78 relations: Activin and inhibin, Amenorrhea, Amino acid, Androgen, Anterior pituitary, Artificial insemination, Birth control, Butinazocine, Castration, Childhood, Chromosome 19, Chromosome 6, Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Corpus luteum, Eating disorder, Endometrium, Estradiol, Estrogen, Female athlete triad, Fertile eunuch syndrome, Fertilisation, Fertility testing, Follicle-stimulating hormone, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Gene, Glycoprotein, Glycoprotein hormones, alpha polypeptide, Gonadal dysgenesis, Gonadotropic cell, Gonadotropin, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist, Granulosa cell, Half-life, Hormone, Human chorionic gonadotropin, Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, Hyperprolactinaemia, Hypogonadism, Hypopituitarism, Hypothalamus, Implantation (human embryo), In vitro fertilisation, International unit, Kallmann syndrome, Kisspeptin, Leydig cell, Luteinizing hormone beta polypeptide, Luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor, ..., Menopause, Menotropin, Menstruation, Monomer, Negative feedback, Oligosaccharide, Ovarian follicle, Ovulation, Polycystic ovary syndrome, Precocious puberty, Pregnancy, Premature ovarian failure, Progesterone, Protein dimer, Sex steroid, Sexual arousal, Sexual intercourse, Spermatogenesis, Testicle, Testosterone, Theca of follicle, Thyroid-stimulating hormone, Turner syndrome, Urinary system, World Health Organization, XY gonadal dysgenesis, 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone, 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Expand index (28 more) » « Shrink index
Activin and inhibin are two closely related protein complexes that have almost directly opposite biological effects.
Amenorrhoea is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
A major organ of the endocrine system, the anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis or pars anterior), is the glandular, anterior lobe that together with the posterior lobe (posterior pituitary, or the neurohypophysis) makes up the pituitary gland (hypophysis).
Artificial insemination (AI) is the deliberate introduction of sperm into a female's uterus or cervix for the purpose of achieving a pregnancy through in vivo fertilization by means other than sexual intercourse.
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.
Butinazocine (INN) is an opioid analgesic of the benzomorphan family which was never marketed.
Castration (also known as gonadectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles.
Childhood is the age span ranging from birth to adolescence.
Chromosome 19 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Chromosome 6 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are any of several autosomal recessive diseases resulting from mutations of genes for enzymes mediating the biochemical steps of production of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids or sex steroids from cholesterol by the adrenal glands (steroidogenesis).
The corpus luteum (Latin for "yellow body"; plural corpora lutea) is a temporary endocrine structure in female ovaries and is involved in the production of relatively high levels of progesterone, moderate levels of estradiol, inhibin A and small amounts of estrogen.
An eating disorder is a mental disorder defined by abnormal eating habits that negatively affect a person's physical or mental health.
The endometrium is the inner epithelial layer, along with its mucous membrane, of the mammalian uterus.
Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Female athlete triad is a syndrome in which eating disorders (or low energy availability), amenorrhoea/oligomenorrhoea, and decreased bone mineral density (osteoporosis and osteopenia) are present.
The fertile eunuch syndrome or Pasqualini syndrome is a cause of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism caused by a luteinizing hormone deficiency.
Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.
Fertility testing is the process by which fertility is assessed, both generally and also to find the fertile window.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.
Glycoprotein hormones, alpha polypeptide is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CGA gene.
Gonadal dysgenesis is classified as any congenital developmental disorder of the reproductive system in the male or female.
Gonadotropic cells are endocrine cells in the anterior pituitary that produce the gonadotropins, such as the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).
Gonadotropins are glycoprotein polypeptide hormones secreted by gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary of vertebrates.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) also known as gonadoliberin, and by various other names in its endogenous form and as gonadorelin in its pharmaceutical form, is a releasing hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary.
A gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist) is a type of medication which affects gonadotropins and sex hormones.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists (GnRH antagonists) are a class of medications that antagonize the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRH receptor) and thus the action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).
A granulosa cell or follicular cell is a somatic cell of the sex cord that is closely associated with the developing female gamete (called an oocyte or egg) in the ovary of mammals.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone produced by the placenta after implantation.
Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (HH), also known as primary or peripheral/gonadal hypogonadism, is a condition which is characterized by hypogonadism due to an impaired response of the gonads to the gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), and in turn a lack of sex steroid production and elevated gonadotropin levels (as an attempt of compensation by the body).
Hyperprolactinemia or hyperprolactinaemia is the presence of abnormally high levels of prolactin in the blood.
Hypogonadism means diminished functional activity of the gonads—the testes or the ovaries —that may result in diminished sex hormone biosynthesis.
Hypopituitarism is the decreased (hypo) secretion of one or more of the eight hormones normally produced by the pituitary gland at the base of the brain.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
In humans, implantation is the stage of pregnancy at which the already fertilized egg adheres to the wall of the uterus.
In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is a process of fertilisation where an egg is combined with sperm outside the body, in vitro ("in glass").
In pharmacology, the international unit is a unit of measurement for the amount of a substance; the mass or volume that constitutes one international unit varies based on which substance is being measured, and the variance is based on the biological activity or effect, for the purpose of easier comparison across substances.
Kallmann syndrome (KS) is a genetic disorder that prevents a person from starting or fully completing puberty.
Kisspeptin (formerly known as metastin) is a protein that is encoded by the KISS1 gene in humans.
Leydig cells, also known as interstitial cells of Leydig, are found adjacent to the seminiferous tubules in the testicle.
Luteinizing hormone subunit beta also known as lutropin subunit beta or LHβ is a polypeptide that in association with an alpha subunit common to all gonadotropin hormones forms the reproductive signaling molecule luteinizing hormone.
The luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR), also lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor (LCGR) or luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) is a transmembrane receptor found predominantly in the ovary and testis, but also many extragonadal organs such as the uterus and breasts.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
Menotropin (also called human menopausal gonadotropin or hMG) is a hormonally active medication for the treatment of fertility disturbances.
Menstruation, also known as a period or monthly, is the regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue (known as menses) from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina.
A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".
Negative feedback (or balancing feedback) occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.
An oligosaccharide (from the Greek ὀλίγος olígos, "a few", and σάκχαρ sácchar, "sugar") is a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically three to ten) of monosaccharides (simple sugars).
An ovarian follicle is a roughly spheroid cellular aggregation set found in the ovaries.
Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a set of symptoms due to elevated androgens (male hormones) in females.
In medicine, precocious puberty is puberty occurring at an unusually early age.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Premature ovarian failure (POF) is the loss of function of the ovaries before age 40.
Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
In biochemistry, a protein dimer is a macromolecular complex formed by two protein monomers, or single proteins, which are usually non-covalently bound.
Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.
Sexual arousal (also sexual excitement) is the arousal of sexual desire, during or in anticipation of sexual activity.
Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.
Spermatogenesis is the process by which haploid spermatozoa develop from germ cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testis.
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
The theca folliculi comprise a layer of the ovarian follicles.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as thyrotropin, thyrotropic hormone, TSH, or hTSH for human TSH) is a pituitary hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine (T4), and then triiodothyronine (T3) which stimulates the metabolism of almost every tissue in the body.
Turner syndrome (TS), also known as 45,X or 45,X0, is a condition in which a female is partly or completely missing an X chromosome.
The urinary system, also known as the renal system or urinary tract, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Swyer syndrome, or XY gonadal dysgenesis, is a type of hypogonadism in a person whose karyotype is 46,XY.
17α-Hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OHP), or hydroxyprogesterone (OHP), is an endogenous progestogen steroid hormone related to progesterone.
17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17β-HSD, HSD17B), also 17-ketosteroid reductases (17-KSR), are a group of alcohol oxidoreductases which catalyze the reduction of 17-ketosteroids and the dehydrogenation of 17β-hydroxysteroids in steroidogenesis and steroid metabolism.
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