soviet Union as part of the Lunokhod programme.
A magnetometer is an instrument that measures magnetism—either the magnetization of a magnetic material like a ferromagnet, or the direction, strength, or relative change of a magnetic field at a particular location.
Mare Imbrium (Latin for "Sea of Showers" or "Sea of Rains") is a vast lava plain within the Imbrium Basin on the Moon and is one of the larger craters in the Solar System.
NASA's Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission is an ongoing robotic space mission involving two Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, exploring the planet Mars.
Mars Pathfinder (MESUR Pathfinder) is an American robotic spacecraft that landed a base station with a roving probe on Mars in 1997.
The metre (British spelling and BIPM spelling) or meter (American spelling) (from the French unit mètre, from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in some metric systems, including the International System of Units (SI).
A Moon landing is the arrival of a spacecraft on the surface of the Moon.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
An odometer or odograph is an instrument used for measuring the distance travelled by a vehicle, such as a bicycle or car.
An operating temperature is the temperature at which an electrical or mechanical device operates.
Opportunity, also known as MER-B (Mars Exploration Rover – B) or MER-1, is a robotic rover active on Mars since 2004.
An orbiter is a space probe that orbits a planet or other astronomical object.
A parking orbit is a temporary orbit used during the launch of a satellite or other space probe.
In experimental and applied particle physics, nuclear physics, and nuclear engineering, a particle detector, also known as a radiation detector, is a device used to detect, track, and/or identify ionizing particles, such as those produced by nuclear decay, cosmic radiation, or reactions in a particle accelerator.
A penetrometer is a device to test the strength of a material.
Photosensors or photodetectors are sensors of light or other electromagnetic energy.
A photometer, generally, is an instrument that measures light intensity or the optical properties of solutions or surfaces.
Pluton (at 1980ss – Pluton-M) is a system of deep space communications and planetary radar in Crimea.
Polonium is a chemical element with symbol Po and atomic number 84.
A professional video camera (often called a television camera even though the use has spread beyond television) is a high-end device for creating electronic moving images (as opposed to a movie camera, that earlier recorded the images on film).
The Proton-K, also designated Proton 8K82K after its GRAU index, 8K82K, was a Russian, previously Soviet, carrier rocket derived from the earlier Proton.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radioisotope heater units (RHU) are small devices that provide heat through radioactive decay.
A radiometer or roentgenometer is a device for measuring the radiant flux (power) of electromagnetic radiation.
A retroreflector (sometimes called a retroflector or cataphote) is a device or surface that reflects light back to its source with a minimum of scattering.
Richard Garriott de Cayeux (born Richard Allen Garriott; July 4, 1961) is an English-American video game developer and entrepreneur.
Rille (German for 'groove') is typically used to describe any of the long, narrow depressions in the surface of the Moon that resemble channels.
A robot is a machine—especially one programmable by a computer— capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically.
A robotic spacecraft is an uncrewed spacecraft, usually under telerobotic control.
A sample-return mission is a spacecraft mission with the goal of collecting and returning with tangible samples from an extraterrestrial location to Earth for analysis.
A shovel is a tool for digging, lifting, and moving bulk materials, such as soil, coal, gravel, snow, sand, or ore.
Simferopol (p; Сімферополь,; Aqmescit, Акъмесджит) is a city on the Crimean peninsula which, de facto, is the capital city of the Republic of Crimea within the Russian Federation but, de jure, is the capital city of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea within Ukraine.
Slow Scan television (SSTV) is a picture transmission method used mainly by amateur radio operators, to transmit and receive static pictures via radio in monochrome or color.
Soil mechanics is a branch of soil physics and applied mechanics that describes the behavior of soils.
A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.
Photovoltaic solar panels absorb sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity.
Sotheby's is a British founded, American multinational corporation headquartered in New York City.
The Soviet crewed lunar programs were a series of unsuccessful programs pursued by the Soviet Union to land a man on the Moon, in competition with the United States Apollo program to achieve the same goal set publicly by President John F. Kennedy on May 25, 1961.
The Soviet space program (Russian: Космическая программа СССР, Kosmicheskaya programma SSSR) comprised several of the rocket and space exploration programs conducted by the Soviet Union (USSR) from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991.
Spirit, also known as MER-A (Mars Exploration Rover – A) or MER-2, is a robotic rover on Mars, active from 2004 to 2010.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
SVT2 (usually referred to as Tvåan), is one of the two main television channels broadcast by Sveriges Television in Sweden.
Tank on the Moon is a French 2007 documentary film about the development, launch, and operation of the Soviet Moon exploration rovers, Lunokhod 1 and Lunokhod 2 in the period from 1970 to 1973.
A trans-lunar injection (TLI) is a propulsive maneuver used to set a spacecraft on a trajectory that will cause it to arrive at the Moon.
A transmissometer is an instrument for measuring the extinction coefficient of the atmosphere and sea water, and for the determination of visual range.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The University of California, San Diego is a public research university located in the La Jolla neighborhood of San Diego, California, in the United States.
Urban-type settlement (посёлок городско́го ти́па - posyolok gorodskogo tipa, abbreviated: п.г.т. - p.g.t.; селище міського типу – selyshche mis'koho typu, abbreviated: с.м.т. - s.m.t.; пасёлак гарадскога тыпу; osiedle typu miejskiego; селище от градски тип – selishte ot gradski tip) is an official designation for a semi-urban settlement (or a former town).
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is the emission of characteristic "secondary" (or fluorescent) X-rays from a material that has been excited by bombarding with high-energy X-rays or gamma rays.
X-ray spectroscopy is a gathering name for several spectroscopic techniques for characterization of materials by using x-ray excitation.
An X-ray telescope (XRT) is a telescope that is designed to observe remote objects in the X-ray spectrum.
Zond (Зонд; Russian for "probe") was the name given to two distinct series of Soviet unmanned space program undertaken from 1964 to 1970.
Zvezda moonbase (звезда, "star"), also called DLB Lunar Base was a Soviet plan and project from 1962 to 1974 to construct a crewed moonbase as successor to the N1-L3 crewed lunar expedition program.