168 relations: Aleksei Brusilov, Alojzy Feliński, Anatoliy Tymoshchuk, Anzhelika Savrayuk, Archduke Joseph Ferdinand of Austria, Austria-Hungary, Łuck Ghetto, Battle of Lutsk, Belarus, Bielsk Podlaski, Blue Army (Poland), Bogdan group, Bolesław Kontrym, Brest, Belarus, Brusilov Offensive, Bug River, Capital city, Casimir III the Great, Casimir V, Duke of Pomerania, Catering, China, Christianity, Cistercians, City of regional significance (Ukraine), Congress of Lutsk, Crimean Karaites, Crowd control barrier, Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, Czechs, Dan II of Wallachia, Denmark, Dominican Order, Dulebes, Eastern Catholic Churches, Eastern European Summer Time, Eastern European Time, Eastern Orthodox Church, Epidemic typhus, Eric of Pomerania, Europe, Fief, Florian Siwicki, Gediminas, Georgia (country), Germans, Google Books, Gori, Georgia, Great Synagogue, Lutsk, History of the Jews in Poland, Holy Trinity Orthodox Cathedral, Lutsk, ..., Home Army, Hypatian Codex, Invasion of Poland, Jews, Jonathan Littell, Kazakhstan, Khmelnytsky Uprising, Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia, Kosiv, Laptop, Leo II of Galicia, Lesya Ukrainka street, Lutsk, List of longest buildings, List of Playboy Playmates of 2011, Lithuania, Liubartas, Livonian Order, LuAZ, Lubart's Castle, Lublin, Luftwaffe, Lutheran Church, Lutsk, Lutsk, Lutsk Air Base, Lutsk compact overhead powerline, Lutsk Orthodox Fellowship of the True Cross, Lutsk Raion, Lviv, Magdeburg rights, Market Square (Lutsk), Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia, Mayor, Mikołaj Kruszewski, Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Mongol invasion of Rus', Mordecai Sultansky, National Defense (Poland), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NKVD, NKVD prisoner massacres, November Uprising, Oblast, Oblasts of Ukraine, Oksana Zabuzhko, Olsztyn, Operation Barbarossa, Order of Saint Basil the Great, Order of Vytautas the Great, Partitions of Poland, Peter Bondra, Point of sale, Poland, Polish Land Forces, Polish language, Polish Radio Łuck, Polish–Soviet War, Postal code, Powiat, Prince-elector, Prix Goncourt, Przemyśl, Raion, Recovered Territories, Red Army, Refrigeration, Retail, Rurik dynasty, Russian Empire, Russian language, Rzeszów, Saint Peter and Paul Cathedral, Lutsk, Shimshon Unichman, Shmuel Shilo, Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, Sister city, SKF, Slavs, Slovakia men's national ice hockey team, Society of Jesus, Sophia of Halshany, Styr River, Svetlana Zakharova (dancer), Symon Petliura, Szczecin, Tartak, Tatars, TechRax, The Kindly Ones (Littell novel), Toruń, Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Trinitarian Order, Ukraine, Ukraine national football team, Ukrainian Insurgent Army, Ukrainian language, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Union of Lublin, Vasily II of Moscow, VGP JSC, Volhynian Voivodeship (1569–1795), Volodymyr-Volynskyi, Volyn Oblast, Vytautas, Wallachia, Warehouse, Warsaw, Władysław II Jagiełło, Wehrmacht, Wołyń Voivodeship (1921–1939), World War I, Xiangtan, Yad Vashem, Yiddish, YouTube, Zalman Sorotzkin, Zamość, Zhytomyr, 2012 Summer Olympics. Expand index (118 more) » « Shrink index
Aleksei Alekseevich Brusilov (Алексе́й Алексе́евич Бруси́лов; – 17 March 1926) was a Russian general most noted for the development of new offensive tactics used in the 1916 Brusilov Offensive, which was his greatest achievement.
Alojzy Feliński (1771 in Łuck - 1820 in Krzemieniec) was a Polish writer.
Anatoliy Oleksandrovych Tymoshchuk (Анатолій Олександрович Тимощук;; born 30 March 1979) is a Ukrainian football coach and a former midfielder.
Anzhelika Savrayuk (Анжеліка Савраюк; born 23 August 1989 in Lutsk, Ukrainian SSR, Soviet Union) is a Ukrainian-born Italian rhythmic gymnast.
Archduke Joseph Ferdinand of Austria (24 May 1872 – 28 August 1942) was an Austro-Hungarian Archduke and the titular Grand Duke of Tuscany from 17 January 1908 to 2 May 1921, military commander, from 1916 Generaloberst, and early advocate of air power.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The Łuck Ghetto (a.k.a. the Lutsk Ghetto, getto w Łucku, Ghetto Luzk) was a Jewish World War II ghetto established in 1941 by the Schutzstaffel (SS) in the prewar Polish city of Łuck (now Lutsk, Ukraine) occupied by Germany in the south-eastern region of Kresy during Operation Barbarossa.
The Battle of Lutsk took place during World War I, from June 4 to June 6, 1916.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Bielsk Podlaski (Бельск Падляскі, Більськ) is an Urban Gmina (Polish: gmina miejska) (Town) in Bielsk County, Podlaskie Voivodeship.
The Blue Army (Polish: Błękitna Armia), or Haller's Army was a Polish military contingent created in France during the latter stages of World War I. The name came from the French-issued blue military uniforms worn by the soldiers.
Bogdan Corporation (Корпорація «Богдан» Korporatsiya Bohdan) — is a leading Ukrainian automobile-manufacturing group, including several car- and bus-makers of the country.
Lieutenant Bolesław Kontrym (Zatruka, Russian Empire, 27 August 1898 – 20 January 1953, Warsaw, Poland), also known by codenames Żmudzin, Biały, Bielski and Cichocki, was a Polish Army officer, a Home Army soldier, participant in the Warsaw Uprising and organizer of underground secret-police force Cichociemni.
Brest (Брэст There is also the name "Berestye", but it is found only in the Old Russian language and Tarashkevich., Брест Brest, Берестя Berestia, בריסק Brisk), formerly Brest-Litoŭsk (Брэст-Лiтоўск) (Brest-on-the-Bug), is a city (population 340,141 in 2016) in Belarus at the border with Poland opposite the Polish city of Terespol, where the Bug and Mukhavets rivers meet.
The Brusilov Offensive (Брусиловский прорыв Brusilovskiĭ proryv, literally: "Brusilov's breakthrough"), also known as the "June Advance", of June to September 1916 was the Russian Empire’s greatest feat of arms during World War I, and among the most lethal offensives in world history.
The Bug River (Bug or Western Bug; Західний Буг, Zakhidnyy Buh, Захо́дні Буг, Zakhodni Buh; Западный Буг, Zapadnyy Bug) is a major European river which flows through three countries with a total length of.
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
Casimir III the Great (Kazimierz III Wielki; 30 April 1310 – 5 November 1370) reigned as the King of Poland from 1333 to 1370.
Duke Casimir V of Pomerania (or, counting differently, Casimir VI; before 1380 – 13 April 1435) was a member of the House of Griffins and a Duke of Pomerania.
Catering is the business of providing food service at a remote site or a site such as a hotel, hospital, pub, aircraft, cruise ship, park, filming site or studio, entertainment site, or event venue.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (abbreviated as OCist, SOCist ((Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis), or ‘’’OCSO’’’ (Ordo Cisterciensis Strictioris Observantiae), which are religious orders of monks and nuns. They are also known as “Trappists”; as Bernardines, after the highly influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux (though that term is also used of the Franciscan Order in Poland and Lithuania); or as White Monks, in reference to the colour of the "cuccula" or white choir robe worn by the Cistercians over their habits, as opposed to the black cuccula worn by Benedictine monks. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however, education and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of many monasteries. A reform movement seeking to restore the simpler lifestyle of the original Cistercians began in 17th-century France at La Trappe Abbey, leading eventually to the Holy See’s reorganization in 1892 of reformed houses into a single order Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (OCSO), commonly called the Trappists. Cistercians who did not observe these reforms became known as the Cistercians of the Original Observance. The term Cistercian (French Cistercien), derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more closely the Rule of Saint Benedict. The best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, who were the first three abbots. Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order. By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Eastern Europe. The keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict. Rejecting the developments the Benedictines had undergone, the monks tried to replicate monastic life exactly as it had been in Saint Benedict's time; indeed in various points they went beyond it in austerity. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, especially agricultural work in the fields, a special characteristic of Cistercian life. Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. Additionally, in relation to fields such as agriculture, hydraulic engineering and metallurgy, the Cistercians became the main force of technological diffusion in medieval Europe. The Cistercians were adversely affected in England by the Protestant Reformation, the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII, the French Revolution in continental Europe, and the revolutions of the 18th century, but some survived and the order recovered in the 19th century.
City of regional significance is a city municipality that is designated as a separate district within its region (i.e. oblast, Crimea).
The Congress of Lutsk was a diplomatic gathering held in Lubart's Castle in Lutsk, Grand Duchy of Lithuania over a 13-week period beginning on January 6, 1429.
The Crimean Karaites or Krymkaraylar (Crimean Karaim: Кърымкъарайлар sg. къарай – qaray; Trakai Karaim: sg. karaj, pl. karajlar; קראי מזרח אירופה; Karaylar), also known as Karaims and Qarays, are an ethnic group derived from Turkic-speaking adherents of Karaite Judaism in Central and Eastern Europe, especially in the territory of the former Russian Empire.
Crowd control barriers (also referred to as crowd control barricades, with some versions called a French barrier or bike rack in the USA, and mills barriers in Hong Kong), are commonly used at many public events.
The Crown of the Kingdom of Poland (Korona Królestwa Polskiego, Latin: Corona Regni Poloniae), commonly known as the Polish Crown or simply the Crown, is the common name for the historic (but unconsolidated) Late Middle Ages territorial possessions of the King of Poland, including Poland proper.
The Czechs (Češi,; singular masculine: Čech, singular feminine: Češka) or the Czech people (Český národ), are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture, history and Czech language.
Dan II (? – June 1, 1432) was a voivode of the principality of Wallachia, ruling an extraordinary five times, and succeeded four times by Radu II Chelul, his rival for the throne.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216.
The Dulebs (Dulebes) or (more correctly) Dulibyh (Дуліби) were one of the tribal unions of Early East Slavs between the 6th (still questionable) and the 10th centuries.
The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, and in some historical cases Uniate Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian particular churches sui iuris in full communion with the Pope in Rome, as part of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Epidemic typhus is a form of typhus so named because the disease often causes epidemics following wars and natural disasters.
Eric of Pomerania KG (1381 or 1382 – 24 September 1459) was the ruler of the Kalmar Union from 1396 until 1439, succeeding his adoptive mother, Queen Margaret I. He is numbered Eric III as King of Norway (1389–1442), Eric VII as King of Denmark (1396–1439) and Eric XIII as King of Sweden (1396–1434, 1436–39).
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
A fief (feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty.
Florian Siwicki (10 January 1925 – 11 March 2013) was a Polish career military officer, diplomat and a communist politician, as well as a General of the Polish Army.
Gediminas (– December 1341) was Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1315 or 1316 until his death.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.
Gori (გორი) is a city in eastern Georgia, which serves as the regional capital of Shida Kartli and the centre of the homonymous administrative district.
The Great Synagogue in Lutsk, Ukraine, is a Renaissance building with a tower.
The history of the Jews in Poland dates back over 1,000 years.
The Holy Trinity Orthodox Cathedral in Lutsk, Ukraine, forms part of the Bernardine Monastery and Church.
The Home Army (Armia Krajowa;, abbreviated AK) was the dominant Polish resistance movement in Poland, occupied by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, during World War II.
The Hypatian Codex (also known as Hypatian Chronicle, Ipatiev Chronicle, Іпацьеўскі летапіс; Ипатьевская летопись; Іпатіївський літопис, Іпатський літопис, Літопис руський за Іпатським списком) is a compendium of three chronicles: the Primary Chronicle, Kiev Chronicle, and Galician-Volhynian Chronicle.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jonathan Littell (born 10 October 1967) is a writer living in Barcelona.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
The Khmelnytsky Uprising (Powstanie Chmielnickiego; Chmelnickio sukilimas; повстання Богдана Хмельницького; восстание Богдана Хмельницкого; also known as the Cossack-Polish War, Chmielnicki Uprising, or the Khmelnytsky insurrection) was a Cossack rebellion within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1648–1657, which led to the creation of a Cossack Hetmanate in Ukrainian lands.
The Kingdom or Principality of Galicia–Volhynia (Old East Slavic: Галицко-Волинскоє князство, Галицько-Волинське князівство, Regnum Galiciae et Lodomeriae), also known as the Kingdom of Ruthenia (Old East Slavic: Королѣвство Русь, Королівство Русі, Regnum Russiae) since 1253, was a state in the regions of Galicia and Volhynia, of present-day western Ukraine, which was formed after the conquest of Galicia by the Prince of Volhynia Roman the Great, with the help of Leszek the White of Poland.
Kosiv (Косiв) is a city located in Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, in western Ukraine.
A laptop, also called a notebook computer or just notebook, is a small, portable personal computer with a "clamshell" form factor, having, typically, a thin LCD or LED computer screen mounted on the inside of the upper lid of the "clamshell" and an alphanumeric keyboard on the inside of the lower lid.
Leo II of Galicia, also known as Lev Yurevich (unknown – 1323) was Prince of Lutsk and Galicia, one of the last two Rurikid kings of Galicia-Volhynia (r. 1308–1323; according to some sources, 1315–23).
Lesya Ukrainka street (formerly known as Jagiellońska - Jagiellon street) is a central pedestrian street in Lutsk, Ukraine, running from Fellowship Bridge Square to the city's central Theatre Square.
This is a list of the longest single-segment buildings (excluding those not intended for human occupancy) in the world, and broken down by continent (which are not included in the world section).
The following is a list of Playboy Playmates of 2011.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Demetrius of Liubar or Liubartas (also Lubart, Lubko, Lubardus, baptized Dmitry; died) was Prince of Lutsk and Liubar (Volhynia) (1323–1383), Prince of Zhytomyr (1363–1374), Grand Prince of Volhynia (1340–1383), Grand Prince of Galicia and Volhynia (1340–1349).
The Livonian Order was an autonomous branch of the Teutonic Order, formed in 1237.
LuAZ (ЛуАЗ, short for "Луцький автомобільний завод", Lutskyi avtomobilnyi zavod; Lutsk automobile factory) is an Ukrainian automobile manufacturer in the city Lutsk built in the Soviet Union.
Lutsk Castle (italic, Lutskiy zamok), also locally known as Lubart's Castle (Замок Любарта, Zamok Lyubarta) or Upper Castle (Верхній замок, Verkhniy zamok), began its life in the mid-14th century as the fortified seat of Gediminas' son Liubartas (Lubart), the last ruler of united Galicia-Volhynia.
Lublin (Lublinum) is the ninth largest city in Poland and the second largest city of Lesser Poland.
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.
The building known as the Lutheran Church in Lutsk, Ukraine, is in fact now a Baptist church.
Lutsk (Luc'k,, Łuck, Luck) is a city on the Styr River in northwestern Ukraine.
Lutsk Military (also given as Lutsk North) is an air base in Ukraine located 4 km north of Lutsk.
Lutsk compact overhead line in Volyn Oblast, Ukraine is a technically unique 10 kV power transmission line that connects a thermal power plant in Lutsk to the Lutsk-Pivnichna substation.
The Lutsk Orthodox Fellowship of the True Cross is an architectural and historical complex consisting of a church and a monastery and located on the border of the market and Bratskiy Mist squares in Lutsk, Ukraine.
Lutsk Raion (Луцький район) is a raion in Volyn Oblast in western Ukraine.
Lviv (Львів; Львов; Lwów; Lemberg; Leopolis; see also other names) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016.
Magdeburg rights (Magdeburger Recht; also called Magdeburg Law) were a set of town privileges first developed by Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor (936–973) and based on the Flemish law, which regulated the degree of internal autonomy within cities and villages, granted by the local ruler.
Market Square is one of the oldest squares in Lutsk, Ukraine, dating back to the 14th century.
The massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia (rzeź wołyńska, literally: Volhynian slaughter; Волинська трагедія., Volyn tragedy), were part of an ethnic cleansing operation carried out in Nazi German-occupied Poland by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) against Poles in the area of Volhynia, Polesia, Lublin region and Eastern Galicia beginning in 1943 and lasting up to 1945.
In many countries, a mayor (from the Latin maior, meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.
Mikołaj Habdank Kruszewski, (Russianized, Nikolay Vyacheslavovich Krushevsky, Никола́й Вячесла́вович Круше́вский) (December 18, 1851, Lutsk – November 12, 1887, Kazan) was a Polish linguist, most significant as the co-inventor of the concept of phonemes, and relative of Anya Lucia Kruszewski.
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.
As part of the Mongol invasion of Europe, the Mongol Empire invaded Kievan Rus' in the 13th century, destroying numerous cities, including Ryazan, Kolomna, Moscow, Vladimir and Kiev.
Mordecai Sultansky (מרדכי סולטנסקי) was a Crimean Karaite hakham of the nineteenth century.
National Defense (Obrona Narodowa, ON) was a volunteer military formation of the Second Polish Republic.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union.
The NKVD prisoner massacres were a series of mass executions carried out by the Soviet NKVD secret police during World War II against political prisoners across Eastern Europe, primarily Poland, Ukraine, the Baltic states, Bessarabia and other parts of the Soviet Union from which the Red Army was retreating following the Nazi German attack on the Soviet positions in occupied Poland, known as Operation Barbarossa.
The November Uprising (1830–31), also known as the Polish–Russian War 1830–31 or the Cadet Revolution, was an armed rebellion in the heartland of partitioned Poland against the Russian Empire.
An oblast is a type of administrative division of Belarus, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Ukraine, and the former Soviet Union and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
An oblast (область), in English referred to as a region, refers to one of Ukraine's 24 primary administrative units.
Oksana Stefanivna Zabuzhko (Окса́на Стефа́нівна Забу́жко) is a Ukrainian novelist, poet, essayist.
Olsztyn (Allenstein; Old Polish: Holstin; Old Prussian: Alnāsteini or Alnestabs; Alnaštynas, Alnštynas, Alštynas (historical) and Olštynas (modern)) is a city on the Łyna River in northeastern Poland.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
The Order of Saint Basil the Great (O.S.B.M. Ordo Sancti Basilii Magni, Ordem de São Basílio Magno, Чин Святого Василія Великого, Chyn Sviatoho Vasyliia Velykoho) also known as the Basilian Order of Saint Josaphat is a monastic religious order of the Greek Catholic Churches that is present in many countries and that has its Mother House in Rome (Santi Sergio e Bacco degli Ucraini).
The Order of Vytautas the Great is the Lithuanian Presidential Award.
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.
Peter Bondra (born February 7, 1968) is a Ukrainian-born Slovak former professional ice hockey player.
The point of sale (POS) or point of purchase (POP) is the time and place where a retail transaction is completed.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Land Forces (Wojska Lądowe) are a military branch of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Polish Radio Łuck (Polskie Radio Łuck) was a radio station of the Polish Radio, planned to be opened in autumn of 1939 in the Volhynian city of Łuck (now Lutsk, Ukraine).
The Polish–Soviet War (February 1919 – March 1921) was fought by the Second Polish Republic, Ukrainian People's Republic and the proto-Soviet Union (Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine) for control of an area equivalent to today's western Ukraine and parts of modern Belarus.
A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, Eircode, PIN Code or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes including spaces or punctuation, included in a postal address for the purpose of sorting mail.
A powiat (pronounced; Polish plural: powiaty) is the second-level unit of local government and administration in Poland, equivalent to a county, district or prefecture (LAU-1, formerly NUTS-4) in other countries.
The prince-electors (or simply electors) of the Holy Roman Empire (Kurfürst, pl. Kurfürsten, Kurfiřt, Princeps Elector) were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Prix Goncourt (Le prix Goncourt,, The Goncourt Prize) is a prize in French literature, given by the académie Goncourt to the author of "the best and most imaginative prose work of the year".
Przemyśl (Premissel, Peremyshl, Перемишль less often Перемишель) is a city in south-eastern Poland with 66,756 inhabitants, as of June 2009.
A raion (also rayon) is a type of administrative unit of several post-Soviet states (such as part of an oblast).
Recovered Territories (Ziemie Odzyskane, literally "Regained Lands") was an official term used by the People's Republic of Poland to describe the territory of the former Free City of Danzig and the parts of pre-war Germany that became part of Poland after World War II.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Refrigeration is a process of removing heat from a low-temperature reservoir and transferring it to a high-temperature reservoir.
Retail is the process of selling consumer goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit.
The Rurik dynasty, or Rurikids (Рю́риковичи, Ryúrikovichi; Рю́риковичі, Ryúrykovychi; Ру́рыкавічы, Rúrykavichi, literally "sons of Rurik"), was a dynasty founded by the Varangian prince Rurik, who established himself in Novgorod around the year AD 862.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Rzeszów (Ряшiв, Ŕašiv; Resche (antiquated); Resovia; ריישע, rayshe) is the largest city in southeastern Poland, with a population of 189,637 (01.03.2018).
The Saint Peter and Paul Cathedral and its Jesuit college are national landmarks in Lutsk.
Shimshon Unichman (13 February 1907 – 21 March 1961) was an Israeli politician who served as a member of the Knesset for Herut between 1955 and 1961.
Shmuel Shilo or Shmulik Shiloh (שמואל שילה, 1 December 1929 – 4 October 2011) was an Israeli actor, director and producer, born in the Second Polish Republic, and best remembered for his role on the Israeli production of Rechov SumSum, a popular TV show based on Sesame Street.
Sigismund of Luxembourg (15 February 1368 in Nuremberg – 9 December 1437 in Znaim, Moravia) was Prince-elector of Brandenburg from 1378 until 1388 and from 1411 until 1415, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1387, King of Germany from 1411, King of Bohemia from 1419, King of Italy from 1431, and Holy Roman Emperor for four years from 1433 until 1437, the last male member of the House of Luxembourg.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
AB SKF (Swedish: Swedish ball bearing factory AB), later AB SKF, is a leading bearing and seal manufacturing company founded in Gothenburg, Sweden, in 1907.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
The Slovak men's national ice hockey team is the national ice hockey team of Slovakia and is controlled by the Slovak Ice Hockey Federation.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
Sophia of Halshany or Sonka Olshanskaya (translit; Sofija Alšėniškė; Zofia Holszańska; – September 21, 1461 in Kraków) was a Grand Duchy of Lithuania princess of Halshany.
The Styr River is right tributary of the Pripyat River, with a length of 494 km.
Svetlana Yuryevna Zakharova (Світлана Юріївна Захарова, Светлана Юрьевна Захарова) is a prima ballerina with the Bolshoi Ballet and an étoile of the La Scala Theatre Ballet.
Symon Vasylyovych Petliura (Си́мон Васи́льович Петлю́ра; May 10, 1879 – May 25, 1926) was a Ukrainian politician and journalist.
Szczecin (German and Swedish Stettin), known also by other alternative names) is the capital and largest city of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. Located near the Baltic Sea and the German border, it is a major seaport and Poland's seventh-largest city. As of June 2011, the population was 407,811. Szczecin is located on the Oder, south of the Szczecin Lagoon and the Bay of Pomerania. The city is situated along the southwestern shore of Dąbie Lake, on both sides of the Oder and on several large islands between the western and eastern branches of the river. Szczecin is adjacent to the town of Police and is the urban centre of the Szczecin agglomeration, an extended metropolitan area that includes communities in the German states of Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The city's recorded history began in the 8th century as a Slavic Pomeranian stronghold, built at the site of the Ducal castle. In the 12th century, when Szczecin had become one of Pomerania's main urban centres, it lost its independence to Piast Poland, the Duchy of Saxony, the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark. At the same time, the House of Griffins established themselves as local rulers and the population was Christianized. After the Treaty of Stettin in 1630, the town came under the control of the Swedish Empire and became in 1648 the Capital of Swedish Pomerania until 1720, when it was acquired by the Kingdom of Prussia and then the German Empire. Following World War II Stettin became part of Poland, resulting in expulsion of the German population. Szczecin is the administrative and industrial centre of West Pomeranian Voivodeship and is the site of the University of Szczecin, Pomeranian Medical University, Maritime University, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin Art Academy, and the see of the Szczecin-Kamień Catholic Archdiocese. From 1999 onwards, Szczecin has served as the site of the headquarters of NATO's Multinational Corps Northeast. Szczecin was a candidate for the European Capital of Culture in 2016.
Tartak (Тартак) is a popular hip-hop/rapcore/alternative crossover band from Ukraine.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
TechRax is a YouTube channel that focuses on making videos about the destruction of cell phones (particularly iPhones and Samsungs) and other technological devices.
The Kindly Ones (Les Bienveillantes) is a historical fiction novel written in French by American-born author Jonathan Littell.
Toruń (Thorn) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula River.
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on 3 March 1918 between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire), that ended Russia's participation in World War I. The treaty was signed at Brest-Litovsk (Brześć Litewski; since 1945 Brest), after two months of negotiations.
The Order of the Most Holy Trinity and of the Captives (Ordo Sanctissimae Trinitatis et captivorum), often shortened to The Order of the Most Holy Trinity (Ordo Sanctissimae Trinitatis), or Trinitarians, is a Catholic religious order that was founded in the area of Cerfroid, some 80 km northeast of Paris, at the end of the twelfth century.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The Ukraine national football team (збірна України з футболу) is the national football team of Ukraine and is controlled by the Football Federation of Ukraine.
The Ukrainian Insurgent Army (Українська повстанська армія, УПА, Ukrayins’ka Povstans’ka Armiya, UPA) was a Ukrainian nationalist paramilitary and later partisan army that engaged in a series of guerrilla conflicts during World War II against Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, and both Underground and Communist Poland.
The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR or UkrSSR or UkSSR; Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, Украї́нська РСР, УРСР; Украи́нская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, Украи́нская ССР, УССР; see "Name" section below), also known as the Soviet Ukraine, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union from the Union's inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991. The republic was governed by the Communist Party of Ukraine as a unitary one-party socialist soviet republic. The Ukrainian SSR was a founding member of the United Nations, although it was legally represented by the All-Union state in its affairs with countries outside of the Soviet Union. Upon the Soviet Union's dissolution and perestroika, the Ukrainian SSR was transformed into the modern nation-state and renamed itself to Ukraine. Throughout its 72-year history, the republic's borders changed many times, with a significant portion of what is now Western Ukraine being annexed by Soviet forces in 1939 from the Republic of Poland, and the addition of Zakarpattia in 1946. From the start, the eastern city of Kharkiv served as the republic's capital. However, in 1934, the seat of government was subsequently moved to the city of Kiev, Ukraine's historic capital. Kiev remained the capital for the rest of the Ukrainian SSR's existence, and remained the capital of independent Ukraine after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Geographically, the Ukrainian SSR was situated in Eastern Europe to the north of the Black Sea, bordered by the Soviet republics of Moldavia, Byelorussia, and the Russian SFSR. The Ukrainian SSR's border with Czechoslovakia formed the Soviet Union's western-most border point. According to the Soviet Census of 1989 the republic had a population of 51,706,746 inhabitants, which fell sharply after the breakup of the Soviet Union. For most of its existence, it ranked second only to the Russian SFSR in population, economic and political power.
The Union of Lublin (unia lubelska; Liublino unija) was signed on 1 July 1569, in Lublin, Poland, and created a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Vasily Vasiliyevich (Василий Васильевич; 10 March 141527 March 1462), known as Vasily II the Blind (Василий II Темный), was the Grand Prince of Moscow whose long reign (1425–1462) was plagued by the greatest civil war of Old Russian history.
"VGP", JSC (until 2008 Volyngolovpostach) is leading Ukrainian manufacture of sanitary and hygienic products including (napkins, toilet paper, handkerchiefs, kitchen towels), under Brands «Ruta», «Рута Light», «Fesco», «Puchnasta simeyka».
Volhynian Voivodeship (Województwo wołyńskie, Palatinatus Volhynensis) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from 1566 until 1569 and of the Polish Crown within the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from the 1569 Union of Lublin until the Third Partition of Poland in 1795.
Volodymyr-Volynskyi (Володимир-Волинський, Włodzimierz Wołyński, Влади́мир-Волы́нский, לודמיר, Lodomeria) is a small city located in Volyn Oblast, in north-western Ukraine.
Volyn Oblast (Волинська область, translit. Volyns’ka oblast’, Obwód wołyński; also referred to as Volyn’ or Wołyń) is an oblast (province) in north-western Ukraine.
Vytautas (c. 1350 – October 27, 1430), also known as Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian:, Вітаўт Кейстутавіч (Vitaŭt Kiejstutavič), Witold Kiejstutowicz, Rusyn: Vitovt, Latin: Alexander Vitoldus) from the 15th century onwards, was a ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which chiefly encompassed the Lithuanians and Ruthenians.
Wallachia or Walachia (Țara Românească; archaic: Țeara Rumânească, Romanian Cyrillic alphabet: Цѣра Рȣмѫнѣскъ) is a historical and geographical region of Romania.
A warehouse is a commercial building for storage of goods.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
Jogaila (later Władysław II JagiełłoHe is known under a number of names: Jogaila Algirdaitis; Władysław II Jagiełło; Jahajła (Ягайла). See also: Names and titles of Władysław II Jagiełło. (c. 1352/1362 – 1 June 1434) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania (1377–1434) and then the King of Poland (1386–1434), first alongside his wife Jadwiga until 1399, and then sole King of Poland. He ruled in Lithuania from 1377. Born a pagan, in 1386 he converted to Catholicism and was baptized as Władysław in Kraków, married the young Queen Jadwiga, and was crowned King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło. In 1387 he converted Lithuania to Christianity. His own reign in Poland started in 1399, upon the death of Queen Jadwiga, and lasted a further thirty-five years and laid the foundation for the centuries-long Polish–Lithuanian union. He was a member of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland that bears his name and was previously also known as the Gediminid dynasty in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The dynasty ruled both states until 1572,Anna Jagiellon, the last member of royal Jagiellon family, died in 1596. and became one of the most influential dynasties in late medieval and early modern Central and Eastern Europe. During his reign, the Polish-Lithuanian state was the largest state in the Christian world. Jogaila was the last pagan ruler of medieval Lithuania. After he became King of Poland, as a result of the Union of Krewo, the newly formed Polish-Lithuanian union confronted the growing power of the Teutonic Knights. The allied victory at the Battle of Grunwald in 1410, followed by the Peace of Thorn, secured the Polish and Lithuanian borders and marked the emergence of the Polish–Lithuanian alliance as a significant force in Europe. The reign of Władysław II Jagiełło extended Polish frontiers and is often considered the beginning of Poland's Golden Age.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
Wołyń Voivodeship or Volhynian Voivodeship (Województwo Wołyńskie, Palatinatus Volhynensis) was an administrative region of interwar Poland (1918–1939) with an area of 35,754 km², 22 cities, and provincial capital in Łuck.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Xiangtan is a prefecture-level city in Hunan province, China.
Yad Vashem (יָד וַשֵׁם; literally, "a monument and a name") is Israel's official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.
Zalman Sorotzkin, also known as the Lutzker Rav (זלמן סורוצקין; 1881–1966), was a famous Orthodox rabbi who served as the rabbi of Lutsk, Ukraine.
Zamość (Yiddish: זאמאשטש Zamoshtsh) is a city in southeastern Poland, situated in the southern part of Lublin Voivodeship (since 1999), about from Lublin, from Warsaw and from the border with Ukraine.
Zhytomyr (Žytomyr; Žitomir; Żytomierz; Žitomir) is a city in the north of the western half of Ukraine.
The 2012 Summer Olympics, formally the Games of the XXX Olympiad and commonly known as London 2012, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 27 July to 12 August 2012 in London, United Kingdom.