107 relations: AB5 toxin, Acid hydrolase, Acid phosphatase, ACP2, Ageing, Alex B. Novikoff, Amantadine, Ambroxol, Amitriptyline, Anemia, Antimicrobial peptides, Apoptosis, Autophagy, Base (chemistry), Bioenergetics, Biomolecule, Blood sugar level, Calcium channel opener, Calcium metabolism, Carbohydrate, Cardiovascular disease, Cartilage, Cathelicidin, Cathepsin, Cell (biology), Cell death, Cell fractionation, Cell membrane, Cell nucleus, Cell signaling, Central nervous system, Centrifugation, Cholera toxin, Christian de Duve, Classical compound, CLCN7, Cytoplasm, Cytosol, Degradative enzyme, Electron microscope, Endocytosis, Endoplasmic reticulum, Endosome, Enzyme, Exocytosis, Fluoxetine, Gaucher's disease, Genetic disorder, Glucocerebrosidase, Glucocerebroside, ..., Glucose 6-phosphatase, Golgi apparatus, Haloperidol, Hydrolase, Hydrolysis, Inborn errors of metabolism, Innate immune system, Insulin, Ion channel, Levomepromazine, Lipid, Lipid metabolism, Lipophilicity, Liposome, Lumen (anatomy), Lysosomal storage disease, Macrophage, Mannose 6-phosphate, Mannose 6-phosphate receptor, Membrane protein, Metachromatic leukodystrophy, Micelle, Micrometre, Microsome, Mutation, Neurodegeneration, New Latin, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Nuclear gene, Nucleic acid, Optical microscope, Organ (anatomy), Organelle, Osteoporosis, Pancreatic hormone, Parkinson's disease, Peptide, Peroxisome, PH, Phagocytosis, Phagosome, Pinocytosis, Proton, Proton pump, Ribosome, Sertraline, Soma (biology), Sphingolipid, Stomach, Substrate (chemistry), Typographical error, Université catholique de Louvain, University of Vermont, V-ATPase, Vacuole, Vesicle (biology and chemistry), White blood cell. Expand index (57 more) » « Shrink index
The AB5 toxins are six-component protein complexes secreted by certain pathogenic bacteria known to cause human diseases such as cholera, dysentery, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome.
An acid hydrolase (lysosomal acid lipase) is an enzyme that works best at acidic pHs.
Acid phosphatase (acid phosphomonoesterase, phosphomonoesterase, glycerophosphatase, acid monophosphatase, acid phosphohydrolase, acid phosphomonoester hydrolase, uteroferrin, acid nucleoside diphosphate phosphatase, orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase (acid optimum)) is a phosphatase, a type of enzyme, used to free attached phosphoryl groups from other molecules during digestion.
Lysosomal acid phosphatase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ACP2 gene.
Ageing or aging (see spelling differences) is the process of becoming older.
Alex Benjamin Novikoff (28 February 1913 – 9 January 1987) was an American biologist (born in Russian Empire)who is recognized for his pioneering works in the discoveries of cell organelles.
Amantadine (trade name Symmetrel, by Endo Pharmaceuticals) is a medication that has U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for use both as an antiviral and an antiparkinsonian medication.
Ambroxol is a drug that breaks up phlegm, used in the treatment of respiratory diseases associated with viscid or excessive mucus.
Amitriptyline, sold under the brand name Elavil among others, is a medicine primarily used to treat a number of mental illnesses.
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also called host defense peptides (HDPs) are part of the innate immune response found among all classes of life.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Autophagy (or autophagocytosis) (from the Ancient Greek αὐτόφαγος autóphagos, meaning "self-devouring" and κύτος kýtos, meaning "hollow") is the natural, regulated, destructive mechanism of the cell that disassembles unnecessary or dysfunctional components.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
Bioenergetics is a field in biochemistry and cell biology that concerns energy flow through living systems.
A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ions that are present in organisms, essential to some typically biological process such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development.
The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.
A calcium channel opener is a type of drug which facilitates ion transmission through calcium channels.
Calcium metabolism refers to the movements and regulation of calcium ions (Ca2+) into and out of various body compartments, such as the gastrointestinal tract, the blood plasma, the extracellular and the intracellular fluid, and bone tissue.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Cartilage is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, a rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints, and is a structural component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, and many other body components.
Cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptides are a family of polypeptides primarily stored in the lysosomes of macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs).
Cathepsins (Ancient Greek kata- "down" and hepsein "boil"; abbreviated CTS) are proteases (enzymes that degrade proteins) found in all animals as well as other organisms.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell death is the event of a biological cell ceasing to carry out its functions.
Cell fractionation is the process used to separate cellular components while preserving individual functions of each component.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Centrifugation is a technique which involves the application of centrifugal force to separate particles from a solution according to their size, shape, density, viscosity of the medium and rotor speed.
Cholera toxin (also known as choleragen and sometimes abbreviated to CTX, Ctx or CT) is protein complex secreted by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Christian René Marie Joseph, Viscount de Duve (2 October 1917 – 4 May 2013) was a Nobel Prize-winning Belgian cytologist and biochemist.
Classical compounds and neoclassical compounds are compound words composed from combining forms (which act as affixes or stems) derived from classical Latin or ancient Greek roots.
Chloride channel 7 alpha subunit also known as H+/Cl− exchange transporter 7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLCN7 gene.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.
A degradative enzyme is an enzyme (in a broader sense a protein) which degrades biological molecules.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
Endocytosis is a form of bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
In cell biology, an endosome is a membrane-bound compartment inside eukaryotic cells.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Exocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (e.g., neurotransmitters and proteins) out of the cell (exo- + cytosis) by expelling them through an energy-dependent process.
Fluoxetine, also known by trade names Prozac and Sarafem, among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
Gaucher's disease or Gaucher disease (GD) is a genetic disorder in which glucocerebroside (a sphingolipid, also known as glucosylceramide) accumulates in cells and certain organs.
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.
β-Glucocerebrosidase (also called acid β-glucosidase, D-glucosyl-N-acylsphingosine glucohydrolase, or GCase) is an enzyme with glucosylceramidase activity that is needed to cleave, by hydrolysis, the beta-glucosidic linkage of the chemical glucocerebroside, an intermediate in glycolipid metabolism that is abundant in cell membranes (particularly skin cells).
Glucocerebroside (also called glucosylceramide) is any of the cerebrosides in which the monosaccharide head group is glucose.
Glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase) is an enzyme that hydrolyzes glucose-6-phosphate, resulting in the creation of a phosphate group and free glucose.
The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.
Haloperidol, marketed under the trade name Haldol among others, is a typical antipsychotic medication.
Hydrolase is a class of enzyme that is commonly used as biochemical catalysts that utilize water to break a chemical bond.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Inborn errors of metabolism form a large class of genetic diseases involving congenital disorders of metabolism.
The innate immune system, also known as the non-specific immune system or in-born immunity system, is an important subsystem of the overall immune system that comprises the cells and mechanisms involved in the defense of the host from infection by other organisms.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.
Levomepromazine (INN, BAN, USAN), also known as methotrimeprazine, is a phenothiazine neuroleptic drug. It is sold in many countries under the generic name (levomepromazine) or under brand names such as Nozinan, Levoprome, Detenler, Hirnamin, Levotomin, Neurocil and many more. It is a low-potency antipsychotic (approximately half as potent as chlorpromazine) with strong analgesic, hypnotic and antiemetic properties that is primarily used in palliative care. Serious side effects include tardive dyskinesia, akathisia, abnormalities in the electrical cycle of the heart, low blood pressure and the potentially fatal neuroleptic malignant syndrome. As is typical of phenothiazine antipsychotics, levomepromazine is a "dirty drug", that is, it exerts its effects by blocking a variety of receptors, including adrenergic receptors, dopamine receptors, histamine receptors, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and serotonin receptors.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
Lipid metabolism is the synthesis and degradation of lipids in cells, involving the break down or storage of fats for energy.
Lipophilicity (from Greek λίπος "fat" and φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene.
A liposome is a spherical vesicle having at least one lipid bilayer.
In biology, a lumen (plural lumina) is the inside space of a tubular structure, such as an artery or intestine.
Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are a group of about 50 rare inherited metabolic disorders that result from defects in lysosomal function.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
Mannose-6-phosphate (M6P) is a molecule bound by lectin in the immune system.
The mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPRs) are transmembrane glycoproteins that target enzymes to lysosomes in vertebrates.
Membrane proteins are proteins that interact with, or are part of, biological membranes.
Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD, also called arylsulfatase A deficiency) is a lysosomal storage disease which is commonly listed in the family of leukodystrophies as well as among the sphingolipidoses as it affects the metabolism of sphingolipids.
A micelle or micella (plural micelles or micellae, respectively) is an aggregate (or supramolecular assembly) of surfactant molecules dispersed in a liquid colloid.
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".
In cell biology, microsomes are vesicle-like artifacts re-formed from pieces of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) when eukaryotic cells are broken-up in the laboratory; microsomes are not present in healthy, living cells.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Neurodegeneration is the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including death of neurons.
New Latin (also called Neo-Latin or Modern Latin) was a revival in the use of Latin in original, scholarly, and scientific works between c. 1375 and c. 1900.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
A nuclear gene is a gene located in the cell nucleus of a eukaryote.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
The optical microscope, often referred to as the light microscope, is a type of microscope that uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small subjects.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
A pancreatic hormone is any of various hormones produced by the pancreas.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
A peroxisome is a type of organelle known as a microbody, found in virtually all eukaryotic cells.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.
In cell biology, a phagosome is a vesicle formed around a particle engulfed by a phagocyte via phagocytosis.
In cellular biology, pinocytosis, otherwise known as fluid endocytosis and bulk-phase pinocytosis, is a mode of endocytosis in which small particles suspended in extracellular fluid are brought into the cell through an invagination of the cell membrane, resulting in a suspension of the particles within a small vesicle inside the cell.
A proton pump is an integral membrane protein that builds up a proton gradient across a biological membrane.
The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).
Sertraline, sold under the trade names Zoloft among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
The soma (pl. somata or somas), perikaryon (pl. perikarya), neurocyton, or cell body is the bulbous, non-process portion of a neuron or other brain cell type, containing the cell nucleus.
Sphingolipids are a class of lipids containing a backbone of sphingoid bases, a set of aliphatic amino alcohols that includes sphingosine.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with a reagent to generate a product.
A typographical error (often shortened to typo), also called misprint, is a mistake made in the typing process (such as a spelling mistake) of printed material.
The University of Louvain (Université catholique de Louvain, UCL) is Belgium's largest French-speaking university.
The University of Vermont (UVM), officially The University of Vermont and State Agricultural College, is a public research university and, since 1862, the sole land-grant university in the U.S. state of Vermont.
Vacuolar-type -ATPase (V-ATPase) is a highly conserved evolutionarily ancient enzyme with remarkably diverse functions in eukaryotic organisms.
A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial cells.
In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.