227 relations: Achaemenid Empire, Acrassus, Acts of the Apostles, Aegean Sea, Aeneid, Agron of Lydia, Aidin Vilayet, Akkadian language, Alaşehir, Alcaeus (mythology), Alexander the Great, Alloy, Alyattes of Lydia, Amphion and Zethus, Anat, Anatolia, Anatolian beyliks, Anatolian languages, Anatolic Theme, Anax, Ancient Greek coinage, Ancient regions of Anatolia, Annuario Pontificio, Antalya, Apollo, Apollonias, Apollonos Hieron, Aramaic language, Ardys of Lydia, Argolis, Artemis, Arzawa, Asia (Roman province), Assyria, Asterion (god), Atargatis, Attalea in Lydia, Attalid dynasty, Attis, Atys of Lydia, Aureliopolis in Lydia, Aydın, İzmir Province, İznik, Babylon, Bageis, Bakırçay, Battle of Pteria, Battle of the Eclipse, Battle of Thymbra, ..., Büyük Menderes River, Bellerophon, Bibliotheca (Pseudo-Apollodorus), Blaundus, Book of Jeremiah, Book of Revelation, Candaules, Cappadocia, Caria, Carian language, Cerasa, Cercopes, Cilicia, Cimmerians, Coin, Common Era, Crete, Croesus, Cyaxares, Cyrus the Great, Dalda, Daldis, Demeter, Digda, Diocese, Diocese of Thrace, Diocletian, Diodorus Siculus, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Dionysus, Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, Elamite language, Electrum, Empire of Nicaea, Ephesus, Eponym, Etiology, Etruscan civilization, Etruscan language, Exonym and endonym, Extinct language, Fourth Crusade, Gördes, Gediz River, Gog and Magog, Grammatical particle, Greek language, Greek mythology, Gyges of Lydia, Hebrew language, Hellenopolis, Heracleidae, Heracles, Hermes, Hermocapelia, Herodotus, Hierocæsarea, Hierocles (author of Synecdemus), Hippolytus of Rome, Histories (Herodotus), Hittite language, Hittites, Homer, Hyllus (river), Hyrcania, Hyrcanis (Lydia), Iardanus of Lydia, Iliad, Indo-European languages, Ionia, Ionian Islands, Ionians, Iron Age, Jableh, Jews, Josephus, Kızılırmak River, Klazomenai, Kubaba, Labrys, Lemnian language, Lipari, List of kings of Lydia, List of satraps of Lydia, Lud, son of Shem, Ludim, Luwian language, Luwians, Lycia, Lycian language, Lycus (river of Lydia), Lydia (satrapy), Lydia of Thyatira, Lydian language, Lydus, Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Manes of Lydia, Manisa, Manisa Province, Medes, Meles of Lydia, Mesotymolus, Midas, Miletus, Mizraim, Monarchy, Mopsus, Mostene, Mycenae, Mysia, Niobe, Old Persian, Omphale, Ophiuchus, Origin myth, Ottoman Empire, Ovid, Oxford University Press, Pactolus, Pamphylia, Pausanias (geographer), Pelops, Pergamon, Phrygia, Pisidia, Pliny the Elder, Praetorian prefecture, Prefix, Proconsul, Province, Pteria (Cappadocia), Roman Empire, Roman province, Roman Republic, Rump state, Sadyattes, Saittae, Sala (Diocese), Salihli, Sardis, Satala, Satala in Lydia, Satrap, Sülümenli, Ulubey, See of Sardis, Seleucid Empire, Seljuq dynasty, Serpent (symbolism), Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, Silandus (titular see), Smyrna, Stater, Stratonicea (Lydia), Sultanate of Rum, Syncope (phonology), Tabala (Lydia), Takmak, Eşme, Tantalus, Temple of Artemis, Tetrarchy, Thebes, Greece, Theme (Byzantine district), Thracesian Theme, Thyatira, Titular see, Tracula, Tralles (diocese), Tripolis on the Meander, Turkey, Tuscany, Tyrrhenus, Uşak, Uşak Province, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Vicarius, Virgil, Yahyaköy, Susurluk. Expand index (177 more) » « Shrink index
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Acrassus or Akrassos was an ancient Roman and Byzantine-era city in Lydia (modern Turkey).
Acts of the Apostles (Πράξεις τῶν Ἀποστόλων, Práxeis tôn Apostólōn; Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament; it tells of the founding of the Christian church and the spread of its message to the Roman Empire.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
The Aeneid (Aeneis) is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans.
Agron (fl. c.1192 BC) was a legendary king of Lydia who is named by Herodotus as the first of the Lydian Heraclid dynasty.
The Vilayet of Aidin or Aydin (translit), also known as Vilayet of Smyrna or Izmir after its administrative centre, was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire in the south-west of Asia Minor, including the ancient regions of Lydia, Ionia, Caria and western Lycia.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Alaşehir, in Antiquity and the Middle Ages known as Philadelphia (Φιλαδέλφεια, i.e., "the city of him who loves his brother") is a town and district of Manisa Province in the Aegean region of Turkey.
In Greek mythology, Alcaeus or Alkaios (Ancient Greek: Ἀλκαῖος derived from alke "strength") was the name of a number of different people.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Alyattes reigned as king of Lydia from c.610 BC to 560 BC.
Amphion (Ἀμφίων) and Zethus (Ζῆθος, Zēthos) were, in ancient Greek mythology, the twin sons of Zeus by Antiope.
Anat, classically Anath (עֲנָת ʿĂnāth; 𐤏𐤍𐤕 ʿAnōt; 𐎓𐎐𐎚 ʿnt; Αναθ Anath; Egyptian Antit, Anit, Anti, or Anant) is a major northwest Semitic goddess.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Anatolian beyliks (Anadolu beylikleri, Ottoman Turkish: Tavâif-i mülûk, Beylik), sometimes known as Turkmen beyliks, were small principalities (or petty kingdoms) in Anatolia governed by Beys, the first of which were founded at the end of the 11th century.
The Anatolian languages are an extinct family of Indo-European languages that were spoken in Asia Minor (ancient Anatolia), the best attested of them being the Hittite language.
The Anatolic Theme (Άνατολικόν, Anatolikon), more properly known as the Theme of the Anatolics (Greek: θέμα Άνατολικῶν, thema Anatolikōn) was a Byzantine theme (a military-civilian province) in central Asia Minor (modern Turkey).
Anax (Greek: Ἄναξ; from earlier ϝάναξ, wánax) is an ancient Greek word for "tribal chief, lord, (military) leader".
The history of ancient Greek coinage can be divided (along with most other Greek art forms) into four periods, the Archaic, the Classical, the Hellenistic and the Roman.
The following is a list of regions of Ancient Anatolia, also known as "Asia Minor," in the present day Anatolia region of Turkey in Western Asia.
The Annuario Pontificio (Italian for Pontifical Yearbook) is the annual directory of the Holy See of the Catholic Church.
Antalya is the fifth-most populous city in Turkey and the capital of its eponymous province.
Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology.
Apollonias is a genus of flowering plants belonging to the laurel family, Lauraceae.
Apollonos Hieron (Ἀπόλλωνος ἱερόν, "Temple of Apollo") was an ancient city of Lydia.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
Ardys (c.652–c.603 BC; also known as Ardysus) was the second king of the Mermnad dynasty in Lydia, the son of Gyges.
Argolis or the Argolid (Αργολίδα Argolída,; Ἀργολίς Argolís in ancient Greek and Katharevousa) is one of the regional units of Greece.
Artemis (Ἄρτεμις Artemis) was one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities.
Arzawa in the second half of the 2nd millennium BC (roughly from late 15th century BC until the beginning of the 12th century BC) was the name of a region and a political entity (a "kingdom" or a federation of local powers) in Western Anatolia.
The Roman province of Asia or Asiana (Ἀσία or Ἀσιανή), in Byzantine times called Phrygia, was an administrative unit added to the late Republic.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
In Greek mythology, Asterion (Ancient Greek: Ἀστερίων, gen.: Ἀστερίωνος, literally "starry") was a river-god of Argos.
Atargatis or Ataratheh (italic or italic) was the chief goddess of northern Syria in Classical antiquity.
Attalea (in Lydia) was a Roman city, former diocese and is presently a Latin Catholic titular bishopric.
The Attalid dynasty (Δυναστεία των Ατταλιδών Dynasteía ton Attalidón) was a Hellenistic dynasty that ruled the city of Pergamon in Asia Minor after the death of Lysimachus, a general of Alexander the Great.
Attis (Ἄττις, also Ἄτυς, Ἄττυς, Ἄττης) was the consort of Cybele in Phrygian and Greek mythology.
Atys (Ἄτυς) is a legendary figure of the 2nd millennium BC who is attested by Herodotus to have been an early king of Lydia, then probably known as Maeonia.
Aureliopolis in Lydia is the name of a city in the Roman province of Lydia, that was previously called Tmolus or in Greek Τμῶλος (Tmolos).
Aydın (EYE-din;; formerly named Güzelhisar), ancient Greek Tralles, is a city in and the seat of Aydın Province in Turkey's Aegean Region.
İzmir Province (Izmir ili) is a province and metropolitan municipality of Turkey in western Anatolia, situated along the Aegean coast. Its capital is the city of İzmir, which is in itself composed of the province's central 10 districts out of 30 in total. To the west, it is surrounded by the Aegean Sea, and it encloses the Gulf of Izmir. Its area is, with a population of 4,279,677 in 2017. The population was 3,370,866 in 2000. Neighboring provinces are Balıkesir to the north, Manisa to the east, and Aydın to the south. The traffic code of the province is 35. Major rivers of the province include the Küçük Menderes river, Koca Çay (with Güzelhisar dam), and Bakırçay.
İznik is a town and an administrative district in the Province of Bursa, Turkey.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Bageis, Bagis, or Bage was a city in the Roman province of Lydia in Asia Minor (modern Turkey).
Bakırçay (Latin name: Caicus, also Caecus;, transliterated as Kaïkos; formerly Astraeus) is the current name of a river of Asia Minor that rises in the Temnus mountains and flows through Lydia, Mysia, and Aeolis before it debouches into the Elaitic Gulf.
At the Battle of Pteria (Πτερία) in 547 BC, the Persian forces of Cyrus the Great fought a drawn battle with the invading Lydian forces of Croesus, forcing Croesus to withdraw back west into his own kingdom.
The Battle of the EclipseKevin Leloux: The Battle of the Eclipse (May 28, 585 BC): A Discussion of the Lydo-Median Treaty and the Halys Border. In: Polemos. Volume 19, no.
The Battle of Thymbra was the decisive battle in the war between Croesus of the Lydian Kingdom and Cyrus the Great of the Achaemenid Empire.
The Büyük Menderes River (historically the Maeander or Meander, from Ancient Greek: Μαίανδρος, Maíandros; Büyük Menderes Irmağı), is a river in southwestern Turkey.
Bellerophon (Βελλεροφῶν) or Bellerophontes (Βελλεροφόντης) is a hero of Greek mythology.
The Bibliotheca (Βιβλιοθήκη Bibliothēkē, "Library"), also known as the Bibliotheca of Pseudo-Apollodorus, is a compendium of Greek myths and heroic legends, arranged in three books, generally dated to the first or second century AD.
Blaundus was a Roman episcopal city in Asia Minor, presently Anatolia (Asian Turkey), and is now a Latin Catholic titular bishopric.
The Book of Jeremiah (ספר יִרְמְיָהוּ; abbreviated Jer. or Jerm. in citations) is the second of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible, and the second of the Prophets in the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Revelation, often called the Revelation to John, the Apocalypse of John, The Revelation, or simply Revelation or Apocalypse (and often misquoted as Revelations), is a book of the New Testament that occupies a central place in Christian eschatology.
Candaules (died c.687 BC; Κανδαύλης, Kandaulēs), also known as Myrsilos (Μυρσίλος), was a king of the ancient Kingdom of Lydia in the early years of the 7th century BC.
Cappadocia (also Capadocia; Καππαδοκία, Kappadokía, from Katpatuka, Kapadokya) is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in the Nevşehir, Kayseri, Kırşehir, Aksaray, and Niğde Provinces in Turkey.
Caria (from Greek: Καρία, Karia, Karya) was a region of western Anatolia extending along the coast from mid-Ionia (Mycale) south to Lycia and east to Phrygia.
The Carian language is an extinct language of the Luwian subgroup of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Cerasa is a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church.
In Greek mythology, the Cercopes (Κέρκωπες, plural of Κέρκωψ, from κέρκος (n.) kerkos "tail") were mischievous forest creatures who lived in Thermopylae or on Euboea but roamed the world and might turn up anywhere mischief was afoot.
In antiquity, Cilicia(Armenian: Կիլիկիա) was the south coastal region of Asia Minor and existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia during the late Byzantine Empire.
The Cimmerians (also Kimmerians; Greek: Κιμμέριοι, Kimmérioi) were an ancient people, who appeared about 1000 BC and are mentioned later in 8th century BC in Assyrian records.
A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
Croesus (Κροῖσος, Kroisos; 595 BC – c. 546 BC) was the king of Lydia who, according to Herodotus, reigned for 14 years: from 560 BC until his defeat by the Persian king Cyrus the Great in 546 BC (sometimes given as 547 BC).
Cyaxares (Κυαξάρης; 𐎢𐎺𐎧𐏁𐎫𐎼; translit; Avestan: Huxšaθra "Good Ruler"; Akkadian: Umakištar; Old Phrygian: ksuwaksaros; r. 625–585 BC) was the third and most capable king of Media, according to Herodotus, with a far greater military reputation than his father Phraortes or grandfather Deioces.
Cyrus II of Persia (𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش Kuruš;; c. 600 – 530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great  and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire.
Dalda is a brand of hydrogenated vegetable oil popular in South Asia.
Daldis was an Ancient city and former bishopric, and is now a Latin Catholic titular see.
In ancient Greek religion and mythology, Demeter (Attic: Δημήτηρ Dēmḗtēr,; Doric: Δαμάτηρ Dāmā́tēr) is the goddess of the grain, agriculture, harvest, growth, and nourishment, who presided over grains and the fertility of the earth.
Digda was a town, in what is now the Aegean Region of Turkey, during the Iron Age.
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".
The Diocese of Thrace (Dioecesis Thraciae, Διοίκησις Θράκης) was a diocese of the later Roman Empire, incorporating the provinces of the eastern Balkan Peninsula (comprising territories in modern south-eastern Romania, central and eastern Bulgaria, and Greek and Turkish Thrace).
Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.
Diodorus Siculus (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Διονύσιος Ἀλεξάνδρου Ἁλικαρνασσεύς, Dionysios Alexandrou Halikarnasseus, "Dionysios son of Alexandros of Halikarnassos"; c. 60 BCafter 7 BC) was a Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, who flourished during the reign of Caesar Augustus.
Dionysus (Διόνυσος Dionysos) is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility, theatre and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth.
The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople (Οἰκουμενικόν Πατριαρχεῖον Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Oikoumenikón Patriarkhíon Konstantinoupóleos,; Patriarchatus Oecumenicus Constantinopolitanus; Rum Ortodoks Patrikhanesi, "Roman Orthodox Patriarchate") is one of the fourteen autocephalous churches (or "jurisdictions") that together compose the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Elamite is an extinct language that was spoken by the ancient Elamites.
Electrum is a naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver, with trace amounts of copper and other metals.
The Empire of Nicaea or the Nicene Empire was the largest of the three Byzantine GreekA Short history of Greece from early times to 1964 by W. A. Heurtley, H. C. Darby, C. W. Crawley, C. M. Woodhouse (1967), page 55: "There in the prosperous city of Nicaea, Theodoros Laskaris, the son in law of a former Byzantine Emperor, establish a court that soon become the Small but reviving Greek empire." rump states founded by the aristocracy of the Byzantine Empire that fled after Constantinople was occupied by Western European and Venetian forces during the Fourth Crusade.
Ephesus (Ἔφεσος Ephesos; Efes; may ultimately derive from Hittite Apasa) was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia, three kilometres southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey.
An eponym is a person, place, or thing after whom or after which something is named, or believed to be named.
Etiology (alternatively aetiology or ætiology) is the study of causation, or origination.
The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria and northern Lazio.
The Etruscan language was the spoken and written language of the Etruscan civilization, in Italy, in the ancient region of Etruria (modern Tuscany plus western Umbria and northern Latium) and in parts of Corsica, Campania, Veneto, Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna.
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
An extinct language is a language that no longer has any speakers, especially if the language has no living descendants.
The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) was a Latin Christian armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III.
Gördes is a town and district of Manisa Province in the Aegean region of Turkey.
The Gediz River (Gediz Nehri) is the second-largest river in Anatolia flowing into the Aegean Sea.
Gog and Magog (גּוֹג וּמָגוֹג Gog u-Magog) in the Hebrew Bible may be individuals, peoples, or lands; a prophesied enemy nation of God's people according to the Book of Ezekiel, and according to Genesis, one of the nations descended from Japheth, son of Noah.
In grammar the term particle (abbreviated) has a traditional meaning, as a part of speech that cannot be inflected, and a modern meaning, as a function word associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
Gyges (Γύγης) was the founder of the third or Mermnad dynasty of Lydian kings and reigned from 716 BC to 678 BC.
Hellenopolis was a city in Anatolia (perhaps Bithynia or Mysia) founded by an Attalus, by gathering together the inhabitants of a number of Greek cities.
In Greek mythology, the Heracleidae (Ἡρακλεῖδαι) or Heraclids were the numerous descendants of Heracles (Hercules), especially applied in a narrower sense to the descendants of Hyllus, the eldest of his four sons by Deianira (Hyllus was also sometimes thought of as Heracles' son by Melite).
Heracles (Ἡρακλῆς, Hēraklês, Glory/Pride of Hēra, "Hera"), born Alcaeus (Ἀλκαῖος, Alkaios) or Alcides (Ἀλκείδης, Alkeidēs), was a divine hero in Greek mythology, the son of Zeus and Alcmene, foster son of AmphitryonBy his adoptive descent through Amphitryon, Heracles receives the epithet Alcides, as "of the line of Alcaeus", father of Amphitryon.
Hermes (Ἑρμῆς) is an Olympian god in Greek religion and mythology, the son of Zeus and the Pleiad Maia, and the second youngest of the Olympian gods (Dionysus being the youngest).
Hermocapelia was an ancient Roman and Byzantine era city on the Hermus River, in the provence of Lydia.It is described as to the west of Apollonis in its own little plain almost completely surrounded by mountains.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
Hierocaesarea, from the Greek for "sacred" and the Latin for "Caesar's" was a town and bishopric in the late Roman province of Lydia, the metropolitan see of which was Sardis.
Hierocles (Greek: Ἱεροκλῆς Hierokles) was a Byzantine geographer of the sixth century and the attributed author of the Synecdemus or Synekdemos, which contains a table of administrative divisions of the Byzantine Empire and lists of the cities of each.
Hippolytus of Rome (170 – 235 AD) was one of the most important 3rd-century theologians in the Christian Church in Rome, where he was probably born.
The Histories (Ἱστορίαι;; also known as The History) of Herodotus is considered the founding work of history in Western literature.
Hittite (natively " of Neša"), also known as Nesite and Neshite, is an Indo-European-language that was spoken by the Hittites, a people of Bronze Age Anatolia who created an empire, centred on Hattusa.
The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
Hyllus or Hyllos (Ὕλλος) was the ancient name of a river of Asia Minor.
Hyrcania (Ὑρκανία Hyrkania, Old Persian: Varkâna,Lendering (1996) Middle Persian: Gurgān, Akkadian: Urqananu) is a historical region composed of the land south-east of the Caspian Sea in modern-day Iran, bound in the south by the Alborz mountain range and the Kopet Dag in the east.
Hyrcanis or Hyrkaneis was a Roman and Byzantine-era city and bishopric, located at modern Papazli.
In Greek mythology, Iardanus (Ancient Greek: Ἰάρδανος or Ἰαρδάνης) is a semi-legendary figure who was the father of Omphale, queen of the people who were formerly called Maeonians, but later Lydians.
The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Ionia (Ancient Greek: Ἰωνία, Ionía or Ἰωνίη, Ioníe) was an ancient region on the central part of the western coast of Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, which was historically Smyrna.
The Ionian Islands (Modern Greek: Ιόνια νησιά, Ionia nisia; Ancient Greek, Katharevousa: Ἰόνιοι Νῆσοι, Ionioi Nēsoi; Isole Ionie) are a group of islands in Greece.
The Ionians (Ἴωνες, Íōnes, singular Ἴων, Íōn) were one of the four major tribes that the Greeks considered themselves to be divided into during the ancient period; the other three being the Dorians, Aeolians, and Achaeans.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Jableh (جبلة;, also spelt Jebleh, Jabala, Jablah, Gabala or Gibellum) is a coastal city on the Mediterranean in Syria, north of Baniyas and south of Latakia, with c. 80,000 inhabitants (2008).
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
The Kızılırmak (Turkish for "Red River"), also known as the Halys River (Ἅλυς), is the longest river entirely within Turkey.
Klazomenai (Κλαζομεναί) or Clazomenae was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia and a member of the Ionian League.
Kubaba (in the Weidner or Esagila Chronicle; Sumerian: Kug-Bau) is the only queen on the Sumerian King List, which states she reigned for 100 years – roughly in the Early Dynastic III period (ca. 2500-2330 BC) of Sumerian history.
Labrys (Greek: λάβρυς, lábrus) is, according to Plutarch (Quaestiones Graecae 2.302a) the Lydian word for the double-bitted axe called in Greek a πέλεκυς (pélekus).
The Lemnian language was a language spoken on the island of Lemnos in the 6th century BC.
Lipari (Lìpari, Lipara, Μελιγουνίς Meligounis or Λιπάρα Lipara) is the largest of the Aeolian Islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the northern coast of Sicily, southern Italy; it is also the name of the island's main town and comune, which is administratively part of the Metropolitan City of Messina.
This page lists the known kings of Lydia, both legendary and historical.
List of all the known Satraps (governors) of Lydia, a satrapy of the Persian Empire.
Lud (Hebrew) was a son of Shem and grandson of Noah, according to Genesis 10 (the "Table of Nations").
Ludim is the Hebrew term for a people mentioned in Jeremiah and Ezekiel.
Luwian sometimes known as Luvian or Luish is an ancient language, or group of languages, within the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Luwians were a group of Indo-European speaking people who lived in central, western, and southern Asia Minor as well as the northern part of western Levant in the Bronze Age and the Iron Age.
Lycia (Lycian: 𐊗𐊕𐊐𐊎𐊆𐊖 Trm̃mis; Λυκία, Lykía; Likya) was a geopolitical region in Anatolia in what are now the provinces of Antalya and Muğla on the southern coast of Turkey, and Burdur Province inland.
The Lycian language (𐊗𐊕𐊐𐊎𐊆𐊍𐊆)Bryce (1986) page 30.
Lycus or Lykos (Λύκος) was an ancient river of Lydia that flowed in a southwesterly direction by the town of Thyatira.
Lydia, known as Sparda in Old Persian, was a satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire, with Sardis as its capital.
Lydia of Thyatira (Λυδία) is a woman mentioned in the New Testament who is regarded as the first documented convert to Christianity in Europe.
Lydian is an extinct Indo-European language spoken in the region of Lydia, in western Anatolia (now in Turkey).
Lydus (Λυδός) was the third king of Maeonia in succession to his father Atys.
Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
Manes (according to Greek mythology) was a possibly eponymous early king of Maeonia, which later became Lydia.
Manisa is a large city in Turkey's Aegean Region and the administrative seat of Manisa Province.
Manisa Province (Manisa ili) is a province in western Turkey. Its neighboring provinces are İzmir to the west, Aydın to the south, Denizli to the south east, Uşak to the east, Kütahya to the north east, and Balıkesir to the north. The seat of the province is the city of Manisa. Its provincial capital is the city of Manisa, the traffic code is 45.
The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. At around 1100 to 1000 BC, they inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Hamadan (Ecbatana) region. Their emergence in Iran is thought to have occurred between 800 BC and 700 BC, and in the 7th century the whole of western Iran and some other territories were under Median rule. Its precise geographical extent remains unknown. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is unknown. The Medes had an ancient Iranian religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zoroaster spread into western Iran.
Meles (fl. 8th century BC; also known as Myrsus) was a king of Lydia.
Mesotymolus was an ancient Roman and Byzantine-era city on the Hermus River, The city was the seat of an ancient bishopric which remains a vacant titular see to this day.
Midas (Μίδας) is the name of at least three members of the royal house of Phrygia.
Miletus (Milētos; Hittite transcription Millawanda or Milawata (exonyms); Miletus; Milet) was an ancient Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia, near the mouth of the Maeander River in ancient Caria.
Mizraim (cf. Arabic مصر, Miṣr) (/mɪt͡srai:m/) is the Hebrew and Aramaic name for the land of Egypt, with the dual suffix -āyim, perhaps referring to the "two Egypts": Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt.
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.
Mopsus (Μόψος, Mopsos) was the name of one of two famous seers in Greek mythology; his rival being Calchas.
Mostene (Μοστήνη) is a Roman and Byzantine era city in ancient Lydia, located today at Kepecik in modern Turkey.
Mycenae (Greek: Μυκῆναι Mykēnai or Μυκήνη Mykēnē) is an archaeological site near Mykines in Argolis, north-eastern Peloponnese, Greece.
Mysia (UK, US or; Μυσία, Mysia, Misya) was a region in the northwest of ancient Asia Minor (Anatolia, Asian part of modern Turkey).
In Greek mythology, Niobe (Νιόβη) was a daughter of Tantalus and of either Dione, the most frequently cited, or of Eurythemista or Euryanassa, and the sister of Pelops and Broteas.
Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan).
In Greek mythology, Omphale (Ὀμφάλη) was a daughter of Iardanus, either a king of Lydia, or a river-god.
Ophiuchus is a large constellation straddling the celestial equator.
An origin myth is a myth that purports to describe the origin of some feature of the natural or social world.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Publius Ovidius Naso (20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pactolus (Sart Çayı) is a river near the Aegean coast of Turkey.
Pamphylia (Παμφυλία, Pamphylía, modern pronunciation Pamfylía) was a former region in the south of Asia Minor, between Lycia and Cilicia, extending from the Mediterranean to Mount Taurus (modern-day Antalya province, Turkey).
Pausanias (Παυσανίας Pausanías; c. AD 110 – c. 180) was a Greek traveler and geographer of the second century AD, who lived in the time of Roman emperors Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius.
In Greek mythology, Pelops (Greek: Πέλοψ), was king of Pisa in the Peloponnesus.
Pergamon, or Pergamum (τὸ Πέργαμον or ἡ Πέργαμος), was a rich and powerful ancient Greek city in Aeolis.
In Antiquity, Phrygia (Φρυγία, Phrygía, modern pronunciation Frygía; Frigya) was first a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now Asian Turkey, centered on the Sangarios River, later a region, often part of great empires.
Pisidia (Πισιδία, Pisidía; Pisidya) was a region of ancient Asia Minor located north of Lycia, bordering Caria, Lydia, Phrygia and Pamphylia, and corresponding roughly to the modern-day province of Antalya in Turkey.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
The praetorian prefecture (praefectura praetorio; in Greek variously named ἐπαρχότης τῶν πραιτωρίων or ὑπαρχία τῶν πραιτωρίων) was the largest administrative division of the late Roman Empire, above the mid-level dioceses and the low-level provinces.
A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word.
A proconsul was an official of ancient Rome who acted on behalf of a consul.
A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state.
Pteria was the capital of the Assyrians in northern Cappadocia.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
A rump state is the remnant of a once much larger state, left with a reduced territory in the wake of secession, annexation, occupation, decolonization, or a successful coup d'état or revolution on part of its former territory.
Sadyattes, son of Ardys, of the house of the Mermnadae was King of Lydia from 624 BC to 619 BC.
Saittae (Σαίτται)was a town in ancient Lydia, located at Sidas Kaleh in Modern Turkey.
Sala or Salena is a suppressed, vacant and titular see of the Roman Catholic Church.
Salihli is a large town and district of Manisa Province in the Aegean region of Turkey.
Sardis or Sardes (Lydian: 𐤮𐤱𐤠𐤭𐤣 Sfard; Σάρδεις Sardeis; Sparda) was an ancient city at the location of modern Sart (Sartmahmut before 19 October 2005) in Turkey's Manisa Province.
Located in Turkey, the settlement of Satala (Սատաղ Satał), according to the ancient geographers, was situated in a valley surrounded by mountains, a little north of the Euphrates, where the road from Trapezus to Samosata crossed the boundary of the Roman Empire, when it was a bishopric, which remains a Latin Catholic titular see.
Satala (Σαδαλείς) in Lydia was a Roman era city and Bishopric.
Satraps were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires.
Sülümenli is a town in the county of Ulubey, outside of Uşak Turkey.
The See of Sardis or Sardes (Σάρδεις, Sardeis) was an episcopal see in the city of that name.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.
The serpent, or snake, is one of the oldest and most widespread mythological symbols.
The Seven Wonders of the World or the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World is a list of remarkable constructions of classical antiquity given by various authors in guidebooks or poems popular among ancient Hellenic tourists.
Silandus was an episcopal city in the late Roman province of Lydia.
Smyrna (Ancient Greek: Σμύρνη, Smýrni or Σμύρνα, Smýrna) was a Greek city dating back to antiquity located at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia.
The stater (or; στατήρ, literally "weight") was an ancient coin used in various regions of Greece.
Stratonicea – (Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.
The Sultanate of Rûm (also known as the Rûm sultanate (سلجوقیان روم, Saljuqiyān-e Rum), Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate, Sultanate of Iconium, Anatolian Seljuk State (Anadolu Selçuklu Devleti) or Turkey Seljuk State (Türkiye Selçuklu Devleti)) was a Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim state established in the parts of Anatolia which had been conquered from the Byzantine Empire by the Seljuk Empire, which was established by the Seljuk Turks.
In phonology, syncope (from συγκοπή||cutting up) is the loss of one or more sounds from the interior of a word, especially the loss of an unstressed vowel.
Tabala (Ταλεων) is the name of a Roman and Byzantine town and an ancient Bishopric in Lydia.
Takmak, Eşme is a town in Uşak Province Western Turkey, located at 38 ° 26'55 "N 28 ° 58'37" E. The village is famous for its rugs.
Tantalus (Τάνταλος Tántalos) was a Greek mythological figure, most famous for his eternal punishment in Tartarus.
The Temple of Artemis or Artemision (Ἀρτεμίσιον; Artemis Tapınağı), also known less precisely as the Temple of Diana, was a Greek temple dedicated to an ancient, local form of the goddess Artemis.
The term "tetrarchy" (from the τετραρχία, tetrarchia, "leadership of four ") describes any form of government where power is divided among four individuals, but in modern usage usually refers to the system instituted by Roman Emperor Diocletian in 293, marking the end of the Crisis of the Third Century and the recovery of the Roman Empire.
Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai,;. Θήβα, Thíva) is a city in Boeotia, central Greece.
The themes or themata (θέματα, thémata, singular: θέμα, théma) were the main administrative divisions of the middle Eastern Roman Empire.
The Thracesian Theme (Θρᾳκήσιον θέμα, Thrakēsion thema), more properly known as the Theme of the Thracesians (θέμα Θρᾳκησίων, thema Thrakēsiōn, often simply Θρᾳκήσιοι, Thrakēsioi), was a Byzantine theme (a military-civilian province) in western Asia Minor (modern Turkey).
Thyateira (also Thyatira) was the name of an ancient Greek city in Asia Minor, now the modern Turkish city of Akhisar ("white castle").
A titular see in various churches is an episcopal see of a former diocese that no longer functions, sometimes called a "dead diocese".
Tracula is a former Ancient city and bishopric in Asia Minor, which remains a Latin Catholic titular see.
Tralles was a colonia (town) of the Hellenic, Roman and Byzantine empires.
Tripolis on the Meander (Τρίπολις, Eth. Τριπολίτης, Tripolis ad Maeandrum) – also Neapolis, Apollonia, and Antoninopolis – was an ancient city on the borders of Phrygia, Caria and Lydia, on the northern bank of the upper course of the Maeander, and on the road leading from Sardes by Philadelphia to Laodicea ad Lycum.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Tuscany (Toscana) is a region in central Italy with an area of about and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants (2013).
In Etruscan mythology, Tyrrhenus (in Τυρρηνός) was one of the founders of the Etruscan League of twelve cities, along with his brother Tarchon.
Uşak is a city in the interior part of the Aegean Region of Turkey.
Uşak (Uşak ili) is a province in western Turkey.
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, also known as UNC, UNC Chapel Hill, the University of North Carolina, or simply Carolina, is a public research university located in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States.
Vicarius is a Latin word, meaning substitute or deputy.
Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.
Yahyaköy, Susurluk is a town of Balikesir province, 57 km from the town of Susurluk and near Akhisar, Turkey.
Ancient lydia, Classical lydia, Kingdom of Lydia, Lidya, Lydia in Greek mythology, Lydian Empire, Lydian Kingdom, Lydian empire, Lydian gods, Maeonia, Maionia, Mæonia, Roman province of Lydia, Sadyates.