152 relations: ABJM superconformal field theory, AdS/CFT correspondence, AGT correspondence, Alain Connes, Albert Einstein, Albert Schwarz, Andrew Strominger, Anti-de Sitter space, Ashoke Sen, Atomic nucleus, École normale supérieure (Paris), Bernard Julia, Boson, Brane, Brane cosmology, Brian Greene, Burt Ovrut, Calabi–Yau manifold, Cartesian coordinate system, Charge (physics), Chern–Simons theory, Chirality (physics), Chris Hull, Classical physics, Commutative algebra, Commutative property, Compact space, Compactification (physics), Complex analysis, Complex manifold, Condensed matter physics, Coordinate system, Coupling (physics), Coupling constant, Cross section (geometry), Curvature, Cylinder, David Olive, Differentiable manifold, Dimensional reduction, Dominic Joyce, E8 (mathematics), Edward Witten, Effective field theory, Einstein field equations, Electric charge, Electromagnetic field, Electromagnetism, Energy, Euclidean geometry, ..., Eugène Cremmer, Eugenio Calabi, Extra dimensions, Fermion, Field (physics), Force, Fundamental interaction, G2 manifold, General relativity, Geometric Langlands correspondence, Gluon, Graviton, Gravity, Greg Moore (physicist), Hermann Minkowski, Heterotic string theory, History of general relativity, History of string theory, Hyperbolic geometry, Hyperbolic space, Hyperkähler manifold, Inflation (cosmology), Institute for Advanced Study, Joël Scherk, Juan Martín Maldacena, Kaluza–Klein theory, Khovanov homology, Knot theory, Lagrangian (field theory), Leonard Susskind, Magnetic monopole, Mass, Mathematical theory, Matrix (mathematics), Matrix theory (physics), Metric tensor, Michael Duff (physicist), Michael R. Douglas, Mikhail Khovanov, Minkowski space, Momentum, Montonen–Olive duality, N = 4 supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory, N-sphere, Noncommutative geometry, Noncommutative quantum field theory, Nuclear force, Orthogonal group, Oskar Klein, Particle physics, Paul Dirac, Paul Townsend, Peter Woit, Petr Hořava (theorist), Phenomenology (particle physics), Physical system, Physics, Physics Today, Poincaré disk model, Point particle, Probability, Product topology, Pure mathematics, Quantum field theory, Quantum gravity, Quantum mechanics, Quark, Quasiparticle, Renormalization, S-duality, Shing-Tung Yau, Spacetime, Standard Model, Stephen Shenker, String (physics), String phenomenology, String theory, Supergravity, Supermembranes, Superstring theory, Supersymmetry, Surface (topology), Symmetry (physics), T-duality, Tessellation, The Elegant Universe, Theodor Kaluza, Theory of everything, Tom Banks (physicist), Two-dimensional space, Type I string theory, Type II string theory, Unified field theory, Universe, University of Oxford, University of Southern California, Vacuum solution, Weak interaction, Werner Nahm, Willy Fischler, Winding number, 6D (2,0) superconformal field theory. Expand index (102 more) »

## ABJM superconformal field theory

In theoretical physics, ABJM theory is a quantum field theory studied by Ofer Aharony, Oren Bergman, Daniel Jafferis, and Juan Maldacena.

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## AdS/CFT correspondence

In theoretical physics, the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence, sometimes called Maldacena duality or gauge/gravity duality, is a conjectured relationship between two kinds of physical theories.

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## AGT correspondence

In theoretical physics, the AGT correspondence is a relationship between Liouville field theory on a punctured Riemann surface and a certain four-dimensional SU(2) gauge theory obtained by compactifying the 6D (2,0) superconformal field theory on the surface.

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## Alain Connes

Alain Connes (born 1 April 1947) is a French mathematician, currently Professor at the Collège de France, IHÉS, Ohio State University and Vanderbilt University.

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## Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

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## Albert Schwarz

Albert Solomonovich Schwarz (А.; born June 24, 1934) is a mathematician and a theoretical physicist educated in the Soviet Union and now a professor at the University of California, Davis.

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## Andrew Strominger

Andrew Eben Strominger (born 1955) is an American theoretical physicist who is the Director of Harvard's Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature.

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## Anti-de Sitter space

In mathematics and physics, n-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdSn) is a maximally symmetric Lorentzian manifold with constant negative scalar curvature.

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## Ashoke Sen

Ashoke Sen, FRS (born 1956) is an Indian theoretical physicist and distinguished professor at the Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad.

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## Atomic nucleus

The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.

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## École normale supérieure (Paris)

The École normale supérieure (also known as Normale sup', Ulm, ENS Paris, l'École and most often just as ENS) is one of the most selective and prestigious French grandes écoles (higher education establishment outside the framework of the public university system) and a constituent college of Université PSL.

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## Bernard Julia

Bernard Julia (born 1952 in Paris) is a French theoretical physicist who has made contributions to the theory of supergravity.

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## Boson

In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.

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## Brane

In string theory and related theories such as supergravity theories, a brane is a physical object that generalizes the notion of a point particle to higher dimensions.

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## Brane cosmology

Brane cosmology refers to several theories in particle physics and cosmology related to string theory, superstring theory and M-theory.

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## Brian Greene

Brian Randolph Greene (born February 9, 1963) is an American theoretical physicist, mathematician, and string theorist.

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## Burt Ovrut

Burt Ovrut is an American theoretical physicist best known for his work on heterotic string theory.

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## Calabi–Yau manifold

In algebraic geometry, a Calabi–Yau manifold, also known as a Calabi–Yau space, is a particular type of manifold which has properties, such as Ricci flatness, yielding applications in theoretical physics.

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## Cartesian coordinate system

A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length.

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## Charge (physics)

In physics, a charge may refer to one of many different quantities, such as the electric charge in electromagnetism or the color charge in quantum chromodynamics.

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## Chern–Simons theory

The Chern–Simons theory, named after Shiing-Shen Chern and James Harris Simons, is a 3-dimensional topological quantum field theory of Schwarz type, developed by Edward Witten.

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## Chirality (physics)

A chiral phenomenon is one that is not identical to its mirror image (see the article on mathematical chirality).

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## Chris Hull

Christopher Michael Hull (born 1957) One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from the royalsociety.org website where: is a professor of theoretical physics at Imperial College London.

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## Classical physics

Classical physics refers to theories of physics that predate modern, more complete, or more widely applicable theories.

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## Commutative algebra

Commutative algebra is the branch of algebra that studies commutative rings, their ideals, and modules over such rings.

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## Commutative property

In mathematics, a binary operation is commutative if changing the order of the operands does not change the result.

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## Compact space

In mathematics, and more specifically in general topology, compactness is a property that generalizes the notion of a subset of Euclidean space being closed (that is, containing all its limit points) and bounded (that is, having all its points lie within some fixed distance of each other).

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## Compactification (physics)

In physics, compactification means changing a theory with respect to one of its space-time dimensions.

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## Complex analysis

Complex analysis, traditionally known as the theory of functions of a complex variable, is the branch of mathematical analysis that investigates functions of complex numbers.

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## Complex manifold

In differential geometry, a complex manifold is a manifold with an atlas of charts to the open unit disk in Cn, such that the transition maps are holomorphic.

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## Condensed matter physics

Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic and microscopic physical properties of matter.

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## Coordinate system

In geometry, a coordinate system is a system which uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of the points or other geometric elements on a manifold such as Euclidean space.

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## Coupling (physics)

In physics, two objects are said to be coupled when they are interacting with each other.

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## Coupling constant

In physics, a coupling constant or gauge coupling parameter is a number that determines the strength of the force exerted in an interaction.

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## Cross section (geometry)

In geometry and science, a cross section is the non-empty intersection of a solid body in three-dimensional space with a plane, or the analog in higher-dimensional spaces.

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## Curvature

In mathematics, curvature is any of a number of loosely related concepts in different areas of geometry.

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## Cylinder

A cylinder (from Greek κύλινδρος – kulindros, "roller, tumbler"), has traditionally been a three-dimensional solid, one of the most basic of curvilinear geometric shapes.

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## David Olive

David Ian Olive CBE FRS FLSW (16 April 1937 – 7 November 2012) was a British theoretical physicist. Olive made fundamental contributions to string theory and duality theory, he is particularly known for his work on the GSO projection and Montonen–Olive duality. He was Professor of physics at Imperial College, London from 1984 to 1992. In 1992 he moved to Swansea University to help set up the new theoretical physics group. He was awarded the Dirac Prize and Medal of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in 1997. He was a Founding Fellow of the Learned Society of Wales. He was elected as a fellow of the Royal Society in 1987, and appointed CBE in 2002.

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## Differentiable manifold

In mathematics, a differentiable manifold (also differential manifold) is a type of manifold that is locally similar enough to a linear space to allow one to do calculus.

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## Dimensional reduction

Dimensional reduction is the limit of a compactified theory where the size of the compact dimension goes to zero.

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## Dominic Joyce

Dominic David Joyce FRS (born April 8, 1968) is a British mathematician, currently a professor at the University of Oxford and a fellow of Lincoln College since 1995.

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## E8 (mathematics)

In mathematics, E8 is any of several closely related exceptional simple Lie groups, linear algebraic groups or Lie algebras of dimension 248; the same notation is used for the corresponding root lattice, which has rank 8.

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## Edward Witten

Edward Witten (born August 26, 1951) is an American theoretical physicist and professor of mathematical physics at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.

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## Effective field theory

In physics, an effective field theory is a type of approximation, or effective theory, for an underlying physical theory, such as a quantum field theory or a statistical mechanics model.

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## Einstein field equations

The Einstein field equations (EFE; also known as Einstein's equations) comprise the set of 10 equations in Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity that describe the fundamental interaction of gravitation as a result of spacetime being curved by mass and energy.

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## Electric charge

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.

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## Electromagnetic field

An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects.

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## Electromagnetism

Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

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## Energy

In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.

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## Euclidean geometry

Euclidean geometry is a mathematical system attributed to Alexandrian Greek mathematician Euclid, which he described in his textbook on geometry: the Elements.

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## Eugène Cremmer

Eugène Cremmer (born 7 February 1942 in Paris) is a French theoretical physicist.

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## Eugenio Calabi

Eugenio Calabi (born 11 May 1923 in Milan, Italy) is an Italian-born American mathematician and professor emeritus at the University of Pennsylvania, specializing in differential geometry, partial differential equations and their applications.

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## Extra dimensions

In physics, extra dimensions are proposed additional space or time dimensions beyond the (3 + 1) typical of observed spacetime, such as the first attempts based on the Kaluza–Klein theory.

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## Fermion

In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics.

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## Field (physics)

In physics, a field is a physical quantity, represented by a number or tensor, that has a value for each point in space and time.

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## Force

In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.

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## Fundamental interaction

In physics, the fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions that do not appear to be reducible to more basic interactions.

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## G2 manifold

In differential geometry, a G2 manifold is a seven-dimensional Riemannian manifold with holonomy group equal to ''G''2.

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## General relativity

General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.

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## Geometric Langlands correspondence

In mathematics, the geometric Langlands correspondence is a geometric reformulation of the number theoretic Langlands correspondence.

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## Gluon

A gluon is an elementary particle that acts as the exchange particle (or gauge boson) for the strong force between quarks.

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## Graviton

In theories of quantum gravity, the graviton is the hypothetical elementary particle that mediates the force of gravity.

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## Gravity

Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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## Greg Moore (physicist)

Gregory Winthrop Moore (born 1961) is an American theoretical physicist who specializes in mathematical physics and string theory.

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## Hermann Minkowski

Hermann Minkowski (22 June 1864 – 12 January 1909) was a German mathematician and professor at Königsberg, Zürich and Göttingen.

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## Heterotic string theory

In string theory, a heterotic string is a closed string (or loop) which is a hybrid ('heterotic') of a superstring and a bosonic string.

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## History of general relativity

General relativity (GR) is a theory of gravitation that was developed by Albert Einstein between 1907 and 1915, with contributions by many others after 1915.

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## History of string theory

The history of string theory spans several decades of intense research including two superstring revolutions.

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## Hyperbolic geometry

In mathematics, hyperbolic geometry (also called Bolyai–Lobachevskian geometry or Lobachevskian geometry) is a non-Euclidean geometry.

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## Hyperbolic space

In mathematics, hyperbolic space is a homogeneous space that has a constant negative curvature, where in this case the curvature is the sectional curvature.

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## Hyperkähler manifold

In differential geometry, a hyperkähler manifold is a Riemannian manifold of dimension 4k and holonomy group contained in Sp(''k'') (here Sp(k) denotes a compact form of a symplectic group, identified with the group of quaternionic-linear unitary endomorphisms of a k-dimensional quaternionic Hermitian space).

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## Inflation (cosmology)

In physical cosmology, cosmic inflation, cosmological inflation, or just inflation, is a theory of exponential expansion of space in the early universe.

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## Institute for Advanced Study

The Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) in Princeton, New Jersey, in the United States, is an independent, postdoctoral research center for theoretical research and intellectual inquiry founded in 1930 by American educator Abraham Flexner, together with philanthropists Louis Bamberger and Caroline Bamberger Fuld.

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## Joël Scherk

Joël Scherk (1946 – 16 May 1980), often cited as Joel Scherk, was a French theoretical physicist who studied string theory and supergravity.

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## Juan Martín Maldacena

Juan Martín Maldacena (September 10, 1968 in Buenos Aires, Argentina) is a theoretical physicist.

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## Kaluza–Klein theory

In physics, Kaluza–Klein theory (KK theory) is a classical unified field theory of gravitation and electromagnetism built around the idea of a fifth dimension beyond the usual four of space and time and considered an important precursor to string theory.

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## Khovanov homology

In mathematics, Khovanov homology is an oriented link invariant that arises as the homology of a chain complex.

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## Knot theory

In topology, knot theory is the study of mathematical knots.

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## Lagrangian (field theory)

Lagrangian field theory is a formalism in classical field theory.

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## Leonard Susskind

Leonard Susskind (born 1940)his 60th birthday was celebrated with a special symposium at Stanford University.

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## Magnetic monopole

A magnetic monopole is a hypothetical elementary particle in particle physics that is an isolated magnet with only one magnetic pole (a north pole without a south pole or vice versa).

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## Mass

Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.

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## Mathematical theory

A mathematical theory is a subfield of mathematics that is an area of mathematical research.

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## Matrix (mathematics)

In mathematics, a matrix (plural: matrices) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns.

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## Matrix theory (physics)

In theoretical physics, the BFSS matrix model or matrix theory is a quantum mechanical model proposed by Tom Banks, Willy Fischler, Stephen Shenker, and Leonard Susskind in 1997.

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## Metric tensor

In the mathematical field of differential geometry, a metric tensor is a type of function which takes as input a pair of tangent vectors and at a point of a surface (or higher dimensional differentiable manifold) and produces a real number scalar in a way that generalizes many of the familiar properties of the dot product of vectors in Euclidean space.

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## Michael Duff (physicist)

Michael James Duff FRS, FRSA is a British theoretical physicist and pioneering theorist of supergravity who is the Principal of the Faculty of Physical Sciences and Abdus Salam Chair of Theoretical Physics at Imperial College London.

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## Michael R. Douglas

Michael R. Douglas (born November 19, 1961) is an American theoretical physicist and professor at Stony Brook University.

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## Mikhail Khovanov

Mikhail Khovanov (Михаил Хованов; born 1972) is a Russian-American professor of mathematics at Columbia University.

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## Minkowski space

In mathematical physics, Minkowski space (or Minkowski spacetime) is a combining of three-dimensional Euclidean space and time into a four-dimensional manifold where the spacetime interval between any two events is independent of the inertial frame of reference in which they are recorded.

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## Momentum

In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.

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## Montonen–Olive duality

Montonen–Olive duality or electric-magnetic duality is the oldest known example of strong-weak duality or S-duality according to current terminology.

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## N = 4 supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory

N.

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## N-sphere

In mathematics, the n-sphere is the generalization of the ordinary sphere to spaces of arbitrary dimension.

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## Noncommutative geometry

Noncommutative geometry (NCG) is a branch of mathematics concerned with a geometric approach to noncommutative algebras, and with the construction of spaces that are locally presented by noncommutative algebras of functions (possibly in some generalized sense).

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## Noncommutative quantum field theory

In mathematical physics, noncommutative quantum field theory (or quantum field theory on noncommutative spacetime) is an application of noncommutative mathematics to the spacetime of quantum field theory that is an outgrowth of noncommutative geometry and index theory in which the coordinate functions are noncommutative.

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## Nuclear force

The nuclear force (or nucleon–nucleon interaction or residual strong force) is a force that acts between the protons and neutrons of atoms.

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## Orthogonal group

In mathematics, the orthogonal group in dimension, denoted, is the group of distance-preserving transformations of a Euclidean space of dimension that preserve a fixed point, where the group operation is given by composing transformations.

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## Oskar Klein

Oskar Benjamin Klein (15 September 1894 – 5 February 1977) was a Swedish theoretical physicist.

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## Particle physics

Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.

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## Paul Dirac

Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (8 August 1902 – 20 October 1984) was an English theoretical physicist who is regarded as one of the most significant physicists of the 20th century.

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## Paul Townsend

Paul Kingsley Townsend FRS is a British physicist, currently a Professor of Theoretical Physics in Cambridge University's Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics.

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## Peter Woit

Peter Woit (born September 11, 1957) is an American theoretical physicist.

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## Petr Hořava (theorist)

Petr Hořava is a Czech string theorist.

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## Phenomenology (particle physics)

Particle physics phenomenology is the part of theoretical particle physics that deals with the application of theoretical physics to high-energy experiments.

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## Physical system

In physics, a physical system is a portion of the physical universe chosen for analysis.

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## Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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## Physics Today

Physics Today is the membership magazine of the American Institute of Physics that was established in 1948.

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## Poincaré disk model

In geometry, the Poincaré disk model, also called the conformal disk model, is a model of 2-dimensional hyperbolic geometry in which the points of the geometry are inside the unit disk, and the straight lines consist of all segments of circles contained within that disk that are orthogonal to the boundary of the disk, plus all diameters of the disk.

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## Point particle

A point particle (ideal particle or point-like particle, often spelled pointlike particle) is an idealization of particles heavily used in physics.

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## Probability

Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.

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## Product topology

In topology and related areas of mathematics, a product space is the cartesian product of a family of topological spaces equipped with a natural topology called the product topology.

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## Pure mathematics

Broadly speaking, pure mathematics is mathematics that studies entirely abstract concepts.

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## Quantum field theory

In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.

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## Quantum gravity

Quantum gravity (QG) is a field of theoretical physics that seeks to describe gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics, and where quantum effects cannot be ignored, such as near compact astrophysical objects where the effects of gravity are strong.

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## Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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## Quark

A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.

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## Quasiparticle

In physics, quasiparticles and collective excitations (which are closely related) are emergent phenomena that occur when a microscopically complicated system such as a solid behaves as if it contained different weakly interacting particles in free space.

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## Renormalization

Renormalization is a collection of techniques in quantum field theory, the statistical mechanics of fields, and the theory of self-similar geometric structures, that are used to treat infinities arising in calculated quantities by altering values of quantities to compensate for effects of their self-interactions.

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## S-duality

In theoretical physics, S-duality is an equivalence of two physical theories, which may be either quantum field theories or string theories.

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## Shing-Tung Yau

Shing-Tung Yau (born April 4, 1949) is a chinese and naturalized American mathematician.

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## Spacetime

In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.

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## Standard Model

The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.

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## Stephen Shenker

Stephen Hart Shenker (born 1953) is an American theoretical physicist who works on string theory.

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## String (physics)

In physics, a string is a physical phenomenon that appears in string theory and related subjects.

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## String phenomenology

String phenomenology is a branch of theoretical physics that attempts to construct realistic or semi-realistic models of particle physics based on string theory.

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## String theory

In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings.

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## Supergravity

In theoretical physics, supergravity (supergravity theory; SUGRA for short) is a modern field theory that combines the principles of supersymmetry and general relativity where supersymmetry obeys locality; in contrast to non-gravitational supersymmetric theories such as the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model.

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## Supermembranes

Supermembranes are hypothesized objects that live in the 11 dimensional theory called M-Theory and should also exist in 11 dimensional supergravity.

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## Superstring theory

Superstring theory is an attempt to explain all of the particles and fundamental forces of nature in one theory by modeling them as vibrations of tiny supersymmetric strings.

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## Supersymmetry

In particle physics, supersymmetry (SUSY) is a theory that proposes a relationship between two basic classes of elementary particles: bosons, which have an integer-valued spin, and fermions, which have a half-integer spin.

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## Surface (topology)

In topology and differential geometry, a surface is a two-dimensional manifold, and, as such, may be an "abstract surface" not embedded in any Euclidean space.

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## Symmetry (physics)

In physics, a symmetry of a physical system is a physical or mathematical feature of the system (observed or intrinsic) that is preserved or remains unchanged under some transformation.

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## T-duality

In theoretical physics, T-duality is an equivalence of two physical theories, which may be either quantum field theories or string theories.

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## Tessellation

A tessellation of a flat surface is the tiling of a plane using one or more geometric shapes, called tiles, with no overlaps and no gaps.

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## The Elegant Universe

The Elegant Universe: Superstrings, Hidden Dimensions, and the Quest for the Ultimate Theory is a book by Brian Greene published in 1999, which introduces string and superstring theory, and provides a comprehensive though non-technical assessment of the theory and some of its shortcomings.

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## Theodor Kaluza

Theodor Franz Eduard Kaluza (9 November 1885, Wilhelmsthal, Silesia, German Empire, today part of Opole in Poland – 19 January 1954, Göttingen) was a German mathematician and physicist known for the Kaluza–Klein theory involving field equations in five-dimensional space.

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## Theory of everything

A theory of everything (ToE), final theory, ultimate theory, or master theory is a hypothetical single, all-encompassing, coherent theoretical framework of physics that fully explains and links together all physical aspects of the universe.

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## Tom Banks (physicist)

Thomas "Tom" Banks (born April 19, 1949 in New York City) is a theoretical physicist at University of California, Santa Cruz and a professor at Rutgers University.

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## Two-dimensional space

Two-dimensional space or bi-dimensional space is a geometric setting in which two values (called parameters) are required to determine the position of an element (i.e., point).

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## Type I string theory

In theoretical physics, type I string theory is one of five consistent supersymmetric string theories in ten dimensions.

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## Type II string theory

In theoretical physics, type II string theory is a unified term that includes both type IIA strings and type IIB strings theories.

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## Unified field theory

In physics, a unified field theory (UFT) is a type of field theory that allows all that is usually thought of as fundamental forces and elementary particles to be written in terms of a pair of physical and virtual fields.

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## Universe

The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.

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## University of Oxford

The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.

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## University of Southern California

The University of Southern California (USC or SC) is a private research university in Los Angeles, California.

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## Vacuum solution

A vacuum solution is a solution of a field equation in which the sources of the field are taken to be identically zero.

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## Weak interaction

In particle physics, the weak interaction (the weak force or weak nuclear force) is the mechanism of interaction between sub-atomic particles that causes radioactive decay and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission.

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## Werner Nahm

Werner Nahm (born 21 March 1949) is a German theoretical physicist, with the status of professor.

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## Willy Fischler

Willy Fischler (born 1949 in Antwerpen, Belgium) is a theoretical physicist.

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## Winding number

In mathematics, the winding number of a closed curve in the plane around a given point is an integer representing the total number of times that curve travels counterclockwise around the point.

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## 6D (2,0) superconformal field theory

In theoretical physics, the six-dimensional (2,0)-superconformal field theory is a quantum field theory whose existence is predicted by arguments in string theory.

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## Redirects here:

11-dimensional spacetime, BFSS conjecture, M Theory, M theory, M-Theory, M-theories, ME8, Mtheory, Mysterious duality.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M-theory