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Academy of Foreign Trade in Lwów (Akademia Handlu Zagranicznego we Lwowie, AHZ) was one of four colleges in the city of Lwów in the interbellum period, when it belonged to the Second Polish Republic (now Lviv, Ukraine).
Accessibility refers to the design of products, devices, services, or environments for people who experience disabilities.
Adam Jozef Aleksander Epler (born December 1, 1891, in Lwów, Austrian Galicia; died October 24, 1965, in London) was a Colonel of Artillery of the Polish Army, posthumously promoted to Generał brygady.
Adam Bernard Mickiewicz (24 December 179826 November 1855) was a Polish poet, dramatist, essayist, publicist, translator, professor of Slavic literature, and political activist.
Adam Bruno Ulam (8 April 1922 – 28 March 2000) was a Polish-American historian of Jewish descent and political scientist at Harvard University.
Adam Zagajewski (born 21 June 1945 in Lwów) is a Polish poet, novelist, translator and essayist.
Count Agenor Romuald Gołuchowski (8 February 1812, Skala-Podilska, Galicia - 3 August 1875, Lwów, Galicia) was a Polish-Austrian conservative politician, member of parliament of Austria, Minister of Interior and governor of Galicia, and father of Agenor Maria Gołuchowski and Adam Gołuchowski.
Aleksander Fredro (20 June 1793 – 15 July 1876) was a Polish poet, playwright and author active during Polish Romanticism in the period of partitions by neighboring empires.
Aleksander Myszuga (May 20, 1853 – March 9, 1922) (sometimes spelled Ołeksandr Mishuga or Olexander Myshuga) was a Ukrainian operatic tenor and voice teacher of Ukrainian descent.
Alexander Genrikhovich Beliavsky (also Romanized Belyavsky; born December 17, 1953) is a Soviet, Ukrainian and Slovenian chess grandmaster.
Alexander Ilyich Yegorov or Egorov (Алекса́ндр Ильи́ч Его́ров, Alexandr Iljič Jegorov) (– February 23, 1939), was a Soviet military leader during the Russian Civil War, when he commanded the Red Army's Southern Front and played an important part in defeating the White forces in Ukraine.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
Andrei Volokitin (Андрій Волокітін, Andriy Volokitin; born 18 June 1986 in Lviv) is a Ukrainian chess grandmaster.
Andrey Sheptytsky, O.S.B.M., (Митрополит Андрей Шептицький; Polish: Andrzej Szeptycki; 29 July 1865 – 1 November 1944) was the Metropolitan Archbishop of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church from 1901 until his death in 1944.
Andrii Ivanovych Sadovyi (Андрій Іванович Садовий, Andríj Ivanovych Sadovýj) is a Ukrainian politician.
Andrzej Żuławski (22 November 1940 – 17 February 2016) was a Polish film director and writer.
Anna Olehivna Muzychuk (Анна Олегівна Музичук; Ana Muzičuk; born February 28, 1990) is a Ukrainian chess grandmaster.
The Crimean peninsula was annexed from Ukraine by the Russian Federation in February–March 2014.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
In Christianity, an archbishop (via Latin archiepiscopus, from Greek αρχιεπίσκοπος, from αρχι-, 'chief', and επίσκοπος, 'bishop') is a bishop of higher rank or office.
An architectural style is characterized by the features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable.
Arena Lviv (Арена Львів) is a football stadium in Lviv, Ukraine.
The Armenian Apostolic Church (translit) is the national church of the Armenian people.
The Armenian Cathedral of the Assumption of Mary (Հայկական տաճար, Вірменський собор, Katedra ormiańska) in Lviv, Ukraine is located in the city's Old Town, north of the market square.
The Armenian diaspora refers to the communities of Armenians outside Armenia and other locations where Armenians are considered an indigenous population.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, trains, ocean liners, and everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners.
Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910.
Artur Grottger (11 November 1837 – 13 December 1867) was a Polish Romantic painter and graphic artist, one of the most prominent artists of the mid 19th century under the foreign partitions of Poland, despite a life cut short by incurable illness.
"Aryan" is a term that was used as a self-designation by Indo-Iranian people.
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Association of the Polish Culture of the Lviv Land (Towarzystwo Kultury Polskiej Ziemi Lwowskiej) is a Polish minority association, active in Lviv Oblast (province) of western Ukraine.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
The Austrian Partition (zabór austriacki) comprise the former territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth acquired by the Habsburg Monarchy during the Partitions of Poland in the late 18th century.
The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (Ausgleich, Kiegyezés) established the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary.
The avant-garde (from French, "advance guard" or "vanguard", literally "fore-guard") are people or works that are experimental, radical, or unorthodox with respect to art, culture, or society.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
Łódź (לאדזש, Lodzh; also written as Lodz) is the third-largest city in Poland and an industrial hub.
Banja Luka (Бања Лука) or Banjaluka (Бањалука), is the second largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the de facto capital of the Republika Srpska entity.
Baroque architecture is the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late 16th-century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church.
Batiar (also sometimes spelled as baciar), a popular name for a certain class of inhabitants of the formerly Polish city of Lwów.
The Battle of Galicia, also known as the Battle of Lemberg, was a major battle between Russia and Austria-Hungary during the early stages of World War I in 1914.
The Battle of Gnila Lipa took place early in the World War I on 29–30 August 1914, when the Imperial Russian Army invaded Galicia and engaged the defending Austro-Hungarian Army.
Battle of Lwów or Battle of Lesienice refers to a battle between the armies of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Ottoman Empire that took place near the city of Lwów (Lviv, western Ukraine) on August 24, 1675.
During the Polish-Soviet War of 1920 the city of Lwów (modern Lviv, Ukraine) was attacked by the forces of Alexander Ilyich Yegorov.
Będzie lepiej is a 1936 Polish comedy film directed by Michał Waszyński.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Bełżec (in Belzec) was a Nazi German extermination camp built by the SS for the purpose of implementing the secretive Operation Reinhard, the plan to eradicate Polish Jewry, a key part of the "Final Solution" which entailed the murder of some 6 million Jews in the Holocaust.
The Beis Aharon V'Yisrael Synagogue, also known as Tsori Gilead Synagogue, is the only functioning Jewish Orthodox synagogue in Lviv, Ukraine.
Belarusians (беларусы, biełarusy, or Byelorussians (from the Byelorussian SSR), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with the overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority.
The Belle Époque or La Belle Époque (French for "Beautiful Era") was a period of Western history.
Benedykt Tadeusz Dybowski (12 May 183331 January 1930) was a Polish naturalist and physician.
The Bernardine church and monastery in Lviv is located in the city's Old Town, south of the market square.
A bicycle-sharing system, public bicycle system, or bike-share scheme, is a service in which bicycles are made available for shared use to individuals on a short term basis for a price or free.
Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi (Білгород-Дністровський, Cetatea Albă), formerly known as Akkerman (see naming section below), is a city and port situated on the right bank of the Dniester Liman (on the Dniester estuary leading to the Black Sea) in Odessa Oblast of southwestern Ukraine, in the historical region of Bessarabia.
The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 in a population in a year or period.
The Black House (Чорна кам'яниця,; Kamienica) is a remarkable Renaissance building on the Market Square in the city of Lviv, Ukraine.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
The Blue Army (Polish: Błękitna Armia), or Haller's Army was a Polish military contingent created in France during the latter stages of World War I. The name came from the French-issued blue military uniforms worn by the soldiers.
Blue Moon is an Austrian movie written and directed by Andrea Maria Dusl in 2002.
Bohdan Ihor Antonych (Богдан-Ігор Антонич; 5 October 1909, Nowica – 6 July 1937, Lviv) was a 20th-century Ukrainian poet.
Zynoviy Bohdan Khmelnytsky (Ruthenian language: Ѕѣнові Богдан Хмелнiцкiи; modern Bohdan Zynoviy Mykhailovych Khmelnytsky; Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; 6 August 1657) was a Polish–Lithuanian-born Hetman of the Zaporozhian Host of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (now part of Ukraine).
The Boim Chapel (Капли́ця Боїмів, Kaplica Boimów) is a monument of religious architecture in Cathedral Square, Lviv, Ukraine.
Bolesław Limanowski (18 October 1835 - 15 February 1935) was a Polish socialist politician, as well as historian and journalist and advocate of Agrarianism.
Boroldai (or Burulday, Borolday), also known as Burundai, (Cyrillic: Боролдай) (died 1262) was a notable Mongol general of the mid 13th century.
Briukhovychi is an Urban-type settlement in Lviv Municipality in Lviv Oblast.
Bruno Schulz (July 12, 1892 – November 19, 1942) was a Polish Jewish writer, fine artist, literary critic and art teacher.
Bucharest (București) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre.
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.
A ballistic vest or bullet-resistant vest, often called a bulletproof vest, is an item of personal armor that helps absorb the impact and reduce or stop penetration to the body from firearm-fired projectiles- and shrapnel from explosions, and is worn on the torso.
Buran (Бура́н,, meaning "Snowstorm" or "Blizzard"; GRAU index serial number: "11F35 K1") was the first spaceplane to be produced as part of the Soviet/Russian Buran programme.
A bus network is a network topology in which nodes are directly connected to a common linear (or branched) half-duplex link called a bus.
Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (goods and services).
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Cabaret is a form of theatrical entertainment featuring music, song, dance, recitation, or drama.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A cardinal (Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church) is a senior ecclesiastical leader, considered a Prince of the Church, and usually an ordained bishop of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
Casimir III the Great (Kazimierz III Wielki; 30 April 1310 – 5 November 1370) reigned as the King of Poland from 1333 to 1370.
Kazimierz Żegleń (Casimir Zeglen) - was a Polish engineer, born in 1869 near Tarnopol, (died not before 1927), who invented the first bulletproof vest.
The Archcathedral Basilica of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, usually called simply the Latin Cathedral (Лати́нський собо́р, Katedra Łacińska) is a 14th-century Roman Catholic cathedral in Lviv, western Ukraine.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Church in Ukraine is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome.
A CD-ROM is a pre-pressed optical compact disc which contains data.
Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.
The Cemetery of the Defenders of Lwów (Cmentarz Obrońców Lwowa, Cmentarz Orląt, Cemetery of Eaglets, Orlat Cemetery) is a memorial and a burial place for the Poles and their allies who died in Lviv (Lwów) during the hostilities of the Polish-Ukrainian War and Polish-Soviet War between 1918 and 1920.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
The Central Statistical Office (Główny Urząd Statystyczny; GUS) is Poland's chief government executive agency charged with collecting and publishing statistics related to the country's economy, population, and society, at the national and local levels.
The act of cession is the assignment of property to another entity.
Charles Scribner's Sons, or simply Scribner's or Scribner, is an American publisher based in New York City, known for publishing American authors including Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Kurt Vonnegut, Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Stephen King, Robert A. Heinlein, Thomas Wolfe, George Santayana, John Clellon Holmes, Don DeLillo, and Edith Wharton.
Charles XII, also Carl (Karl XII; 17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 O.S.), Latinized to Carolus Rex, was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718.
Chełm (Kulm, Холм) is a city in eastern Poland with 63,949 inhabitants (2015).
"Christian Church" is an ecclesiological term generally used by Protestants to refer to the whole group of people belonging to Christianity throughout the history of Christianity.
A city council, town council, town board, or board of aldermen is the legislative body that governs a city, town, municipality, or local government area.
City of regional significance is a city municipality that is designated as a separate district within its region (i.e. oblast, Crimea).
Civil disobedience is the active, professed refusal of a citizen to obey certain laws, demands, orders or commands of a government or occupying international power.
Classical architecture usually denotes architecture which is more or less consciously derived from the principles of Greek and Roman architecture of classical antiquity, or sometimes even more specifically, from the works of Vitruvius.
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.
Collateral damage is a general term for deaths, injuries, or other damage inflicted on an unintended target.
Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic and microscopic physical properties of matter.
The Conference of Ambassadors of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers was an inter-allied organization of the Entente in the period following the end of World War I. Formed in Paris in January 1920 it became a successor of the Supreme War Council and was later on de facto incorporated into the League of Nations as one of its governing bodies.
Corning is a city in Steuben County, New York, United States, on the Chemung River.
The Crimean Karaites or Krymkaraylar (Crimean Karaim: Кърымкъарайлар sg. къарай – qaray; Trakai Karaim: sg. karaj, pl. karajlar; קראי מזרח אירופה; Karaylar), also known as Karaims and Qarays, are an ethnic group derived from Turkic-speaking adherents of Karaite Judaism in Central and Eastern Europe, especially in the territory of the former Russian Empire.
The Crown of the Kingdom of Poland (Korona Królestwa Polskiego, Latin: Corona Regni Poloniae), commonly known as the Polish Crown or simply the Crown, is the common name for the historic (but unconsolidated) Late Middle Ages territorial possessions of the King of Poland, including Poland proper.
Cubism is an early-20th-century art movement which brought European painting and sculpture historically forward toward 20th century Modern art.
Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble those of a dominant group.
The culture of Poland is the product of its geography and its distinct historical evolution which is closely connected to its intricate thousand-year history.
The history of the Curzon Line, with minor variations, goes back to the period following World War I. It was drawn for the first time by the Supreme War Council as the demarcation line between the newly emerging states, the Second Polish Republic, and the Soviet Union.
Cycling infrastructure refers to all infrastructure which may be used by cyclists.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Czarni Lwów was one of the first Polish professional sports clubs with the well developed football section as well as hockey among the several other sports.
Czerwony Sztandar (Red Banner) was a Polish language daily, published by the Soviet occupation authorities in the city of Lwów (Lviv, Ukraine), between 5 October 1939 and June 1941, and then again between 1944 and 1950.
D'Artagnan and Three Musketeers (д'Артаньян и три мушкетёра, D'Artanyan i tri mushketera) is a three-part musical miniseries produced in the Soviet Union and first aired in 1978.
Daniel of Galicia (Данило Романович (Галицький): Danylo Romanovych (Halytskyi); Old Ruthenian: Данило Романовичъ: Danylo Romanovyčъ; Daniel I Romanowicz Halicki; 1201 – 1264) was a King of Ruthenia, Prince (Knyaz) of Galicia (Halych) (1205–1255), Peremyshl (1211), and Volodymyr (1212–1231).
Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University (Universitatis Medicinalis Leopoliensis), (Львiвський Національний Медичний Унiверситет iм.) — formerly known as the Lvov State Medical Institute, earlier the Faculty of Medicine of the John Casimir University and, before that, Faculty of Medicine of the Francis I University — is one of the oldest and biggest medical universities in Ukraine.
Debora Vogel (1902 – 1942) was a Polish philosopher and poet.
The Declaration of Ukrainian Independence of June 30, 1941 was announced by the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) under the leadership of Stepan Bandera, who declared an independent Ukrainian State in Lviv.
A defensive wall is a fortification usually used to protect a city, town or other settlement from potential aggressors.
The term Deluge (pоtор szwedzki, švedų tvanas) denotes a series of mid-17th-century campaigns in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The demographics of Ukraine include statistics on population growth, population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population of Ukraine.
A demonym (δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place.
Danylo Ishutin (Данило Ішутін born December 30, 1989), more commonly known by the pseudonym Dendi, is a professional Dota 2 mid-lane player for Natus Vincere from Lviv, Ukraine.
The Diet of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, and of the Grand Duchy of Cracow was the regional assembly of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, a crown land of the Austrian Empire, and later Austria-Hungary.
The District of Galicia (Distrikt Galizien, Dystrykt Galicja, Дистрикт Галичина) was a World War II administrative unit of the General Government created by Nazi Germany on 1 August 1941 after the opening of Operation Barbarossa.
Dmytro Dedko (Demetrius Dedko, Дмитро Дедько) was a Lord of Ruthenia in 1340 (1323) – 1349.
The Dominican church and monastery (Домініканський костел і монастир, Dominikanskyi kostel i monastyr, Kościół i klasztor Dominikanów we Lwowie) in Lviv, Ukraine is located in the city's Old Town, east of the market square.
The Dormition or Assumption Church (Успенська церква, Uspenska tserkva; historically known as the "Wallachian Church") is a Ukrainian Orthodox church in the city of Lviv, Ukraine.
Drohobych (Дрогóбич; Дрогобыч; Drohobycz; דראָהאָביטש) is a city of regional significance in Lviv Oblast, Ukraine.
Dublany is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Michałowo, within Białystok County, Podlaskie Voivodeship, in north-eastern Poland, close to the border with Belarus.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The economy of Ukraine is an emerging free market.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
Ekspres (Експрес) is a Ukrainian language Lviv-based, daily broadsheet newspaper founded in 1992.
"Electron" Corporation (Концерн-Електрон) is a diversified, public company and a legal entity in Ukraine, with more than 20 thousand shareholders.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
Elena Sergeyevna Vesnina (Еле́на Серге́евна Веснина́; born 1 August 1986) is a Russian professional tennis player.
Eliza Orzeszkowa (June 6, 1841 – May 18, 1910) was a Polish novelist and a leading writer, Britannica, Retrieved June 5, 2016 of the Positivism movement during foreign Partitions of Poland.
Emanuel Ax (born 8 June 1949) is a Grammy-winning American classical pianist.
Emanuel Schlechter (pseudonyms Eman, Olgierd Lech) (Emanuel Szlechter) (9 October 1904 – 1943) was born and died in Lwów.
Emigration is the act of leaving a resident country or place of residence with the intent to settle elsewhere.
Etnovyr (Етновир) is the annual International Folklore Festival that has taken place in Lviv on the eve of Ukraine Independence Day since 2008 under the auspices of International Council of Organizations of Folklore Festivals and Traditional Arts (CIOFF®) under UNESCO and is organised by and.
Eugeniusz Geppert (born September 4, 1890 in L'viv, died January 13, 1979 in Wrocław) – Polish painter associated with the Colourist movement, organizer of the Eugeniusz Geppert Academy of Fine Arts in Wrocław.
Euromaidan (Євромайдан, Евромайдан,, literally "Euro Square") was a wave of demonstrations and civil unrest in Ukraine, which began on the night of 21 November 2013 with public protests in Maidan Nezalezhnosti ("Independence Square") in Kiev.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The Eurovision Song Contest 2004 was the 49th edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest.
Everything Is Illuminated is the first novel by the American writer Jonathan Safran Foer, published in 2002.
Faina Kirschenbaum (פאינה קירשנבאום, born 27 November 1955) is an Israeli politician.
Faina Petryakova (September 23, 1931 - May 6, 2002) - was a distinguished professor of the Lviv Academy of Arts, a recognized figure in the field of ethnography in Ukraine and beyond, and a senior researcher of the Institute of Ethnography at the Lviv branch office of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
Football Club Karpaty Lviv is a Ukrainian professional football club based in Lviv.
Football Club Metalurh Donetsk (Футбо́льний клуб «Металу́рг» Доне́цьк) was a Ukrainian professional football club based in Donetsk that went bankrupt in July 2015.
Football Club Shakhtar Donetsk (Футбольний клуб «Шахта́р», "miner") is a Ukrainian professional football club from the city of Donetsk.
Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring.
Filaret Mykhailovych Kolessa (Філарет Михайлович Колесса) (1871 – February 4, 1947) was a Ukrainian ethnographer, folklorist, composer, musicologist and literary critic.
The First Partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth took place in 1772 as the first of three partitions that ended the existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by 1795.
The flag of Poland consists of two horizontal stripes of equal width, the upper one white and the lower one red.
Flight International (or simply Flight) is a weekly magazine focused on aerospace, published in the United Kingdom.
A football team is a group of players selected to play together in the various team sports known as football.
Frankívs’kyj District (Франкі́вський райо́н) is an urban district in the city of Lviv, named after the Ukrainian writer and social activist Ivan Franko.
Albert Franz Doppler (16 October 182127 July 1883), was a flute virtuoso and a composer best known for his flute music.
Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart (26 July 1791 – 29 July 1844), also known as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Jr., was the youngest child of six born to Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and his wife Constanze.
Freiburg im Breisgau (Alemannic: Friburg im Brisgau; Fribourg-en-Brisgau) is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, with a population of about 220,000.
Functional analysis is a branch of mathematical analysis, the core of which is formed by the study of vector spaces endowed with some kind of limit-related structure (e.g. inner product, norm, topology, etc.) and the linear functions defined on these spaces and respecting these structures in a suitable sense.
Futurism (Futurismo) was an artistic and social movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century.
Gabriela Maria Moyseowicz (born May 4, 1944 in Lwów) is a Polish composer and pianist.
Maria Gabriela Stefania Korwin-Piotrowska (1857–1921), known as Gabriela Zapolska, was a Polish novelist, playwright, naturalist writer, feuilletonist, theatre critic and stage actress.
Galicia (Ukrainian and Галичина, Halyčyna; Galicja; Czech and Halič; Galizien; Galícia/Kaliz/Gácsország/Halics; Galiția/Halici; Галиция, Galicija; גאַליציע Galitsiye) is a historical and geographic region in Central Europe once a small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and later a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, that straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine.
Galicia–Volhynia Wars were several wars fought in the years 1340–1392 over the succession in the Principality of Galicia–Volhynia (in modern Poland and Ukraine).
The Galician–Volhynian Chronicle (ukr. Галицько-Волинський літопис) is a historical record covering 1201–1292 in the history of the Principality of Galicia-Volhynia (in modern Ukraine).
Gazeta Lwowska (Lviv Gazette) is a Polish language biweekly magazine, published since 24 December 1990 in Lviv (also known as Lwów, Lvov, etc.), Ukraine.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
The General Government (Generalgouvernement, Generalne Gubernatorstwo, Генеральна губернія), also referred to as the General Governorate, was a German zone of occupation established after the joint invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 at the onset of World War II.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The German-Soviet Frontier Treaty was a second supplementary protocol, of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of 23 August.
Germanisation (also spelled Germanization) is the spread of the German language, people and culture or policies which introduced these changes.
A ghetto is a part of a city in which members of a minority group live, typically as a result of social, legal, or economic pressure.
The Golden Rose Synagogue, known also as the Nachmanowicz Synagogue, or the Turei Zahav Synagogue (בית הכנסת טורי זהב) was a synagogue in Lviv, Ukraine.
Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.
The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Правительство СССР, Pravitel'stvo SSSR) was the main body of the executive branch of government in the Soviet Union.
The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine (Кабінет Міністрів України, Kabinet ministriv Ukrayiny; shortened to CabMin), commonly referred to as the Government of Ukraine (Уряд України, Uryad Ukrayiny), is the highest body of state executive power in Ukraine.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.
During the Great Northern War (1700–1721), many towns and areas of the Circum-Baltic and East-Central Europe suffered from a severe outbreak of the plague with a peak from 1708 to 1712.
The Great Suburb Synagogue was a synagogue at Bożnicza-Street 16 in Lviv, Ukraine.
Grozny (p; Соьлжа-ГӀала) is the capital city of the Chechen Republic, Russia.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
Halych (Halyč; Halici; Halicz; Galič; Halytsch) is a historic city on the Dniester River in western Ukraine.
Halytskyi District (Галицький район) is an urban district of the city of Lviv, named after Ruthenian king and founder of the city Daniel of Galicia (Danylo Halytskyi).
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Hasidism, sometimes Hasidic Judaism (hasidut,; originally, "piety"), is a Jewish religious group.
Hasmonea Lwów was a Polish-Jewish sports club based in the city of Lwów (now Lviv, Ukraine).
Heavy industry is industry that involves one or more characteristics such as large and heavy products; large and heavy equipment and facilities (such as heavy equipment, large machine tools, and huge buildings); or complex or numerous processes.
Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Germany.
Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius Sienkiewicz (also known by the pseudonym "Litwos"; 5 May 1846 – 15 November 1916) was a Polish journalist, novelist and Nobel Prize laureate.
Henryk Vogelfänger (4 October 1904 – 6 October 1990), stage name Tońko, was a Polish actor.
Henryk Wars (born Henryk Warszawski; 29 December 1902 – 1 September 1977) was a Polish pop music composer.
The high jump is a track and field event in which competitors must jump unaided over a horizontal bar placed at measured heights without dislodging it.
A high-rise building is a tall building, as opposed to a low-rise building and is defined by its height differently in various jurisdictions.
Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.
Lviv (Ukrainian: Львів, L’viv; Lwów; Lemberg; לעמבערג; Lvov, see also other names) is an administrative center in western Ukraine with more than a millennium of history as a settlement, and over seven centuries as a city.
The history of Poland has its roots in the migrations of Slavs, who established permanent settlements in the Polish lands during the Early Middle Ages.
The history of the Jews in Poland dates back over 1,000 years.
The "History of Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union" reflects a period of change for both Russia and the world.
The Home Army (Armia Krajowa;, abbreviated AK) was the dominant Polish resistance movement in Poland, occupied by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, during World War II.
Horodok (Городо́к, Gródek) is a city in Lviv Oblast (region) of Ukraine.
Horodyshche (Городище,; Horedishtsh) is a city located in Cherkasy Oblast (province) in central Ukraine.
Władysław Hugo Dionizy Steinhaus (January 14, 1887 – February 25, 1972) was a Jewish-Polish mathematician and educator.
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points.
Jan Józef Ignacy Łukasiewicz (8 March 1822 – 7 January 1882) was a Polish pharmacist, engineer, businessman, inventor, and philanthropist.
Ignacy Mościcki (1 December 18672 October 1946) was a Polish chemist, politician, and President of Poland from 1926 to 1939.
The Imperial Russian Army (Ру́сская импера́торская а́рмия) was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917.
In Darkness (W ciemności) is a 2011 Polish drama film written by David F. Shamoon and directed by Agnieszka Holland.
Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
Ioan Potcoavă (died 16 June 1578) or Ivan Pidkova (Іван Підкова), also known as Ioan Creţul, and allegedly baptized as Nicoară Potcoavă, was a prominent Cossack ataman, and short-lived Voivode (Prince) of Moldavia (November–December 1577).
The Iron Curtain was the name for the boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991.
Iryna Vilde, a pen name of Daryna Dmytrivna Polotniuk (Дарина Дмитрівна Полотнюк, née Makohon Макогон), was a Ukrainian writer and Soviet correspondent.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Ivan Yakovych Franko (Іван Якович Франко) (&ndash) was a Ukrainian poet, writer, social and literary critic, journalist, interpreter, economist, political activist, doctor of philosophy, ethnographer, and the author of the first detective novels and modern poetry in the Ukrainian language.
Ivan Franko Park (Парк імені Івана Франка), formerly known as the Jesuit Gardens, is a park in Lviv, Ukraine.
Ivan Fyodorov (Ива́н Фёдоров, sometimes transliterated as Fedorov or Fiodorov; c. 1525 in Grand Duchy of Moscow – December 16, 1583 in Lwów, Ruthenian Voivodeship, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) was one of the fathers of Eastern Slavonic printing (along with Schweipolt Fiol and Francysk Skaryna), he was the first known Russian printer in Muscovy and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, he was also a skilled cannon maker and the inventor of a multibarreled mortar.
Ivan Krypiakevych (Іва́н Крип'яке́вич; 25 June 1886 – 21 April 1967) was a Ukrainian historian, academician, professor of Lviv University and director of the Institute of Social Sciences of Ukraine.
Ivan Nechuy-Levytsky (– 2 April 1918) was a well-known Ukrainian writer.
Ivan Trush (Іван Труш, pronounced as Troosh: 1869–1941) was a Ukrainian impressionist painter, a master of landscape and portraiture, an art critic, and active community patron of arts in Galicia or Halychyna - a historical region in western Ukraine.
Ivan Vakarchuk (Іва́н Олекса́ндрович Вакарчу́к) is a Ukrainian physicist.
Jacek Jan Kuroń (3 March 1934 – 17 June 2004) was one of the democratic leaders of opposition in the People's Republic of Poland.
Jadwiga, also known as Hedwig (Hedvig; 1373/4 – 17 July 1399), was the first female monarch of the Kingdom of Poland, reigning from 16 October 1384 until her death.
The Jagiellonian University (Polish: Uniwersytet Jagielloński; Latin: Universitas Iagellonica Cracoviensis, also known as the University of Kraków) is a research university in Kraków, Poland.
Jakub Karol Parnas, also known as Yakov Oskarovich Parnas (Яков Оскарович Парнас) (January 16, 1884 – January 29, 1949) was a prominent Jewish-Polish–Soviet biochemist who contributed to the discovery of the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas pathway, together with Otto Fritz Meyerhof and Gustav Georg Embden.
Jan Kasprowicz (December 12, 1860 – August 1, 1926) was a poet, playwright, critic and translator; a foremost representative of Young Poland.
Jan Kiliński (1760 in Trzemeszno - 28 January 1819 in Warsaw) was one of the commanders of the Kościuszko Uprising.
Jan Parandowski (11 May 1895 – 26 September 1978) was a Polish writer, essayist, and translator.
Jan Styka (April 8, 1858 in Lwów – April 11, 1925 in Rome) was a Polish painter noted for producing large historical, battle-piece, and Christian religious panoramas.
Janowska concentration camp (Janowska, Янов or "Yanov", Янівський табір) was a Nazi German labor, transit and extermination camp established in September 1941 in occupied Poland on the outskirts of Lwów (Second Polish Republic, today Lviv, Ukraine).
Józef Klemens Piłsudski (5 December 1867 – 12 May 1935) was a Polish statesman; he was Chief of State (1918–22), "First Marshal of Poland" (from 1920), and de facto leader (1926–35) of the Second Polish Republic as the Minister of Military Affairs.
Jerzy Żuławski (14 July 1874 – 9 August 1915) was a Polish literary figure, philosopher, translator, alpinist and nationalist whose best-known work is the science-fiction epic, Trylogia Księżycowa (The Lunar Trilogy), written between 1901 and 1911.
The Jesuit Church in Lviv is dedicated to Sts.
Jewish assimilation (התבוללות, Hitbolelut) refers to the gradual cultural assimilation and social integration of Jews in their surrounding culture as well as the ideological program promoting conformity as a potential solution to historic Jewish marginalization in the age of emancipation.
In the Jewish diaspora, a Jewish quarter (also known as jewry, juiverie, Judengasse, Jewynstreet, or proto-ghetto) is the area of a city traditionally inhabited by Jews.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981.
Johann Georg Pinsel (Jan Jerzy Pinsel, Іван Георгій Пінзель; b. 1715-1725, d. 1761 or early 1762) was a Baroque-Rococo sculptor active in Galicia (then in Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, now Ukraine).
John II Casimir (Jan II Kazimierz Waza; Johann II.; Jonas Kazimieras Vaza; 22 March 1609 – 16 December 1672) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania during the era of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Duke of Opole in Upper Silesia, and titular King of Sweden 1648–1660.
John III Sobieski (Jan III Sobieski; Jonas III Sobieskis; Ioannes III Sobiscius; 17 August 1629 – 17 June 1696), was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1674 until his death, and one of the most notable monarchs of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Joseph Roth, born Moses Joseph Roth (2 September 1894 – 27 May 1939), was an Austrian-Jewish journalist and novelist, best known for his family saga Radetzky March (1932), about the decline and fall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, his novel of Jewish life, Job (1930), and his seminal essay "Juden auf Wanderschaft" (1927; translated into English in The Wandering Jews), a fragmented account of the Jewish migrations from eastern to western Europe in the aftermath of World War I and the Russian Revolution.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Julian Jakub Bussgang (born 1925) is a mathematician, entrepreneur and author.
Juliusz Paweł Schauder (21 September 1899, Lwów, Austria-Hungary – September 1943, Lwów, Occupied Poland) was a Polish mathematician of Jewish origin, known for his work in functional analysis, partial differential equations and mathematical physics.
Kamianets-Podilskyi (Kamyanets-Podilsky, Kamieniec Podolski, Camenița, Каменец-Подольский, קאמענעץ־פאדאלסק) is a city on the Smotrych River in western Ukraine, to the north-east of Chernivtsi.
Karl Berngardovich Radek (31 October 1885 – 19 May 1939) was a Marxist active in the Polish and German social democratic movements before World War I and an international Communist leader in the Soviet Union after the Russian Revolution.
Karol Borsuk (May 8, 1905 – January 24, 1982) was a Polish mathematician.
Karol Mikuli, often seen as Charles Mikuli (Կարոլ Միկուլի or Կարոլ Պստիկյան; 22 October 1821 – 21 May 1897) was a Polish pianist, composer, conductor and teacher.
Kateryna Aleksandrovna Lagno (Катерина Олександрівна Лагно; Екатерина Александровна Лагно; born 27 December 1989) is a Russian (formerly Ukrainian), Ukrayinska Pravda Sport (12 July 2014) chess grandmaster.
Kazimierz Klaudiusz Górski (March 2, 1921 – May 23, 2006) was a coach of Poland national football team and honorary president of Polish Football Union (Polski Związek Piłki Nożnej, PZPN).
Kazimierz Kuratowski (Polish pronunciation:, 2 February 1896 – 18 June 1980) was a Polish mathematician and logician.
Kazimierz Przerwa-Tetmajer (12 February 1865 – 18 January 1940) was a Polish poet, novelist, playwright, journalist and writer.
General Kazimierz Sosnkowski (19 November 1885 in Warsaw – 11 October 1969 in Arundel, Quebec) was a Polish nobleman, independence fighter, diplomat, architect, politician and a Polish Army general.
Kazimierz Jerzy Skrzypna-Twardowski (20 October 1866 – 11 February 1938) was a Polish philosopher, logician, and rector of the Lviv University.
Kazimierz Wajda (3 December 1905 in Lwów - 8 May 1955 in Warsaw), stage name Szczepko, was a Polish actor, comedian.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
Kijów may refer to.
King of Ruthenia, King of Galicia and Volhynia, King of Poland and Ruthenia, Land of Ruthenia Lord and Heir (Latin: Rex Rusiae, Rex Galiciae et Lodomeriae, Rex Polonie et Russie, Terre Russie Domin et Heres) was a title of princes of Galicia and Volhynia, granted by the Pope.
The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, also known as Galicia or Austrian Poland, became a crownland of the Habsburg Monarchy as a result of the First Partition of Poland in 1772 and the Third Partition of Poland in 1795, when it became a Kingdom under Habsburg rule.
The Kingdom or Principality of Galicia–Volhynia (Old East Slavic: Галицко-Волинскоє князство, Галицько-Волинське князівство, Regnum Galiciae et Lodomeriae), also known as the Kingdom of Ruthenia (Old East Slavic: Королѣвство Русь, Королівство Русі, Regnum Russiae) since 1253, was a state in the regions of Galicia and Volhynia, of present-day western Ukraine, which was formed after the conquest of Galicia by the Prince of Volhynia Roman the Great, with the help of Leszek the White of Poland.
Košice is the largest city in eastern Slovakia and in 2013 was the European Capital of Culture (together with Marseille, France).
Kornel Makuszyński (8 January 1884 – 31 July 1953) was a Polish writer of children's and youth literature.
Kornel Ujejski (September 12, 1823 in Beremyany, Galicia, Austria - September 19, 1897 in Pavliv near Lviv, Galicia, Austria), also known as Cornelius Ujejski, was a Polish poet, patriot and political writer of the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary.
The Korniakt Palace (Палац Корнякта (Palats Korniakta), kamienica Królewska we Lwowie) on Market Square in Lviv is a prime example of the royal kamienica, or townhouse.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
Krakowskie Przedmieście (literally: Kraków suburb; Faubourg de Cracovie) is one of the best known and most prestigious streets of Poland's capital, surrounded by historic palaces, churches and manor-houses.
Krystyna Zofia Feldman (1 March 1916 – 24 January 2007) was a Polish actress.
Kutaisi (ქუთაისი; ancient names: Aea/Aia, Kotais, Kutatisi, Kutaïsi) is the legislative capital of Georgia, and its 3rd most populous city.
A labor camp (or labour, see spelling differences) or work camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are forced to engage in penal labor as a form of punishment under the criminal code.
The Latin Church, sometimes called the Western Church, is the largest particular church sui iuris in full communion with the Pope and the rest of the Catholic Church, tracing its history to the earliest days of Christianity.
Laurel and Hardy were a comedy double act during the early Classical Hollywood era of American cinema.
Lechia Lwów (full name: Lwowski Klub Sportowy "Lechia" Lwów) was the first Polish professional football club, founded in summer 1903 in Lwów.
Leo Fuchs (May 15, 1911 – December 31, 1994) was a Polish-born Jewish American actor.
Leo I of Galicia (Лев Дани́лович, Lev Danylovych) (c. 1228 – c. 1301) was a Knyaz (prince) of Belz (1245–1264), Peremyshl, Halych (1264–1269), Grand Prince of Kiev (1271–1301) and King of Galicia-Volhynia.
Leonid Zakharovich Stein (Леонид Захарович Штейн; November 12, 1934 – July 4, 1973) was a Soviet chess Grandmaster from Ukraine.
Leopold Staff (November 14, 1878 – May 31, 1957) was a Polish poet; one of the greatest artists of European modernism twice granted the Degree of Doctor honoris causa by universities in Warsaw and in Kraków.
Leopold Ritter von Sacher-Masoch (27 January 1836 – 9 March 1895) was an Austrian nobleman, writer and journalist, who gained renown for his romantic stories of Galician life.
Leopolis Jazz Fest (previously Alfa Jazz Fest) is an international jazz festival, annually held in June in Lviv (Ukraine) since 2011.
Oleksandr-Zenon Stepanovych Kurbas (Олександр-Зенон Степанович Курбас, 1887–1937), a Ukrainian movie and theater director, is considered by many to be the most important Ukrainian theater director of the 20th century.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
This is a complete list of cities in Ukraine.
The inhabitants of Lviv, Ukraine (Lwów; Lemberg) are commonly known in English as Leopolitans (from the Latin name for the city, Leopolis).
Demetrius of Liubar or Liubartas (also Lubart, Lubko, Lubardus, baptized Dmitry; died) was Prince of Lutsk and Liubar (Volhynia) (1323–1383), Prince of Zhytomyr (1363–1374), Grand Prince of Volhynia (1340–1383), Grand Prince of Galicia and Volhynia (1340–1349).
Liubomyr Roman Vynar, or Lubomyr Wynar (Любомир Роман Винар, 2 January 1932. Lwów, Poland, now Ukraine – 16 April 2017) was a modern Ukrainian-American scientist-historian.
Logistics is generally the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation.
The long jump (historically called the broad jump in the USA) is a track and field event in which athletes combine speed, strength and agility in an attempt to leap as far as possible from a take off point.
Louis I, also Louis the Great (Nagy Lajos; Ludovik Veliki; Ľudovít Veľký) or Louis the Hungarian (Ludwik Węgierski; 5 March 132610 September 1382), was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1342 and King of Poland from 1370.
Lublin (Lublinum) is the ninth largest city in Poland and the second largest city of Lesser Poland.
Lubomyr Husar MSU (Любомир Гузар, Liubomyr Huzar; 26 February 1933 – 31 May 2017) was the major archbishop (first elected in independent Ukraine) of the Ukrainian Catholic Church, a minority church in Ukraine but the largest sui juris Eastern church in full communion with the Holy See.
Luck is the experience of notably positive, negative, or improbable events.
Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (29 September 1881 – 10 October 1973) was an Austrian-American theoretical Austrian School economist.
Ludwik Fleck (11 July 1896 – 5 June 1961) was a Polish and Israeli physician and biologist who did important work in epidemic typhus in Lwów, Poland, with Rudolf WeiglT.
Lunokhod (Луноход, "Moonwalker") was a series of Soviet robotic lunar rovers designed to land on the Moon between 1969 and 1977.
The Lviv University of Trade and Economics is a university in Lviv, Ukraine.
Lviv Airlines (Львівські авіалінії) was an airline headquartered on the grounds of Lviv International Airport in Lviv, Ukraine.
Lviv 2022 was a bid by the city of Lviv and the National Olympic Committee of Ukraine for the 2022 Winter Olympics.
The Lviv Automobile Factory (Львівський автомобільний завод), mostly known under its obsolete name L’vivs’ky Avtobusnyi Zavod (Львівський автобусний завод, literally "Lviv Bus Factory") is a bus manufacturing company in Lviv, Ukraine.
The Lviv Centre of the Space Research Institute of the NASU and NSAU (Львівський центр Інституту космічних досліджень НАН України та НКА України) is a Lviv branch of the actual institute.
Lviv National Musical Academy named after Mykola Lysenko (Львівська національна музична академія імені Миколи Лисенка) or informally Lviv Conservatory is a state conservatory located in Lviv (Ukraine).
Lviv Danylo Halytskyi International Airport (Міжнародний аеропорт "Львів" імені Данила Галицького) is an international airport in Lviv, Ukraine.
The Lviv High Castle or Lviv Castle Hill (translit; Wysoki Zamek) is a historic castle located on the top of the Castle Hill of the city of Lviv.
Lviv National Agrarian University (Львівський національний аграрний університет, ЛНАУ) is a Ukrainian university.
Lviv National Art Gallery (previously - Lwów Art Gallery, Polish: Lwowska Galeria Sztuki), a leading art museum in Ukraine, has over 60,000 artworks in its collection, including works of Polish, Italian, French, German, Dutch and Flemish, Spanish, Austrian and other European artists.
The Lviv National Museum is one of Ukraine's largest museums, dedicated to Ukrainian culture in all its manifestations.
Lviv Oblast (Львівська область, translit. L’vivs’ka oblast’; also referred to as L’vivshchyna, Львівщина) is an oblast (province) in western Ukraine.
The Lviv pogroms were the consecutive massacres of Jews living in the city of Lwów (now Lviv, Ukraine), perpetrated by the German commandos and the Ukrainian nationalists from 30 June to 2 July 1941, and from 25 to 29 July 1941, during the Wehrmacht's attack on the Soviet positions in occupied eastern Poland in World War II.
Lviv Polytechnic National University (Національний університет "Львівська політехніка") is the largest scientific university in Lviv.
Lviv-Holovnyi railway station (Льві́в-Головни́й) is the main railway terminal in Lviv, Ukraine.
The Solomiya Krushelnytska Lviv State Academic Theatre of Opera and Ballet (Львівський Національний академічний театр опери та балету імені Соломії Крушельницької) or Lviv Opera (Львівська оперa, Opera Lwowska) is an opera house located in Lviv, Ukraine's largest western city and one of its historic cultural centers.
The Lvov–Sandomierz Offensive or Lvov-Sandomierz Strategic Offensive Operation (Львовско-Сандомирская стратегическая наступательная операция) was a major Red Army operation to force the German troops from Ukraine and Eastern Poland.
Lwów Eaglets (Orlęta Lwowskie) is a term of affection applied to the Polish teenagers who defended the city of Lwów (L'viv) in Eastern Galicia, during the Polish-Ukrainian War (1918–1919).
The Lwów Ghetto (Ghetto Lemberg; getto we Lwowie) was a World War II Jewish ghetto established and operated by Nazi Germany in the city of Lwów (since 1945 Lviv, Ukraine) in the territory of Nazi-administered General Government in German-occupied Poland.
The Lwów Oath (Śluby lwowskie) was an oath made on April 1, 1656 by Polish king John II Casimir in Latin cathedral in the city of Lwów (today Lviv, western Ukraine).
The Lwów pogrom (pogrom lwowski, Lemberg pogrom) was a pogrom of the Jewish population of the city of Lwów (since 1945, Lviv, Ukraine) that took place on November 21–23, 1918 during the Polish–Ukrainian War, in the aftermath of World War I. The Ukrainian National Council proclaimed the formation of the Ukrainian Republic on November 1, 1918 with Lviv as its capital.
The Lwów school of mathematics (lwowska szkoła matematyczna) was a group of Polish mathematicians who worked between the two World Wars in Lwów, Poland (since 1945 Lviv, Ukraine).
Lwów Scientific Society (Towarzystwo Naukowe we Lwowie) was a Polish learned society founded in 1901 in Lwów by Oswald Balzer as the Association of Support of Polish Sciences.
The Lwów dialect (gwara lwowska, Львівська ґвара) is a subdialect (gwara) of the Polish language characteristic of the inhabitants of the city of Lviv (Lwów, Львів), now in Ukraine.
The Lwów uprising (powstanie lwowskie, akcja Burza) was an armed insurrection by the Home Army (Armia Krajowa) underground forces of the Polish resistance movement in World War II against the Nazi German occupation of the city of Lwów (now Lviv, Ukraine) in the latter stages of World War II.
Lwów Voivodeship (Województwo lwowskie) was an administrative unit of interwar Poland (1918–1939).
The Lwów–Warsaw school (Szkoła lwowsko-warszawska) was a Polish school of thought founded by Kazimierz Twardowski in 1895 in Lwów.
Lychakiv Cemetery (translit; Cmentarz Łyczakowski we Lwowie), officially State History and Culture Museum-Preserve "Lychakiv Cemetery" (Державний історико-культурний музей-заповідник «Лича́ківський цви́нтар»), is a famous and historic cemetery in Lviv, Ukraine.
Lychakivskyi District (Личаківський район) is an urban district of the city of Lviv, named after the historical district of Lychakiv.
A lyricist or lyrist is a person who writes lyrics—words for songs—as opposed to a composer, who writes the song's melody.
The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive is a website maintained by John J. O'Connor and Edmund F. Robertson and hosted by the University of St Andrews in Scotland.
Magdeburg rights (Magdeburger Recht; also called Magdeburg Law) were a set of town privileges first developed by Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor (936–973) and based on the Flemish law, which regulated the degree of internal autonomy within cities and villages, granted by the local ruler.
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.
Maria Konopnicka, née Wasiłowska (23 May 1842 – 8 October 1910) was a Polish poet, novelist, children's writer, translator, journalist, critic, and activist for women's rights and for Polish independence.
Maria Zankovetska Theatre (Національний академічний український драматичний театр імені Марії Заньковецької, Natsionalnyi akademichnyi ukrayinskyi dramatychnyi teatr imeni Mariyi Zankovetskoyi; Teatr Skarbkowski) is a drama theatre in the centre of Lviv, Ukraine, at the intersection of Lesya Ukrayinka Street and Prospekt Svobody.
Marian Jaworski (Мар'ян Яворський, born 21 August 1926) is a Cardinal Priest and the former Archbishop of Lviv of the Latins in the Roman Catholic Church.
Mariana Sadovska (born 1972, Lviv, Ukraine) is a German-based Ukrainian actress, singer, musician, recording artist, and composer.
Mariya Olehivna Muzychuk (Марія Олегівна Музичук; born 21 September 1992) is a Ukrainian chess grandmaster and Women's World Chess Champion from April 2015 to March 2016.
Mark Kac (Polish: Marek Kac; August 3, 1914 – October 26, 1984) was a Polish American mathematician.
Rynok Square (Площа Ринок, Rynek we Lwowie) is a central square of the city of Lviv, Ukraine.
Markiyan Shashkevych (November 6, 1811 in Pidlyssia, Złoczów powiat, Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria – June 7, 1843 in Nowosiółki, Lesko powiat, Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria) was a priest of the Ukrainian Greek-Catholic Church, a poet, a translator, and the leader of the literary revival in Right Bank Ukraine.
Martin Buber (מרטין בובר; Martin Buber; מארטין בובער; February 8, 1878 – June 13, 1965) was an Austrian-born Israeli Jewish philosopher best known for his philosophy of dialogue, a form of existentialism centered on the distinction between the I–Thou relationship and the I–It relationship.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
In July 1941, 25 Polish academics from the city of Lwów (modern-day Lviv, Ukraine) were killed by Nazi German occupation forces along with their families.
A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.
Maurice Goldhaber (April 18, 1911 – May 11, 2011) was an Austrian-born American physicist, who in 1957 (with Lee Grodzins and Andrew Sunyar) established that neutrinos have negative helicity.
Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.
Michał Piotr BoymHis first name is also often rendered as Michele, Michel, Miguel, Michael Peter (Transliterated also (using Wade-Giles) as Pu Che-yuen Mi-ko c. 1612–1659) was a Polish Jesuit missionary to China, scientist and explorer.
General Michał Tadeusz Karaszewicz-Tokarzewski, Coat of arms of Trąby pseudonym Doktor, Stolarski, TorwidJozef Garlinski Poland in the Second World War, Page 40 (b. 5 January 1893 in Lwów - 22 May 1964 in Casablanca, Morocco) was a Polish general, founder of the resistance movement "Polish Victory Service".
Michał Franciszek Mieczysław Matyas (28 September 1910, in Brzozów – 22 October 1975, in Kraków) was a Polish football player, who represented such teams as Pogoń Lwów and Polonia Bytom, as well as Poland.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a social hierarchy.
Mieczysław Horszowski (June 23, 1892May 22, 1993) was a Polish-American pianist who had one of the longest careers in the history of the performing arts.
Moriz Rosenthal (17 December 18623 September 1946) was a Polish pianist and composer.
Morris Langlo West AO (26 April 19169 October 1999) was an Australian novelist and playwright, best known for his novels The Devil's Advocate (1959), The Shoes of the Fisherman (1963) and The Clowns of God (1981).
Muhammad Asad (محمد أسد /muħammad ʔasad/, محمد أسد, born Leopold Weiss; 12 July 1900 – 20 February 1992) was a Jewish-born Austro-Hungarian Muslim journalist, traveler, writer, linguist, thinker, political theorist, diplomat and Islamic scholar.
Musical composition can refer to an original piece of music, either a song or an instrumental music piece, the structure of a musical piece, or the process of creating or writing a new song or piece of music.
Mykhailo Serhiyovych Hrushevsky (Михайло Сергійович Грушевський, Mychajło Hruszewski | Chełm, – Kislovodsk, 24 November 1934) was a Ukrainian and Soviet academician, politician, historian, and statesman, one of the most important figures of the Ukrainian national revival of the early 20th century.
Mykola Filaretovich Kolessa (6 December 1903 – 8 June 2006) was a prominent Ukrainian composer and conductor, born in Sambir near Lviv.
Myrhorod (Ми́ргород) is a city in the Poltava Oblast (province) of central Ukraine.
Myroslav Skoryk (Мирослав Михайлович Скорик, born 13 July 1938 in Lviv, then a part of Poland) is a Ukrainian composer and teacher.
A narrow-gauge railway (narrow-gauge railroad in the US) is a railway with a track gauge narrower than the standard.
The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NASU; Національна академія наук України, Natsional’na akademiya nauk Ukrayiny, abbr: NAN Ukraine) is a self-governing state-funded organization in Ukraine that coordinates a system of research institutes in the country.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
A national university is generally a university created or managed by a government, but which may at the same time operate autonomously without direct control by the state.
The term neo-romanticism is used to cover a variety of movements in philosophy, literature, music, painting, and architecture, as well as social movements, that exist after and incorporate elements from the era of Romanticism.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The New Objectivity (in Neue Sachlichkeit) was a movement in German art that arose during the 1920s as a reaction against expressionism.
nextbike is a German company that develops and operates public bike-sharing systems.
Nikifor (21 May 1895, Krynica, Austria-Hungary – 10 October 1968, Folusz, Poland), also known as Nikifor Krynicki, born as Epifaniy Drovnyak (Epifaniusz Drowniak)1, was a Rusyn (Lemko) naïve painter.
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union.
Novi Sad (Нови Сад,; Újvidék; Nový Sad; see below for other names) is the second largest city of Serbia, the capital of the autonomous province of Vojvodina and the administrative center of the South Bačka District.
Nuclear weapon designs are physical, chemical, and engineering arrangements that cause the physics package of a nuclear weapon to detonate.
An oblast is a type of administrative division of Belarus, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Ukraine, and the former Soviet Union and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
Okean Elzy (Океан Ельзи, translation: Elza's Ocean) is one of the most successful and popular Ukrainian rock bands.
The Old Cathedral of St. Sophia (Собор Святої Софії., Sancta Sophia, Capitulo et Canonicis Cathedralis Ecclesiae Kioviencis) also called Catholic Cathedral of St. Sophia is the name given to a Catholic cathedral that was in the city of Kiev, the capital of the European country of Ukraine. It was transformed into an Orthodox church and later demolished during the Soviet era. The current main Catholic cathedral is now dedicated to St. Nicholas. It is the oldest and historical Latin cathedral in Kiev, the seat of the Bishop of the Catholic Church in the Diocese of Kiev, which belonged from 1412 to the metropolis of Lviv. It began as a wooden chapel burned down in the year 1017. A brick church was built only between 1614 and 1633. It was rebuilt in 1724. In 1920 the church was closed to worship. Since 1930 this building was used as a warehouse for the Central Archives of Ukraine.
Lviv's Old Town (translit; Stare Miasto we Lwowie) is the historic centre of the city of Lviv, within the Lviv Oblast (province) in Ukraine, recognized as the State Historic-Architectural Sanctuary in 1975.
Oleg Mikhailovich Romanishin (Олег Михайлович Романишин; born 10 January 1952) is a Ukrainian chess grandmaster and former European junior champion.
Oleh Krysa (Олег Криса; born June 1, 1942) is a Ukrainian American violinist, Merited Artist of Ukraine.
Oleh Romanovych Luzhny (Олег Романович Лужний, born 5 August 1968) is a retired Ukrainian footballer who played as a right-back.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
The Orange Revolution (Помаранчева революція, Pomarancheva revolyutsiya) was a series of protests and political events that took place in Ukraine from late November 2004 to January 2005, in the immediate aftermath of the run-off vote of the 2004 Ukrainian presidential election, which was claimed to be marred by massive corruption, voter intimidation and direct electoral fraud.
Orest Subtelny (О́рест Субте́льний, 7 May 1941 – 24 July 2016) was a Polish-Canadian historian.
Orthodox Judaism is a collective term for the traditionalist branches of Judaism, which seek to maximally maintain the received Jewish beliefs and observances and which coalesced in opposition to the various challenges of modernity and secularization.
Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.
The Ossolineum or the National Ossoliński Institute (Zakład Narodowy im., ZNiO) is a non-profit foundation located in Wrocław, Poland since 1947, and subsidized from the state budget.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Panteleimon Oleksandrovych Kulish (also spelled Panteleymon or Pantelejmon Kuliš, Пантелеймон Куліш, August 7, 1819 – February 14, 1897) was a Ukrainian writer, critic, poet, folklorist, and translator.
Parma is a city in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States, located on the southern edge of Cleveland.
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.
Paul Blobel (13 August 1894 – 7 June 1951) was a German SS commander and convicted war criminal.
Paul Muni (born Frederich Meshilem Meier Weisenfreund; September 22, 1895 – August 25, 1967) was an American stage and film actor who grew up in Chicago.
Paulina Lavitz (March 29, 1879 — September 20, 1959), also seen as Pepi Lavitz, was a Polish-born actress in American Yiddish theatre.
Pál Kelemen (24 April 1894 – 15 February 1993) was a Hungarian-American archaeologist, art historian, and international art lecturer who contributed to the research of Pre-Columbian art.
The People's Commissariat for State Security (Народный комиссариат государственной безопасности) or NKGB, was the name of the Soviet secret police, intelligence and counter-intelligence force that existed from February 3, 1941 to July 20, 1941, and again in 1943, before being renamed the Ministry for State Security (MGB).
Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.
The Piast dynasty was the first historical ruling dynasty of Poland.
Pikkardiyska Tertsiya (Піккардійська терція, Вокальна формація Піккардійська терція, literally Picardy third) is a Ukrainian a cappella vocal group.
Pinchas Sadeh, also Pinhas Sadeh, (פנחס שדה, born in Lemberg, Poland 1929, died January 30, 1994, in Jerusalem, Israel) was a Polish-born Israeli novelist and poet.
LKS Pogoń Lwów is a former Polish professional sports club which was located in Lwów (now Lviv in Ukraine), and existed from 1904 until the outbreak of World War II in 1939.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
The Polish Air Force (Siły Powietrzne, literally "Air Forces") is the aerial warfare military branch of the Polish Armed Forces.
Polish Copernicus Society of Naturalists (Polskie Towarzystwo Przyrodników im.) is a Polish scientific society for natural sciences researchers.
The Polish Football Association (Polski Związek Piłki Nożnej; PZPN) is the governing body of football in Poland.
The Polish Golden Age refers to the period from the late 15th century Jagiellon Poland to the death of the last of the Jagiellons, Sigismund August in 1572.
The Polish government-in-exile, formally known as the Government of the Republic of Poland in exile (Rząd Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej na uchodźstwie), was the government in exile of Poland formed in the aftermath of the Invasion of Poland of September 1939, and the subsequent occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, which brought to an end the Second Polish Republic.
Polish Historical Society (Polskie Towarzystwo Historyczne, PTH) is a Polish scientific society for historians.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Polish literature is the literary tradition of Poland.
The Polish population transfers in 1944–46 from the eastern half of prewar Poland (also known as the expulsions of Poles from the Kresy macroregion), refer to the forced migrations of Poles toward the end – and in the aftermath – of World War II.
Polish Radio Lwów (Polskie Radio Lwów) was a station of the Polish Radio, located in the city of Lwów (now Lviv, Ukraine), which in the interbellum period belonged to the Second Polish Republic.
Polskie Koleje Państwowe SA (PKP SA, Polish State Railways, Inc.) is the dominant railway operator in Poland.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
The Polish–Soviet War (February 1919 – March 1921) was fought by the Second Polish Republic, Ukrainian People's Republic and the proto-Soviet Union (Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine) for control of an area equivalent to today's western Ukraine and parts of modern Belarus.
The Polish–Ukrainian War of 1918 and 1919 was a conflict between the Second Polish Republic and Ukrainian forces (both West Ukrainian People's Republic and Ukrainian People's Republic).
Polskie Radio Spółka Akcyjna (PR S.A.; English: Polish Radio) is Poland's state-owned national publicly funded radio broadcasting organization.
The Poltva River (Pełtew) is a river in the western Ukrainian Oblast of Lviv and a tributary of the Bug River.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Alexander VII (13 February 159922 May 1667), born Fabio Chigi, was Pope from 7 April 1655 to his death in 1667.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
The population exchange between Poland and the Soviet Ukraine at the end of World War II was based on a treaty signed on 9 September 1944 by the Ukrainian SSR with the newly formed Polish Committee of National Liberation (PKWN).
The Potocki Palace in Lviv (палац Потоцьких, palats Pototskykh; pałac Potockich) was built in the 1880s as an urban seat of Alfred Józef Potocki, former Minister-President of Austria.
Poverty in Galicia was extreme, particularly in the late 19th century.
Primo Michele Levi (31 July 1919 – 11 April 1987) was an Italian Jewish chemist, writer, and Holocaust survivor.
Principality of Halych (Галицьке князівство, Галицкоє кънѧжьство, Cnezatul Halici) was a Kievan Rus' principality established by members of the oldest line of Yaroslav the Wise descendants.
Prosvita (просвіта, 'enlightenment') is a society created in the nineteenth century in Ukrainian Galicia for preserving and developing Ukrainian culture and education among population.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The Provisional Government of National Unity (Polish: Tymczasowy Rząd Jedności Narodowej or TRJN) was a government formed by a decree of the State National Council (Krajowa Rada Narodowa) on 28 June 1945.
Przemyśl (Premissel, Peremyshl, Перемишль less often Перемишель) is a city in south-eastern Poland with 66,756 inhabitants, as of June 2009.
Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information—the activity of making information available to the general public.
Rachel (Rokhl) Häring Korn (15 January 1898 – 9 September 1982) was a Yiddish poet and author.
A railbus is a lightweight passenger rail vehicle that shares many aspects of its construction with a bus, typically having a bus (original or modified) body and four wheels on a fixed base, instead of on bogies.
A raion (also rayon) is a type of administrative unit of several post-Soviet states (such as part of an oblast).
Ratification is a principal's approval of an act of its agent that lacked the authority to bind the principal legally.
Recovered Territories (Ziemie Odzyskane, literally "Regained Lands") was an official term used by the People's Republic of Poland to describe the territory of the former Free City of Danzig and the parts of pre-war Germany that became part of Poland after World War II.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
A red star, five-pointed and filled (★), is an important symbol often associated with communist ideology, particularly in combination with hammer and sickle.
During World War II, Reichskommissariat Ukraine (abbreviated as RKU), was the civilian occupation regime (Reichskommissariat) of much of Nazi German-occupied Ukraine (which included adjacent areas of modern-day Belarus and pre-war Second Polish Republic).
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Renaissance architecture is the European architecture of the period between the early 14th and early 17th centuries in different regions, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture.
A research institute or research center is an establishment founded for doing research.
The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848.
The Polish Riflemen's Association known as Związek Strzelecki (or more commonly, in the plural form as Związki Strzeleckie) formed in great numbers prior to World War I. One of the better known associations called "Strzelec" (Riflemen's Association "Rifleman") was a Polish paramilitary cultural and educational organization created in 1910 in Lwów as a legal front of Związek Walki Czynnej, and somewhat reinstated in present-day Poland in 1991, after the fall of communism.
Rishon LeZion (רִאשׁוֹן לְצִיּוֹן, lit. First to Zion) is the fourth largest city in Israel, located along the central Israeli coastal plain south of Tel Aviv.
Rochdale is a town in Greater Manchester, England, at the foothills of the South Pennines on the River Roch, northwest of Oldham and northeast of Manchester.
Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll or rock 'n' roll) is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950sJim Dawson and Steve Propes, What Was the First Rock'n'Roll Record (1992),.
Roman Bezpalkiv (Рома́н Безпа́лків) – (April 15, 1938, village Hlushyn, Lviv region (Lviv Oblast) – November 19, 2009, Lviv) – was a Ukrainian painter.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lviv (of the Latins) (Archidioecesis Leopolitana Latinorum) is a Metropolitan archdiocese of the Latin Church of the Catholic Church in western Ukraine.
Roztocze (Розточчя, Roztochia) is a range of hills in east-central Poland and western Ukraine which rises from the Lublin Upland and extends southeastward through Solska Wilderness and across the border into Ukrainian Podolia.
Rudne is an Urban-type settlement in Lviv Municipality in Lviv Oblast.
Rudolf Stefan Weigl (2 September 1883 – 11 August 1957) was a Polish biologist and inventor of the first effective vaccine against epidemic typhus.
Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
Ruslana Stepanivna Lyzhychko (Руслана Степанівна Лижичко, Ruslana Lyžyčko; born 24 May 1973), known mononymously as Ruslana, is a World Music Award and Eurovision Song Contest winning artist, holding the title of People's Artist of Ukraine.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
The Ruthenian Voivodeship (Palatinatus russiae, województwo ruskie, Руське воєводство) was a voivodeship of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland from 1434 until the 1772 First Partition of Poland.
Ryszard Tadeusz Koncewicz (born April 12 in Lwów, died March 15, 2001 in Warsaw) was a Polish soccer player as well as a coach.
Rzeszów (Ряшiв, Ŕašiv; Resche (antiquated); Resovia; ריישע, rayshe) is the largest city in southeastern Poland, with a population of 189,637 (01.03.2018).
Saint George (Γεώργιος, Geṓrgios; Georgius;; to 23 April 303), according to legend, was a Roman soldier of Greek origin and a member of the Praetorian Guard for Roman emperor Diocletian, who was sentenced to death for refusing to recant his Christian faith.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Solomon (or Salomon) Buber (2 February 1827 – 28 December 1906) was a Jewish Galician scholar and editor of Hebrew works.
Samarkand (Uzbek language Uzbek alphabet: Samarqand; سمرقند; Самарканд; Σαμαρκάνδη), alternatively Samarqand, is a city in modern-day Uzbekistan and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Central Asia.
A school of thought (or intellectual tradition) is a collection or group of people who share common characteristics of opinion or outlook of a philosophy, discipline, belief, social movement, economics, cultural movement, or art movement.
The Scottish Café (Kawiarnia Szkocka) was the café in Lwów, Poland (now Lviv, Ukraine) where, in the 1930s and 1940s, mathematicians from the Lwów School collaboratively discussed research problems, particularly in functional analysis and topology.
Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
The Sejm of the Republic of Poland (Sejm Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is the lower house of the Polish parliament.
Semper fidelis is a Latin phrase that means "always faithful" or "always loyal".
Sharhorod, also known as Shargorod, is a town in Vinnytsia Oblast, Ukraine.
Shevchenkivskyi District (Шевченківський район) is an urban district of the city of Lviv, named after Ukrainian poet and artist Taras Shevchenko.
The Shevchenko Scientific Society is a Ukrainian scientific society devoted to the promotion of scholarly research and publication that was founded in 1873.
Solomon Naumovich Rabinovich, better known under his pen name Sholem Aleichem (Yiddish and שלום־עליכם, also spelled in Yiddish; Russian and Шо́лом-Але́йхем) (– May 13, 1916), was a leading Yiddish author and playwright.
A short story is a piece of prose fiction that typically can be read in one sitting and focuses on a self-contained incident or series of linked incidents, with the intent of evoking a "single effect" or mood, however there are many exceptions to this.
The Sikorski–Mayski Agreement was a treaty between the Soviet Union and Poland, signed in London on 30 July 1941.
Simon Wiesenthal (31 December 190820 September 2005) was a Jewish Austrian Holocaust survivor, Nazi hunter, and writer.
Siret (Sereth; Seret; Szeretvásár, סערעט Seret) is a town, municipality and former Latin bishopric in Suceava County, north-eastern Romania.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
Ski jumping is a winter sport in which competitors aim to achieve the longest jump after descending from a specially designed ramp on their skis.
Slavske (Славське, Sławsko) this is an urban-type settlement in Skole Raion, Lviv oblast, Ukraine.
SMERSH (СМЕРШ) was an umbrella organisation for three independent counter-intelligence agencies in the Red Army formed in late 1942 or even earlier, but officially announced only on 14 April 1943.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
In sociolinguistics, a sociolect or social dialect is a variety of language (a register) used by a socioeconomic class, a profession, an age group or other social group.
Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.
Solomiya Amvrosiivka KrushelnytskaHer name is sometimes spelt as Solomiya Ambrosiyivna Krushelnytska, Salomea Krusceniski, Krushel'nytska or Kruszelnicka.
Soviet dissidents were people who disagreed with certain features in the embodiment of Soviet ideology and who were willing to speak out against them.
The Soviet invasion of Poland was a Soviet Union military operation that started without a formal declaration of war on 17 September 1939.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Stanisław Głąbiński (25 February 1862 – 14 August 1941) was a Polish politician, academic, lawyer and writer.
Stanisław Grabski (April 5, 1871 in Borów, Łowicz County – May 6, 1949 in Sulejówek) was a Polish economist and politician, member of the Sejm, associated with the National Democracy political camp.
Stanisław Herman Lem (12 or 13 September 1921 – 27 March 2006) was a Polish writer of science fiction, philosophy, and satire, and a trained physician.
Stanisław Marcin Ulam (13 April 1909 – 13 May 1984) was a Polish-American scientist in the fields of mathematics and nuclear physics.
Stanyslav Pylypovych Lyudkevych (Станіслав Пилипович Людкевич, born January 24, 1879 in Jarosław - September 10, 1979 in Lviv) was a Ukrainian composer, theorist, teacher, and musical activist.
The staple right, also translated stacking right or storage right, both from the Dutch stapelrecht, was a medieval right accorded to certain ports, the staple ports.
Stefan Banach (30 March 1892 – 31 August 1945) was a Polish mathematician who is generally considered one of the world's most important and influential 20th-century mathematicians.
Stefan Bastyr (17 August 1890 – 6 August 1920) was a Polish aviator and military pilot, one of the pioneers of the Polish aviation.
Stefan Drzewiecki (Джеве́цкий Степа́н Ка́рлович (Казими́рович); July 26, 1844 in Kunka, Podolia, Russian Empire (today Ukraine, April 23, 1938 in Paris) was a Polish and Russian scientist, journalist, engineer, constructor and inventor, working in France and the Russian Empire. He built the first submarine in the world with electric battery-powered propulsion (1884).
Stepan Andriyovych Bandera (Степан Андрійович Бандера, Stepan Andrijowycz Bandera; 1 January 1909 – 15 October 1959) was a Ukrainian political activist and a leader of the nationalist and independence movement of Ukraine.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
Sunshine duration or sunshine hours is a climatological indicator, measuring duration of sunshine in given period (usually, a day or a year) for a given location on Earth, typically expressed as an averaged value over several years.
Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings.
Slava Vakarchuk (Святосла́в Іва́нович Вакарчу́к, born May 14, 1975) is the lead vocalist of Okean Elzy, the most successful post-Soviet rock band in Ukraine.
The swastika (as a character 卐 or 卍) is a geometrical figure and an ancient religious icon from the cultures of Eurasia, where it has been and remains a symbol of divinity and spirituality in Indian religions, Chinese religions, Mongolian and Siberian shamanisms.
The Swedish Empire (Stormaktstiden, "Great Power Era") was a European great power that exercised territorial control over much of the Baltic region during the 17th and early 18th centuries.
Sykhiv District (Сихівський район) is urban district of Lviv, named after the historical district of Sykhiv.
Symon Vasylyovych Petliura (Си́мон Васи́льович Петлю́ра; May 10, 1879 – May 25, 1926) was a Ukrainian politician and journalist.
A synagogue, also spelled synagog (pronounced; from Greek συναγωγή,, 'assembly', בית כנסת, 'house of assembly' or, "house of prayer", Yiddish: שול shul, Ladino: אסנוגה or קהל), is a Jewish house of prayer.
Szczecin (German and Swedish Stettin), known also by other alternative names) is the capital and largest city of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. Located near the Baltic Sea and the German border, it is a major seaport and Poland's seventh-largest city. As of June 2011, the population was 407,811. Szczecin is located on the Oder, south of the Szczecin Lagoon and the Bay of Pomerania. The city is situated along the southwestern shore of Dąbie Lake, on both sides of the Oder and on several large islands between the western and eastern branches of the river. Szczecin is adjacent to the town of Police and is the urban centre of the Szczecin agglomeration, an extended metropolitan area that includes communities in the German states of Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The city's recorded history began in the 8th century as a Slavic Pomeranian stronghold, built at the site of the Ducal castle. In the 12th century, when Szczecin had become one of Pomerania's main urban centres, it lost its independence to Piast Poland, the Duchy of Saxony, the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark. At the same time, the House of Griffins established themselves as local rulers and the population was Christianized. After the Treaty of Stettin in 1630, the town came under the control of the Swedish Empire and became in 1648 the Capital of Swedish Pomerania until 1720, when it was acquired by the Kingdom of Prussia and then the German Empire. Following World War II Stettin became part of Poland, resulting in expulsion of the German population. Szczecin is the administrative and industrial centre of West Pomeranian Voivodeship and is the site of the University of Szczecin, Pomeranian Medical University, Maritime University, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin Art Academy, and the see of the Szczecin-Kamień Catholic Archdiocese. From 1999 onwards, Szczecin has served as the site of the headquarters of NATO's Multinational Corps Northeast. Szczecin was a candidate for the European Capital of Culture in 2016.
General Tadeusz Komorowski (1 June 1895 – 24 August 1966), better known by the name Bór-Komorowski (after one of his wartime code-names: Bór – "The Forest") was a Polish military leader.
Tadeusz Brzeziński (February 21, 1896 – January 7, 1990) was a Polish consular official and the father of US President Jimmy Carter's national security adviser, Zbigniew Brzezinski.
Tadeusz Zygfryd Kassern (Lviv (Ukraine), 19 March 1904 – New York City (United States), 2 May 1957) was a Polish composer of Jewish origin.
Tadeusz Rychter (c. 1873 in Lviv – 1943 in Warsaw) was a Polish early twentieth-century artist best remembered for his watercolors of the Holy Land.
Taras Hryhorovych Shevchenko (–) was a Ukrainian poet, writer, artist, public and political figure, as well as folklorist and ethnographer.
The Eastern Trade Fair or Targi Wschodnie in Polish was a major trade fair in interbellum Poland.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
The territorial changes of Poland immediately after World War II were very extensive, the Oder-Neisse Line became Poland's western border and the Curzon Line its eastern border.
17 days after the German invasion of Poland in 1939, which marked the beginning of World War II, the Soviet Union invaded the eastern regions of the Second Polish Republic, which Poland re-established during the Polish–Soviet War and referred to as the "Kresy", and annexed territories totaling with a population of 13,299,000 inhabitants including Lithuanians,Russians, Belarusians, Ukrainians, Poles, Jews, Czechs and others.
The Girl in the Green Sweater, written by coauthors Krystyna Chiger and Daniel Paisner, was published by St. Martin’s Press in 2008.
The Good Soldier Švejk (also spelled Schweik, Shveyk or Schwejk) is the abbreviated title of an unfinished satirical dark comedy novel by Jaroslav Hašek.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Lemberg Mosaic, subtitled the "Memoirs of Two who Survived the Destruction of Jewish Galicia," is a book on the Holocaust by Jakob Weiss.
Lviv National Academy of Arts is a higher education establishment in Ukraine.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Peasants (Chłopi) is a novel written by Nobel Prize-winning Polish author Władysław Reymont in four parts between 1904 and 1909.
The Shoes of the Fisherman is a 1968 American drama film based on the 1963 novel of the same name by the Australian novelist Morris West.
The Truce (La Tregua) is a 1997 film directed by Francesco Rosi, written by Tonino Guerra, based on Primo Levi's memoir, The Truce.
The Vagabonds (Polish: Włóczęgi) is a 1939 Polish comedy film directed by Michal Waszynski and starring Kazimierz Wajda, Henryk Vogelfänger (popular Polish Radio duet Szczepko & Tońko) and Stanislawa Wysocka.
A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.
Track and field is a sport which includes athletic contests established on the skills of running, jumping, and throwing.
A trade fair (trade show, trade exhibition, or expo) is an exhibition organized so that companies in a specific industry can showcase and demonstrate their latest products and services, meet with industry partners and customers, study activities of rivals, and examine recent market trends and opportunities.
A tram (also tramcar; and in North America streetcar, trolley or trolley car) is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets, and also sometimes on a segregated right of way.
The Treaty of Warsaw (also the Polish-Ukrainian or Petliura-Piłsudski Alliance or Agreement) of April 1920 was a military-economical alliance between the Second Polish Republic, represented by Józef Piłsudski, and the Ukrainian People's Republic, represented by Symon Petliura, against Bolshevik Russia.
A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram Joyce, J.; King, J. S.; and Newman, A. G. (1986). British Trolleybus Systems, pp. 9, 12. London: Ian Allan Publishing.. or trolleyDunbar, Charles S. (1967). Buses, Trolleys & Trams. Paul Hamlyn Ltd. (UK). Republished 2004 with or 9780753709702.) is an electric bus that draws power from overhead wires (generally suspended from roadside posts) using spring-loaded trolley poles.
The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство, Russkoye tsarstvo or Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.
Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.
Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.
The 2012 UEFA European Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2012 or simply Euro 2012, was the 14th European Championship for men's national football teams organised by UEFA.
Ukraina Stadium (стадіон Україна) is a multi-purpose stadium in Lviv, Ukraine.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church (UAOC; Ukrayinska avtokefalna pravoslavna tserkva (UAPC)) is one of the three major Orthodox Churches in Ukraine.
Ukrainian Baroque or Cossack Baroque or Mazepa baroque is an architectural style that emerged in Ukraine during the Hetmanate era, in the 17th and 18th centuries.
The Archeparchy of Lviv is a metropolitan archeparchy of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church.
The Ukrainian Catholic University (Український Католицький Університет, Ukrains'kyy Katolyts'kyy Universytet) is a Catholic university in Lviv, Ukraine, affiliated with the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church.
The Ukrainian Cooperative Movement was a movement based primarily in Western Ukraine that addressed the economic plight of the western Ukrainian people through the creation of financial, agricultural and trade cooperatives that enabled western Ukrainians (primarily peasants) to pool their resources, to obtain less expensive loans and insurance, and to pay less for products such as farm equipment.
Ukrainian culture and customs of Ukraine and ethnic Ukrainians.
Ukrainian Galician Army (translit, UHA), was the Ukrainian military of the West Ukrainian National Republic during and after the Polish-Ukrainian War.
The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (UGCC) (Ecclesia Graeco-Catholica Ucrainae) is a Byzantine Rite Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Holy See.
The hryvnia, sometimes hryvnya (гривня,, abbr.: грн (hrn in the Latin alphabet)); sign: ₴, code: UAH), has been the national currency of Ukraine since 2 September 1996. The hryvnia is subdivided into 100 kopiyky. It is named after a measure of weight used in medieval Kievan Rus'.
The Ukrainian Insurgent Army (Українська повстанська армія, УПА, Ukrayins’ka Povstans’ka Armiya, UPA) was a Ukrainian nationalist paramilitary and later partisan army that engaged in a series of guerrilla conflicts during World War II against Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, and both Underground and Communist Poland.
A Latin alphabet for the Ukrainian language (called Latynka) has been proposed or imposed several times in the history in Ukraine, but has never challenged the conventional Cyrillic Ukrainian alphabet.
Ukrainian literature is literature written in the Ukrainian language.
The Ukrainian Orthodox Church (UOC; Ukrayinsʹka Pravoslavna Tserkva, Ukrainskaya Pravoslavnaya Tserkov') is a self-governing church of the Russian Orthodox Church in Ukraine.
Ukrainian Orthodox Church – Kyiv Patriarchate (UOC-KP; Ukrayínsʹka Pravoslávna Tsérkva – Kýyivsʹkyy Patriarkhát (UPT-KP)) is the biggest one of the three major Orthodox churches in Ukraine, alongside the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate), and the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church.
The Ukrainian People's Republic, or Ukrainian National Republic (abbreviated to УНР), was a predecessor of modern Ukraine declared on 10 June 1917 following the Russian Revolution.
The Ukrainian Premier League ("Прем'єр-ліга") or UPL is the highest division of Ukrainian annual football championship.
The Ukrainian presidential election, 2004 was held on October 31, November 21 and December 26, 2004.
Legion of Ukrainian Sich Riflemen (Ukrainische Sitschower Schützen; translit) was a Ukrainian unit within the Austro-Hungarian Army during the First World War.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
Ukrainization (also spelled Ukrainisation or Ukrainianization) is a policy of increasing the usage and facilitating the development of the Ukrainian language and promoting other elements of Ukrainian culture, in various spheres of public life such as education, publishing, government and religion.
A Ukrainophone (україномовний, ukrainomovnyi) is a person who speaks the Ukrainian language either natively or by preference.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
Związek Walki Czynnej (abbreviation: ZWC; Union of Active Struggle; also translated as Union for Active Struggle and Union for Active Resistance) was a Polish secret military organization founded in June 1908 in Lwów by Józef Piłsudski, Marian Kukiel, Kazimierz Sosnkowski and Władysław Sikorski, all members of the Combat Organization of the Polish Socialist Party's Revolutionary Faction.
The Union of Brest, or Union of Brześć, was the 1595-96 decision of the Ruthenian Orthodox Church eparchies (dioceses) in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth to break relations with the Eastern Orthodox Church and to enter into communion with, and place itself under the authority of the Pope of Rome.
Union of Lublin Mound (Копець Люблінської унії; Kopiec Unii Lubelskiej) is an artificial hill, 29 m high, in Lviv, modern day Ukraine created in 1869-1890 to commemorate the 300th anniversary of the Union of Lublin.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.
The University of Lviv (Львівський університет, Uniwersytet Lwowski, Universität Lemberg, briefly known as the Theresianum in the early 19th-century), presently the Ivan Franko National University of Lviv (Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка) is the oldest university foundation in Ukraine, dating from 1661 when the Polish King, John II Casimir, granted it its first royal charter.
The University of Toronto Press is a Canadian scholarly publisher and book distributor founded in 1901.
Vassily Mykhaylovych Ivanchuk, also transliterated as Vasyliy or Vasyl (Василь Михайлович Іванчук; born March 18, 1969), is a Ukrainian chess grandmaster and a former World Rapid Chess Champion.
Vasyl Semenovych Stefanyk (Василь Семенович Стефаник; May 14, 1871 – December 7, 1936) was an influential Ukrainian modernist writer and political activist.
A vehicle registration plate, also known as a number plate (British English) or a license plate (American English), is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes.
Veliky Novgorod (p), also known as Novgorod the Great, or Novgorod Veliky, or just Novgorod, is one of the most important historic cities in Russia, which serves as the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast.
The Venera series space probes were developed by the Soviet Union between 1961 and 1984 to gather data from Venus, Venera being the Russian name for Venus.
Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in non-human animals.
Viacheslav Chornovil (Вячесла́в Макси́мович Чорнові́л) (December 24, 1937 in Yerky, Katerynopil Raion, Kiev Oblast – March 25, 1999, near Boryspil, Kiev Oblast) was a Ukrainian politician.
The Vienna Secession (Wiener Secession; also known as the Union of Austrian Artists, or Vereinigung Bildender Künstler Österreichs) was an art movement formed in 1897 by a group of Austrian artists who had resigned from the Association of Austrian Artists, housed in the Vienna Künstlerhaus.
The Vienna State Opera (German) is an Austrian opera house and opera company based in Vienna, Austria.
Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych (Ві́ктор Фе́дорович Януко́вич,; born 9 July 1950) is a Ukrainian politician who was elected as the fourth President of Ukraine on 7 February 2010.
Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko (Віктор Андрійович Ющенко,; born February 23, 1954) is a Ukrainian politician who was the third President of Ukraine from January 23, 2005 to February 25, 2010.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
The War Order of Virtuti Militari (Latin: "For Military Virtue", Polish: Order Wojenny Virtuti Militari) is Poland's highest military decoration for heroism and courage in the face of the enemy at war.
Vitold Antonovich Manastyrsky (Вітольд Антінович Манастирський, January 11, 1915 – June 23, 1992) was a Ukrainian artist, painter, graphic artist, and teacher.
Vladislaus II of Opole (Władysław Opolczyk, Wladislaus von Oppeln, Oppelni László, Владислав Опольчик) (ca. 1332 – 18 May 1401) was a Duke of Opole from 1356 (as a Bohemian vassal), Count palatine of Hungary during 1367–1372, ruler over Lubliniec since 1368, Duke of Wieluń during 1370–1392, ruler over Bolesławiec from 1370 (only for his life), Governor of Galicia–Volhynia during 1372–1378, ruler over Pszczyna during 1375–1396, Count palatine of Poland in 1378, Duke of Dobrzyń and Kujawy during 1378–1392 (as a Polish vassal), ruler over Głogówek from 1383 and ruler over Krnov during 1385–1392.
Vladislav Bykanov (ולדיסלב ביקנוב, Владислав Биканов) (born 19 November 1989) is an Israeli Olympic short track speed skater.
VoivodeAlso spelled "voievod", "woiwode", "voivod", "voyvode", "vojvoda", or "woiwod" (Old Slavic, literally "war-leader" or "warlord") is an Eastern European title that originally denoted the principal commander of a military force.
Volodymyr Mykhailovych Ivasyuk or Volodymyr Ivasiuk (Володи́мир Миха́йлович Івасю́к) (4 March 1949 – 24–27 April 1979) was a Ukrainian songwriter, composer and poet.
Volodymyr Mykhailovych Kubiyovych, also spelled Kubiiovych or Kubijovyč (Володи́мир Миха́йлович Кубійо́вич; 23 September 1900, Nowy Sącz, Austrian Galicia – 2 November 1985, Paris, France) was a Ukrainian geographer with a specialty in demography, a cartographer, an encyclopedist, politician, and statesman.
Volodymyr-Volynskyi (Володимир-Волинський, Włodzimierz Wołyński, Влади́мир-Волы́нский, לודמיר, Lodomeria) is a small city located in Volyn Oblast, in north-western Ukraine.
Vynnyky (Ви́нники) is a city in Lviv Oblast (region) of Ukraine.
Vysoky Zamok (Ukrainian: Високий Замок) ("High Castle") is a leading Ukrainian newspaper published in Lviv, in the western part of the country.
Wacław Michał Kuchar (16 September 1897 in Łańcut – 13 February 1981 in Warsaw) was a Polish sports champion, olympian, and multiple soccer, track and field and speed skating champion of the country.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
Jogaila (later Władysław II JagiełłoHe is known under a number of names: Jogaila Algirdaitis; Władysław II Jagiełło; Jahajła (Ягайла). See also: Names and titles of Władysław II Jagiełło. (c. 1352/1362 – 1 June 1434) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania (1377–1434) and then the King of Poland (1386–1434), first alongside his wife Jadwiga until 1399, and then sole King of Poland. He ruled in Lithuania from 1377. Born a pagan, in 1386 he converted to Catholicism and was baptized as Władysław in Kraków, married the young Queen Jadwiga, and was crowned King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło. In 1387 he converted Lithuania to Christianity. His own reign in Poland started in 1399, upon the death of Queen Jadwiga, and lasted a further thirty-five years and laid the foundation for the centuries-long Polish–Lithuanian union. He was a member of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland that bears his name and was previously also known as the Gediminid dynasty in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The dynasty ruled both states until 1572,Anna Jagiellon, the last member of royal Jagiellon family, died in 1596. and became one of the most influential dynasties in late medieval and early modern Central and Eastern Europe. During his reign, the Polish-Lithuanian state was the largest state in the Christian world. Jogaila was the last pagan ruler of medieval Lithuania. After he became King of Poland, as a result of the Union of Krewo, the newly formed Polish-Lithuanian union confronted the growing power of the Teutonic Knights. The allied victory at the Battle of Grunwald in 1410, followed by the Peace of Thorn, secured the Polish and Lithuanian borders and marked the emergence of the Polish–Lithuanian alliance as a significant force in Europe. The reign of Władysław II Jagiełło extended Polish frontiers and is often considered the beginning of Poland's Golden Age.
Władysław Orkan (27 November 1875 – 14 May 1930) (actually born as Franciszek Ksawery Smaciarz, changed surname to Smreczyński, but primarily known under his pen name, Orkan) was a Polish writer and poet from the Young Poland period.
Władysław Stanisław Reymont (born Rejment; 7 May 1867 – 5 December 1925) was a Polish novelist and the 1924 laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature.
Władysław Sadłowski (June 25, 1869 in Lviv – May 25, 1920 in Lviv) was a renowned Polish architect and a graduate of the Lwów Technical Academy.
Władysław Eugeniusz Sikorski (20 May 1881 – 4 July 1943) was a Polish military and political leader.
Włodzimierz Michał Chomicki (April 19, 1878 in Lwow – July 12, 1953 in Chocianow) was a scorer of the first officially registered soccer goal in Ukraine and Poland.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
Wesoła Lwowska Fala (Polish for Lwów's Merry Wave) was a weekly radio program of the Polish Radio Lwow, broadcast every Sunday by the Polish Radio.
The West Ukrainian People's Republic (Західноукраїнська Народна Республіка., Zakhidnoukrayins’ka Narodna Respublika, ZUNR) was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia.
Western Ukraine or West Ukraine (Західна Україна) is a geographical and historical relative term used in reference to the western territories of Ukraine.
Whitstable (locally) is a seaside town on the north coast of Kent in south-east England, 5 miles (8km) north of Canterbury and 2 miles (3km) west of Herne Bay.
Wiktor Budzyński (Lithuanian: Viktoras Budzinskis), born March 7, 1888 in the village of Eustachow near Vilkaviškis, died 1976 in Puszczykowo near Poznań, was an ethnic Polish politician, active in the interbellum period in the Republic of Lithuania.
Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of the province of Manitoba in Canada.
Wojciech Bartos(z) Głowacki (1758–1794), known also as Bartosz Głowacki, was a Polish peasant and the most famous member of the kosynierzy (peasant volunteer infantry) during the Kościuszko Uprising in 1794.
Wojciech Bobowski or Ali Ufki (also Albertus Bobovius, Ali Bey, Santurî Ali Ufki; 1610–1675) was a Polish musician and dragoman in the Ottoman Empire.
Wojciech Kilar (17 July 1932 – 29 December 2013) was a Polish classical and film music composer.
Wolfsburg is the fifth largest city in the German state of Lower Saxony.
The World Bank Group (WBG) (Groupe de la Banque mondiale) is a family of five international organizations that make leveraged loans to developing countries.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
Wrocław (Breslau; Vratislav; Vratislavia) is the largest city in western Poland.
The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code named the Argonaut Conference, held from 4 to 11 February 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization.
Yaroslav Stetsko (19 January 1912 – 5 July 1986) was the leader of Stepan Bandera's Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN), from 1968 until his death.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
Young Poland (Młoda Polska) was a modernist period in Polish visual arts, literature and music, covering roughly the years between 1890 and 1918.
Yuri Abramovich Bashmet (Юрий Абрамович Башмет; born 24 January 1953) is a Russian conductor, violinist, and violist.
Zakopane is a town in the extreme south of Poland.
Zaliznýčnyj District (Залізни́чний райо́н) is an urban district of the city of Lviv, named after the Lviv railway station (залізниця, zaliznytsia means railway).
Zamarstyniv (Замарстинів, Zamarstynów) is one of the boroughs of the city of Lviv in western Ukraine.
Zamość (Yiddish: זאמאשטש Zamoshtsh) is a city in southeastern Poland, situated in the southern part of Lublin Voivodeship (since 1999), about from Lublin, from Warsaw and from the border with Ukraine.
The Zaporozhian Cossacks, Zaporozhian Cossack Army, Zaporozhian Host (Військо Запорізьке, Войско Запорожское) or simply Zaporozhians (translit) were Cossacks who lived beyond the rapids of the Dnieper River, the land also known under the historical term Wild Fields in today's Central Ukraine.
Zbigniew Kazimierz "Zbig" Brzezinski (March 28, 1928 – May 26, 2017) was a Polish-American diplomat and political scientist.
Zbigniew Herbert (29 October 1924 – 28 July 1998) was a Polish poet, essayist, drama writer and moralist.
Zbruch River (Збруч, Zbrucz) is a river in Western Ukraine, a left tributary of the Dniester.
Zefiryn (Zefir) Alojzy Ćwikliński Ceferino (February 6, 1871 in Lviv – July 24, 1930 in Zakopane) - Polish painter, known primarily for painting in the Tatra mountains.
Znesinnya Regional Landscape Park (Регіональний ландшафтний парк "Знесіння") is the largest park in Lviv, Ukraine.
Zygmunt Janiszewski (June 12, 1888 – January 3, 1920) was a Polish mathematician.
The 1912 Summer Olympics (Swedish: Olympiska sommarspelen 1912), officially known as the Games of the V Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Stockholm, Sweden, between 5 May and 22 July 1912.
The 2022 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXIV Olympic Winter Games (Les XXIVème Jeux olympiques d'hiver), and commonly known as Beijing 2022, is an international winter multi-sport event that is scheduled to take place from 4 to 20 February 2022, in Beijing and towns in the neighbouring Hebei province, People's Republic of China.
The 2026 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXV Olympic Winter Games, is an international multi-sport event to be organised in a city designated by the International Olympic Committee (IOC).
The 84th Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), honored the best films of 2011 in the United States and took place on February 26, 2012, at the Hollywood and Highland Center Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles beginning at 5:30 p.m. PST / 8:30 p.m. EST.
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