160 relations: Acetyl-CoA, Acetylation, Acetyllysine, Adenylylation, Ajinomoto, ALDH7A1, Aliphatic compound, Alpha helix, Alpha-aminoadipate pathway, Alpha-aminoadipic and alpha-ketoadipic aciduria, Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase, mitochondrial, Alpha-Ketoglutaric acid, Ammonium, Amphiphile, Anemia, Archer Daniels Midland, Aspartic acid, Ataxia, Auxotrophy, Base (chemistry), Biosynthesis, Blood plasma, Calcium, Calcium metabolism, Carnitine, Casein, Catabolism, Catalysis, Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics, Cereal, Chirality (chemistry), Citric acid cycle, Cloning, Collagen, Color vision, Condensation reaction, Connective tissue, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Covalent bond, Cross-link, Deamination, Decarboxylation, Dehydration reaction, Dephosphorylation, DHTKD1, Diaminopimelate decarboxylase, Diaminopimelic acid, Dihydrodipicolinate synthase, Dinosaur, Enantiomer, ..., Enzyme, Epigenetics, Epigenome, Epilepsy, Epsilon, Escherichia coli, Essential amino acid, Fatty acid, Fatty acid metabolism, Fermentation, Ferritin, Gene, Genetic code, Genetic engineering, Glutamic acid, Glutaric aciduria type 1, Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase, Growth hormone, Heredity, Hermann Emil Fischer, Herpes simplex virus, Histone, Holo-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase, Homeostasis, Homoaconitate hydratase, Homoaconitic acid, Homocitrate synthase, Homocitric acid, Homoisocitrate dehydrogenase, Homoisocitric acid, Hydration reaction, Hydrogen bond, Hydrolysis, Hydrophobe, Hydroxylysine, Hyperlysinemia, Imine, Intracellular, Iron, Isoleucine, Jurassic Park (film), Jurassic Park (novel), L-aminoadipate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, Liver, Livestock, Lysine price-fixing conspiracy, Metabolite, Methionine, Methylation, Methyllysine, Michael Crichton, Mitochondrion, Mutation, Negative feedback, Neurological disorder, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, OPN1LW, OPN1MW, OPN1SW, Opsin, Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, Phosphorylation, Plant seed proteins, Preventive healthcare, Prokaryote, Protein, Protein structure, Protein–energy malnutrition, Protonation, Psychomotor retardation, Pyridoxal phosphate, Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, Pyrococcus horikoshii, Pyruvic acid, Quality Protein Maize, Racemic mixture, Rate-determining step, Redox, Regulation of gene expression, Retinal, Rhodopsin, Saccharopine, Saccharopine dehydrogenase (NADP+, L-glutamate-forming), Saccharopine dehydrogenase (NADP+, L-lysine-forming), Salt bridge (protein and supramolecular), Schiff base, Selective breeding, Soybean, Spasticity, Steady state, Substrate (chemistry), SUMO protein, The Informant (book), The Informant!, The New York Times, Thermus thermophilus, Threonine, Toxicity, Transaminase, Transamination, Transcription (biology), Translation (biology), Tryptophan, Visual phototransduction, Western world, Yeast, Zein, 2-aminoadipate transaminase, 4-hydroxy-tetrahydrodipicolinate reductase. Expand index (110 more) » « Shrink index
Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Acetylation (or in IUPAC nomenclature ethanoylation) describes a reaction that introduces an acetyl functional group into a chemical compound.
Acetyllysine (or acetylated lysine) is an acetyl-derivative of the amino acid lysine.
Adenylylation, now known as AMPylation, is a process in which adenosine monophosphate (AMP) molecule is covalently attached to a protein side chain, altering the function of the protein.
is a Japanese food and chemical corporation which produces seasonings, cooking oils, TV dinners, sweeteners, amino acids, and pharmaceuticals.
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 7 family, member A1, also known as ALDH7A1 or antiquitin, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ALDH7A1 gene.
In organic chemistry, hydrocarbons (compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen) are divided into two classes: aromatic compounds and aliphatic compounds (G. aleiphar, fat, oil) also known as non-aromatic compounds.
The alpha helix (α-helix) is a common motif in the secondary structure of proteins and is a righthand-spiral conformation (i.e. helix) in which every backbone N−H group donates a hydrogen bond to the backbone C.
The amino acid L-lysine The α-aminoadipate pathway is a biochemical pathway for the synthesis of the amino acid L-lysine.
Alpha-aminoadipic and alpha-ketoadipic aciduria is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by an increased urinary excretion of alpha-ketoadipic acid and alpha-aminoadipic acid.
Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase is an enzyme encoded by the AASS gene in humans and is involved in their major lysine degradation pathway.
α-Ketoglutaric acid (2-oxoglutaric acid) is one of two ketone derivatives of glutaric acid.
The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula.
An amphiphile (from the Greek αμφις, amphis: both and φιλíα, philia: love, friendship) is a chemical compound possessing both hydrophilic (water-loving, polar) and lipophilic (fat-loving) properties.
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
The Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) is an American global food processing and commodities trading corporation, headquartered in Chicago, Illinois.
Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Ataxia is a neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements that includes gait abnormality.
Auxotrophy (αὐξάνω "to increase"; τροφή "nourishment") is the inability of an organism to synthesize a particular organic compound required for its growth (as defined by IUPAC).
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Calcium metabolism refers to the movements and regulation of calcium ions (Ca2+) into and out of various body compartments, such as the gastrointestinal tract, the blood plasma, the extracellular and the intracellular fluid, and bone tissue.
Carnitine (β-hydroxy-γ-N-trimethylaminobutyric acid, 3-hydroxy-4-N,N,N- trimethylaminobutyrate) is a quaternary ammonium compound involved in metabolism in most mammals, plants and some bacteria. Carnitine may exist in two isomers, labeled D-carnitine and L-carnitine, as they are optically active. At room temperature, pure carnitine is a white powder, and a water-soluble zwitterion with low toxicity. Carnitine only exists in animals as the L-enantiomer, and D-carnitine is toxic because it inhibits the activity of L-carnitine. Carnitine, derived from an amino acid, is found in nearly all organisms and animal tissue. Carnitine is the generic expression for a number of compounds that include L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine, and propionyl-L-carnitine. It is most accumulated in cardiac and skeletal muscles as it accounts for 0.1% of its dry matter. It was first derived from meat extracts in 1905, therefore the name carnitine is derived from Latin "carnus" or flesh. The body synthesizes enough carnitine from lysine side chains to keep up with the needs of energy production in the body as carnitine acts as a transporter of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria to be oxidized and produce energy. Some individuals with genetic or medical disorders (like preterm infants) cannot make enough, so this makes carnitine a conditionally essential nutrient for them.
Casein ("kay-seen", from Latin caseus, "cheese") is a family of related phosphoproteins (αS1, αS2, β, κ).
Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of the biology of cells, especially their biochemistry and biophysics.
A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.
Chirality is a geometric property of some molecules and ions.
The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical individuals of an organism either naturally or artificially.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
Color vision is the ability of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths (or frequencies) of the light they reflect, emit, or transmit.
A condensation reaction is a class of an organic addition reaction that proceeds in a step-wise fashion to produce the addition product, usually in equilibrium, and a water molecule (hence named condensation).
Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.
Corynebacterium glutamicum (previously known as Micrococcus glutamicus) is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium that is used industrially for large-scale production of amino acids.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
A cross-link is a bond that links one polymer chain to another.
Deamination is the removal of an amine group from a protein molecule.
Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide (CO2).
In chemistry and the biological sciences, a dehydration reaction, also known as Zimmer's hydrogenesis, is a chemical reaction that involves the loss of a water molecule from the reacting molecule.
Dephosphorylation is the removal of a phosphate (PO43−) group from an organic compound by hydrolysis.
Dehydrogenase E1 and transketolase domain containing 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DHTKD1 gene.
In enzymology, diaminopimelate decarboxylase, also known as diaminopimelic acid decarboxylase, DAPDC, meso-diaminopimelate decarboxylase, DAP-decarboxylase, and meso-2,6-diaminoheptanedioate carboxy-lyase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of carbon-carbon bonds in meso 2,6 diaminoheptanedioate to produce CO2 and L-lysine, the essential amino acid.
Diaminopimelic acid (DAP) is an amino acid, representing an epsilon-carboxy derivative of lysine.
4-Hydroxy-tetrahydrodipicolinate synthase (dihydrodipicolinate synthase, dihydropicolinate synthetase, dihydrodipicolinic acid synthase, L-aspartate-4-semialdehyde hydro-lyase (adding pyruvate and cyclizing), dapA (gene)) is an enzyme with the systematic name L-aspartate-4-semialdehyde hydro-lyase (adding pyruvate and cyclizing; (4S)-4-hydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-(2S)-dipicolinate-forming).
Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria.
In chemistry, an enantiomer, also known as an optical isomer (and archaically termed antipode or optical antipode), is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation).
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.
An epigenome consists of a record of the chemical changes to the DNA and histone proteins of an organism; these changes can be passed down to an organism's offspring via transgenerational epigenetic inheritance.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
Epsilon (uppercase Ε, lowercase ε or lunate ϵ; έψιλον) is the fifth letter of the Greek alphabet, corresponding phonetically to a mid<!-- not close-mid, see Arvanti (1999) - Illustrations of the IPA: Modern Greek. --> front unrounded vowel.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
An essential amino acid, or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized ''de novo'' (from scratch) by the organism, and thus must be supplied in its diet.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Fatty acid metabolism consists of catabolic processes that generate energy, and anabolic processes that create biologically important molecules (triglycerides, phospholipids, second messengers, local hormones and ketone bodies).
Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.
Ferritin is a universal intracellular protein that stores iron and releases it in a controlled fashion.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glutaric acidemia type 1 (or "glutaric aciduria", "GA1", or "GAT1") is an inherited disorder in which the body is unable to completely break down the amino acids lysine, hydroxylysine and tryptophan.
Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) is an enzyme encoded by the GCDH gene on chromosome 19.
Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin (or as human growth hormone in its human form), is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals.
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
Hermann Emil Louis Fischer FRS FRSE FCS (9 October 1852 – 15 July 1919) was a German chemist and 1902 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), also known as human herpesvirus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and HHV-2), are two members of the herpesvirus family, Herpesviridae, that infect humans.
In biology, histones are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes.
In enzymology, a holo- synthase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction: CoA- + apo-acyl carrier protein \rightleftharpoons adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + holo-acyl carrier protein This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring non-standard substituted phosphate groups.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
In enzymology, a homoaconitate hydratase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, (1R,2S)-1-hydroxybutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylate, and two products, (Z)-but-1-ene-1,2,4-tricarboxylate and H2O.
Homoaconitatic acid (homoaconitate) is related to aconitic acid but with one extra carbon.
In enzymology, a homocitrate synthase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 3 substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA, H2O, and 2-oxoglutarate, whereas its two products are (R)-2-hydroxybutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylate and CoA.
Homocitric acid is an organic compound with the formula HOC(CO2H)(CH2CO2H)(C2H4CO2H).
In enzymology, a homoisocitrate dehydrogenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are (1R,2S)-1-hydroxybutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylate and NAD+, whereas its 4 products are 2-oxoadipate, CO2, NADH, and H+.
Homoisocitric acid is an isomer of homocitric acid in which the hydroxyl is on the 2 position.
In chemistry, a hydration reaction is a chemical reaction in which a substance combines with water.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
Hydroxylysine (Hyl) is an amino acid with the molecular formula C6H14N2O3.
Hyperlysinemia is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by an abnormal increase of lysine in the blood, but appears to be benign.
An imine is a functional group or chemical compound containing a carbon–nitrogen double bond.
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means "inside the cell".
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Isoleucine (symbol Ile or I) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Jurassic Park is a 1993 American science-fiction adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg and produced by Kathleen Kennedy and Gerald R. Molen.
Jurassic Park is a 1990 science fiction novel written by Michael Crichton, divided into seven sections (iterations).
In enzymology, a L-aminoadipate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 4 substrates of this enzyme are L-2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde, NAD+, NADP+, and H2O, whereas its 4 products are L-2-aminoadipate, NADH, NADPH, and H+.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.
The lysine price-fixing conspiracy was an organized effort during the mid-1990s to raise the price of the animal feed additive lysine.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
Methionine (symbol Met or M) is an essential amino acid in humans.
In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.
In proteins, the amino acid residue lysine can be methylated once, twice or thrice on its terminal sidechain ammonium group.
John Michael Crichton (October 23, 1942 – November 4, 2008) was an American author, screenwriter, film director and producer best known for his work in the science fiction, thriller, and medical fiction genres.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Negative feedback (or balancing feedback) occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.
A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a cofactor used in anabolic reactions, such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent.
OPN1LW is a gene on the X chromosome that encodes for long wave sensitive (LWS) opsin, or red cone photopigment.
Green-sensitive opsin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OPN1MW gene.
Blue-sensitive opsin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OPN1SW gene.
Opsins are a group of proteins, made light-sensitive, via the chromophore retinal found in photoreceptor cells of the retina.
The oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDC) or α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex is an enzyme complex, most commonly known for its role in the citric acid cycle.
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
Plant seed proteins are small hydrophilic proteins some of which are structurally related.
Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protein structure is the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in an amino acid-chain molecule.
Protein–energy malnutrition (PEM) refers to a form of malnutrition which is defined as a range of pathological conditions arising from coincident lack of protein and/or energy in varying proportions.The condition vary in forms ranging from mild through moderate to severe degrees.
In chemistry, protonation is the addition of a proton (H+) to an atom, molecule, or ion, forming the conjugate acid.
Psychomotor retardation (also known as "psychomotor impairment" or "motormental retardation" or "psychomotor slowing") involves a slowing-down of thought and a reduction of physical movements in an individual.
Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, P5P), the active form of vitamin B6, is a coenzyme in a variety of enzymatic reactions.
Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE), also referred to as pyridoxine-dependent seizure (PDS) or vitamin B6 responsive epilepsy, is an extremely rare genetic disorder characterized by intractable seizures in the prenatal and neonatal period.
Pyrococcus horikoshii is a hyperthermophilic, anaerobic archaeon, first isolated from hydrothermal fluid samples obtained at the Okinawa Trough vents at a depth of.
Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.
The grain of quality protein maize (QPM) varieties contains nearly twice as much lysine and tryptophan, amino acids that are essential for humans and monogastric animals.
In chemistry, a racemic mixture, or racemate, is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule.
In chemical kinetics, the overall rate of a reaction is often approximately determined by the slowest step, known as the rate-determining step (RDS) or rate-limiting step.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene regulation.
Retinal is also known as retinaldehyde.
Rhodopsin (also known as visual purple) is a light-sensitive receptor protein involved in visual phototransduction.
Saccharopine is an intermediate in the metabolism of amino acid lysine.
In enzymology, a saccharopine dehydrogenase (NADP+, L-glutamate-forming) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 3 substrates of this enzyme are N6-(L-1,3-dicarboxypropyl)-L-lysine, NADP+, and H2O, whereas its 4 products are L-glutamate, L-2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde, NADPH, and H+.
In enzymology, a saccharopine dehydrogenase (NADP+, L-lysine-forming) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 3 substrates of this enzyme are N6-(L-1,3-dicarboxypropyl)-L-lysine, NADP+, and H2O, whereas its 4 products are L-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate, NADPH, and H+.
In chemistry, a salt bridge is a combination of two non-covalent interactions: hydrogen bonding and ionic bonding (Figure 1).
A Schiff base (named after Hugo Schiff) is a compound with the general structure R2C.
Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits (characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together.
The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.
Spasticity is a feature of altered skeletal muscle performance with a combination of paralysis, increased tendon reflex activity, and hypertonia.
In systems theory, a system or a process is in a steady state if the variables (called state variables) which define the behavior of the system or the process are unchanging in time.
In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with a reagent to generate a product.
Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (or SUMO) proteins are a family of small proteins that are covalently attached to and detached from other proteins in cells to modify their function.
The Informant is a nonfiction white-collar crime book written by journalist Kurt Eichenwald and published in 2000 by Random House.
The Informant! is a 2009 American biographical-comedy-crime film directed by Steven Soderbergh.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thermus thermophilus is a Gram negative eubacterium used in a range of biotechnological applications, including as a model organism for genetic manipulation, structural genomics, and systems biology.
Threonine (symbol Thr or T) is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Transaminases or aminotransferases are enzymes that catalyze a transamination reaction between an amino acid and an α-keto acid.
Transamination, a chemical reaction that transfers an amino group to a ketoacid to form new amino acids.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Visual phototransduction is the sensory transduction of the visual system.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
Zein is a class of prolamine protein found in maize (corn).
In enzymology, a 2-aminoadipate transaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are L-2-aminoadipate and 2-oxoglutarate, whereas its two products are 2-oxoadipate and L-glutamate.
In enzymology, a 4-hydroxy-tetrahydrodipicolinate reductase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 3 substrates of this enzyme are (S)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate, NAD+ or NADP+, and H2O, whereas its 3 products are (2S,4S)-4-hydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrodipicolinate, NADH or NADPH, and H+.
2,6-Diaminohexanoic acid, 2,6-diaminohexanoic acid, ATC code B05XB03, ATCvet code QB05XB03, Amino acid K, D-lysine, E642, Enisyl, Iysine, L-Lysine, L-lysine, Lycine, Lysine biosynthesis, Lysine contingency, Lysine deficiency, Lysine degradation, Lysine hydrochloride, Lysine metabolism, Lysl, Lysyl.