137 relations: A. A. K. Niazi, Adjutant general, Agartala Conspiracy Case, Al-Badr (East Pakistan), Aligarh Muslim University, All Pakistan Awami Muslim League, Artistic depictions of the Bangladesh Liberation War, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, Awards and decorations of the Bangladesh Liberation War, Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan), Azad Kashmir Regiment, Điện Biên Phủ, Baghdad Pact, Balaganj Upazila, Baloch Regiment, Bangabhaban, Bangladesh Armed Forces, Bangladesh Awami League, Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League, Bangladesh Liberation War, Bir Bikrom, Bir Protik, Bir Sreshtho, Bir Uttom, Border Guards Bangladesh, Border Security Force, British Empire, British Indian Army, Burma Campaign, Chief of Army Staff (Pakistan), Claude Auchinleck, Combined Military Hospital, Comilla, Commander-in-chief, Constitution of Bangladesh, Dayamir Union, Demining, Dhaka, Douglas Gracey, Duke of Wellington's Regiment, Durga Prasad Dhar, East Bengal Regiment, East Pakistan, Eastern Command (India), England, Fenchuganj Upazila, Four-star rank, Frontier Force Regiment, General officer, ..., General officer commanding, Geography, Government in exile, Group captain, Guard of honour, Gul Hassan Khan, Hasan Askari Rizvi, Hindu, Indian Army, Indian Civil Service (British India), Indian Military Academy, Indira Gandhi, Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, Jatiya Rakkhi Bahini, Jessore (town), K M Shafiullah, Kasur, Kazi Nazrul Islam, Khagrachhari District, Khaled Mosharraf, Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad, Khwaja Wasiuddin, Kolkata, Liberation War Museum, Library of Congress Country Studies, Lieutenant colonel, London, London Borough of Tower Hamlets, Mainul Hosein, Martial race, Member of parliament, Micromanagement, Minister (government), Mohammad Ishfaqul Mazid, Mujib Bahini, Mukti Bahini, Mymensingh, Narayanganj, New Delhi, Nishan-e-Haider, Notuner Gaan, Old Dhaka Central Jail, Operation Jackpot, Operation Searchlight, Osmani International Airport, Osmani Museum, Pakistan, Pakistan Air Force, Pakistan Armed Forces, Pakistan Army, Presidencies and provinces of British India, Provisional Government of Bangladesh, Punjab Regiment (Pakistan), Quetta, Rabindranath Tagore, Rao Farman Ali, Rape during the Bangladesh Liberation War, Rawalpindi, Rawalpindi conspiracy, Razakar (Pakistan), Research and Analysis Wing, Sam Manekshaw, Second lieutenant, Second-in-command, Shah Jalal, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, Shimla, Sitara-e-Jurat, Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, Sunamganj District, Sylhet, Sylhet District, Sylhet Division, Sylhet MAG Osmani Medical College, Tajuddin Ahmad, Tamgha-i-Jurat, Teknaf Upazila, Tet Offensive, Tikka Khan, Timeline of the Bangladesh Liberation War, Waziristan, World War II, XV Corps (British India), Yahya Khan, Ziaur Rahman. Expand index (87 more) » « Shrink index
Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi (Urdu: امیر عبداللہ خان نیازی; b. 1915–1 February 2004),, popularly known as A.A.K. Niazi or General Niazi was a former lieutenant-general in the Pakistan Army and the last Governor of East Pakistan, known for commanding the Eastern Command of Pakistani military in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) during the Eastern and the Western Fronts of the Indo-Pakistani war until the unilateral surrendering on the 16 December 1971 to Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Aurora General Officer Commanding-in-Chief (GOC-in-C) of the Eastern Command and the Bengali Liberation Forces.
An adjutant general is a military chief administrative officer.
The Agartala Conspiracy Case was a sedition case in Pakistan during the Ayub Regime against Awami League, brought by the government of Pakistan in 1968 against Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the then leader of the Awami League and East Pakistan, and 34 other persons.
The Al-Badr (আল বদর) was a paramilitary force which operated in East Pakistan against the Bengali nationalist movement during the Bangladesh Liberation War, under the patronage of the Pakistani government.
Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) is an Indian public central university.
All Pakistan Awami Muslim League (آل پاکستان عوامی مسلم لیگ) is a Pakistani political party founded by Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy in February 1950.
There has been numerous works of art that depicted the Bangladesh Liberation War during and since the War both at Bangladesh and abroad.
The Asiatic Society of Bangladesh was established as the Asiatic Society of Pakistan in Dhaka in 1952, and renamed in 1972.
The assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was the killing of the president of Bangladesh, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and almost his entire family.
Awards and decorations of the Bangladesh War of Independence were decorations which were bestowed by the government of Bangladesh through official Gazette of December 1973 along with the official list of sector commanders.
Mohammad Ayub Khan (محمد ایوب خان; 14 May 1907 – 19 April 1974),, was a Pakistani military dictator and the 2nd President of Pakistan who forcibly assumed the presidency from 1st President through coup in 1958, the first successful coup d'état of the country. The popular demonstrations and labour strikes which were supported by the protests in East Pakistan ultimately led to his forced resignation in 1969., Retrieved 25 August 2015 Trained at the British Royal Military College, Ayub Khan fought in the World War II as a Colonel in the British Indian Army before deciding to transfer to join the Pakistan Army as an aftermath of partition of British India in 1947. His command assignment included his role as chief of staff of Eastern Command in East-Bengal and elevated as the first native commander-in-chief of Pakistan Army in 1951 by then-Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan in a controversial promotion over several senior officers., Retrieved 25 August 2015 From 1953–58, he served in the civilian government as Defence and Home Minister and supported Iskander Mirza's decision to impose martial law against Prime Minister Feroze Khan's administration in 1958., Retrieved 27 August 2015 Two weeks later, he took over the presidency from Mirza after the meltdown of civil-military relations between the military and the civilian President., Retrieved 25 August 2015 After appointing General Musa Khan as an army chief in 1958, the policy inclination towards the alliance with the United States was pursued that saw the allowance of American access to facilities inside Pakistan, most notably the airbase outside of Peshawar, from which spy missions over the Soviet Union were launched. Relations with neighboring China were strengthened but deteriorated with Soviet Union in 1962, and with India in 1965. His presidency saw the war with India in 1965 which ended with Soviet Union facilitating the Tashkent Declaration between two nations. At home front, the policy of privatisation and industrialization was introduced that made the country's economy as Asia's fastest-growing economies. During his tenure, several infrastructure programs were built that consisted the completion of hydroelectric stations, dams and reservoirs, as well as prioritizing the space program but reducing the nuclear deterrence. In 1965, Ayub Khan entered in a presidential race as PML candidate to counter the popular and famed non-partisan Fatima Jinnah and controversially reelected for the second term. He was faced with allegations of widespread intentional vote riggings, authorized political murders in Karachi, and the politics over the unpopular peace treaty with India which many Pakistanis considered an embarrassing compromise. In 1967, he was widely disapproved when the demonstrations across the country were led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto over the price hikes of food consumer products and, dramatically fell amid the popular uprising in East led by Mujibur Rahman in 1969. Forced to resign to avoid further protests while inviting army chief Yahya Khan to impose martial law for the second time, he fought a brief illness and died in 1974. His legacy remains mixed; he is credited with an ostensible economic prosperity and what supporters dub the "decade of development", but is criticized for beginning the first of the intelligence agencies' incursions into the national politics, for concentrating corrupt wealth in a few hands, and segregated policies that later led to the breaking-up of nation's unity that resulted in the creation of Bangladesh., Retrieved 25 August 2015.
The Azad Kashmir Regiment, also known as AK Regt, is one of the six Infantry Regiments of the Pakistan Army.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Điện Biên, sometimes called Dienbien Phu (/ means Dienbien Prefecture), is a city in the northwestern region of Vietnam.
The Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), originally known as the Baghdad Pact or the Middle East Treaty Organization (METO), was formed in 1955 by Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Balaganj (বালাগঞ্জ, ꠛꠣꠟꠣꠉꠘ꠆ꠎ) is an upazila of Sylhet District in Sylhet Division, Bangladesh.
The Baloch Regiment is an infantry regiment of the Pakistan Army.
The Bangabhaban (বঙ্গভবন Bôngobhôbôn, lit. House of Bengal) is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of Bangladesh, located on Bangabhaban Road, and short road connecting Dilkusha Avenue, Dhaka.
The Bangladesh Armed Forces (বাংলাদেশ সশস্ত্র বাহিনী, Bānlādēśa saśastra bāhinī) consists of the three uniformed military services: the Bangladesh Army, the Bangladesh Navy and the Bangladesh Air Force.
The Bangladesh Awami League (BAL) (বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ; translated from Urdu: Bangladesh People's League), often simply called the Awami League or AL, is one of the two major political parties of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League (BaKSAL) (বাংলাদেশ কৃষক শ্রমিক আওয়ামী লীগ "Bangladesh Worker-Peasant's People's League"; বাকশাল) was a political front comprising Bangladesh Awami League, Communist Party of Bangladesh, National Awami Party (Mozaffar) and Jatiyo League.
The Bangladesh Liberation War (মুক্তিযুদ্ধ), also known as the Bangladesh War of Independence, or simply the Liberation War in Bangladesh, was a revolution and armed conflict sparked by the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement in what was then East Pakistan during the 1971 Bangladesh genocide.
Bir Bikrom (বীর বিক্রম; literally, "Valiant hero" in Bengali) is the third highest gallantry award in Bangladesh.
Bir Protik (বীর প্রতীক Bīr Pratīk, "Symbol of Bravery or Idol of Courage") is the fourth highest gallantry award in Bangladesh.
The Bir Sreshtho (বীরশ্রেষ্ঠ) (The Most Valiant Hero), is the highest military award of Bangladesh.
Bir Uttom (lit) is the second highest award for individual gallantry in Bangladesh after the Bir Sreshtho and the highest gallantry award for a living individual.
The Border Guards Bangladesh (Bengali transliteration: বর্ডার গার্ড বাংলাদেশ; translated from English: বাংলাদেশ সীমান্ত রক্ষক; BGB), formerly known as the Bangladesh Rifles, is the oldest uniformed force in Bangladesh.
The Border Security Force (BSF) is the primary border guarding force of India.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The Indian Army (IA), often known since 1947 (but rarely during its existence) as the British Indian Army to distinguish it from the current Indian Army, was the principal military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947.
The Burma Campaign was a series of battles fought in the British colony of Burma, South-East Asian theatre of World War II, primarily between the forces of the British Empire and China, with support from the United States, against the invading forces of Imperial Japan, Thailand, and the Indian National Army.
The Chief of Army Staff (سربراہ پاک فوج) (reporting name: COAS), is a military appointment and statutory office held by the four-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army, who is appointed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan and final confirmation by the President of Pakistan.
Field Marshal Sir Claude John Eyre Auchinleck (21 June 1884 – 23 March 1981) was a British Army commander during the Second World War.
Combined Military Hospitals (مشترکہ فوجی ہسپتال, abbreviated as CMH) are Pakistan Armed Forces hospitals situated in various cantonments of the country.
Comilla, officially known as Cumilla, is a city in the Chittagong Division of Bangladesh, located along the Dhaka-Chittagong Highway.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
The Constitution of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh is the constitutional document of Bangladesh.
Dayamir Union is the native home of General M. A. G. Osmani, who was supreme commander of the Bangladesh Liberation War.
Demining or mine clearance is the process of removing land mines from an area, while minesweeping describes the act of detecting mines.
Dhaka (or; ঢাকা); formerly known as Dacca is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh.
General Sir Douglas David Gracey & Bar (3 September 1894 – 5 June 1964) was a British Indian Army officer who fought in both the First and Second World Wars.
The Duke of Wellington's Regiment (West Riding) was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, forming part of the King's Division.
Durga Prasad Dhar (D. P. Dhar, 1918–1975) was a prominent Kashmiri politician and an Indian diplomat, who is a considered a chief architect of the Indian intervention in the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War.
The East Bengal Regiment (ইস্ট বেঙ্গল রেজিমেন্ট) is an infantry regiment of the Bangladesh Army.
East Pakistan was the eastern provincial wing of Pakistan between 1955 and 1971, covering the territory of the modern country Bangladesh.
The Eastern Command of the Indian Army is one of the seven operational commands of the army.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Fenchuganj (ফেঞ্চুগঞ্জ) is an Upazila of Sylhet District in the Division of Sylhet, Bangladesh.
A four-star rank is the rank of any four-star officer described by the NATO OF-9 code.
The Frontier Force Regiment is one of six infantry regiments of the Pakistan Army.
A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.
The General Officer Commanding (GOC) is the usual title given in the armies of the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth (and some other, such as in Ireland) nations to a General Officer who holds a command appointment.
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
A government in exile is a political group which claims to be a country or semi-sovereign state's legitimate government, but is unable to exercise legal power and instead resides in another state or foreign country.
Group captain is a senior commissioned rank in many air forces.
A guard of honour (en-GB), guard of honor (en-US), also honour guard (en-GB), honor guard (en-US), also ceremonial guard, is a guard, usually military in nature, appointed to receive or guard a head of state or other dignitary, the fallen in war, or to attend at state ceremonials, especially funerals.
Gul Hassan Khan (گل حسن خان) (1921; b. 1921—10 October 1999), was a former lieutenant-general and the last Commander-in-Chief of Pakistan Army, serving under President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto from 20 December 1971 until 3 March 1972.
Hassan Askari Rizvi (Urdu: حسن عسكرى رضوى; SI), is a Pakistani political scientist and military analyst who is currently serving as caretaker Chief Minister of Punjab, Pakistan.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces.
The Indian Civil Service (ICS) for part of the 19th century officially known as the Imperial Civil Service, was the elite higher civil service of the British Empire in British India during British rule in the period between 1858 and 1947.
The Indian Military Academy, Dehradun (also known as IMA) is the officer training Academy of the Indian Army.
Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (née Nehru; 19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was an Indian politician, stateswoman and a central figure of the Indian National Congress.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948, sometimes known as the First Kashmir War, was fought between India and Pakistan over the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu from 1947 to 1948.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India. The conflict began following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar, which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against Indian rule. India retaliated by launching a full-scale military attack on West Pakistan. The seventeen-day war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and witnessed the largest engagement of armored vehicles and the largest tank battle since World War II. Hostilities between the two countries ended after a United Nations-mandated ceasefire was declared following diplomatic intervention by the Soviet Union and the United States, and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration. Much of the war was fought by the countries' land forces in Kashmir and along the border between India and Pakistan. This war saw the largest amassing of troops in Kashmir since the Partition of British India in 1947, a number that was overshadowed only during the 2001–2002 military standoff between India and Pakistan. Most of the battles were fought by opposing infantry and armoured units, with substantial backing from air forces, and naval operations. Many details of this war, like those of other Indo-Pakistani Wars, remain unclear. India had the upper hand over Pakistan when the ceasefire was declared. "Satisfied that it had secured a strategic and psychological victory over Pakistan by frustrating its attempt to seize Kashmir by force, when the UN resolution was passed, India accepted its terms... with Pakistan's stocks of ammunition and other essential supplies all but exhausted, and with the military balance tipping steadily in India's favour." "Losses were relatively heavy—on the Pakistani side, twenty aircraft, 200 tanks, and 3,800 troops. Pakistan's army had been able to withstand Indian pressure, but a continuation of the fighting would only have led to further losses and ultimate defeat for Pakistan." Quote: The invading Indian forces outfought their Pakistani counterparts and halted their attack on the outskirts of Lahore, Pakistan's second-largest city. By the time the United Nations intervened on 22 September, Pakistan had suffered a clear defeat. Although the two countries fought to a standoff, the conflict is seen as a strategic and political defeat for Pakistan, "... the war itself was a disaster for Pakistan, from the first failed attempts by Pakistani troops to precipitate an insurgency in Kashmir to the appearance of Indian artillery within range of Lahore International Airport." – U.S. Department of State, – Interview with Steve Coll in United States House of Representatives 12 September 1994South Asia in World Politics By Devin T. Hagerty, 2005 Rowman & Littlefield,, p. 26 as it had neither succeeded in fomenting insurrection in Kashmir "... after some initial success, the momentum behind Pakistan's thrust into Kashmir slowed, and the state's inhabitants rejected exhortations from the Pakistani insurgents to join them in taking up arms against their Indian "oppressors." Pakistan's inability to muster support from the local Kashmiri population proved a disaster, both militarily and politically." nor had it been able to gain meaningful support at an international level. "Mao had decided that China would intervene under two conditions—that India attacked East Pakistan, and that Pakistan requested Chinese intervention. In the end, neither of them obtained." Internationally, the war was viewed in the context of the greater Cold War, and resulted in a significant geopolitical shift in the subcontinent. Before the war, the United States and the United Kingdom had been major material allies of both India and Pakistan, as their primary suppliers of military hardware and foreign developmental aid. During and after the conflict, both India and Pakistan felt betrayed by the perceived lack of support by the western powers for their respective positions; those feelings of betrayal were increased with the imposition of an American and British embargo on military aid to the opposing sides. As a consequence, India and Pakistan openly developed closer relationships with the Soviet Union and China, respectively. The perceived negative stance of the western powers during the conflict, and during the 1971 war, has continued to affect relations between the West and the subcontinent. In spite of improved relations with the U.S. and Britain since the end of the Cold War, the conflict generated a deep distrust of both countries within the subcontinent which to an extent lingers to this day."In retrospect, it is clear that the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 represented a watershed in the West's association with the subcontinent.""By extending the Cold War into South Asia, however, the United States did succeed in disturbing the subcontinent's established politico-military equilibrium, undermining British influence in the region, embittering relations between India and Pakistan and, ironically, facilitating the expansion of communist influence in the developing world." "The legacy of the Johnson arms cut-off remains alive today. Indians simply do not believe that America will be there when India needs military help... the legacy of the U.S. "betrayal" still haunts U.S.-Pakistan relations today.".
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military confrontation between India and Pakistan that occurred during the liberation war in East Pakistan from 3 December 1971 to the fall of Dacca (Dhaka) on 16 December 1971.
Jatiya Rakkhi Bahini (জাতীয় রক্ষী বাহিনী Yātīy.a Rakṣī Bāhinī) (National Security Force) was an elite para-military force formed on 8 February 1972 by the government led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman by an order commonly known as 'Jatiyo Rakkhi Bahini Act, 1972" after the liberation war of Bangladesh.
Jessore, officially known as Jashore, যশোর) is a city in south-western Bangladesh. It is the capital of Jessore District. Jessore town consists of 9 wards and 73 mahalls. Jessore municipality was established in 1864. The area of the town is 25.72 km2. It has a population of 201,796 at the 2011 Census. The literacy rate among the townspeople is 56.57% in 1991.
Kazi Mohammed Shafiullah Bir Uttam (born: 2 September 1934) also known as K M Shafiullah, was a Bangladeshi general and the 1st (some says 2nd) Chief of Army Staff of the Bangladesh Army.
Kasur or Qasur (Punjabi and قصُور) is a city located to south of Lahore, in the Pakistani province of Punjab.
Kazi Nazrul Islam (কাজী নজরুল ইসলাম,; 24 May 189929 August 1976) was a Bengali poet, writer, musician, and revolutionary.
Khagrachhari (খাগড়াছড়ি) (Chakma:𑄌𑄬𑄋𑄴𑄟𑄩 "chengmi") is a district in south-eastern Bangladesh.
Khaled Mosharraf, Bir Uttom (খালেদ মোশাররফ) (born 1 November 1937 – died 7 November 1975) was a Bangladeshi military officer who was the Sector Commander of Bangladesh Forces Sector 2 and K-Force Brigade Commander during the Bangladesh War of Independence.
Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad (also spelled Khandakar Mushtaq Ahmed; – 5 March 1996) was a Bangladeshi politician who served as the President of Bangladesh from 15 August to 6 November 1975, after the assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.
Khwaja Wasiuddin (1920–1992) was a Bangladeshi army officer and diplomat.
Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
The Liberation War Museum (মুক্তিযুদ্ধ যাদুঘর Muktijuddho Jadughôr) is a museum in Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, which commemorates the Bangladesh Liberation War that led to the independence of Bangladesh from Pakistan.
The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.
Lieutenant colonel is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies, most marine forces and some air forces of the world, above a major and below a colonel.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The London Borough of Tower Hamlets is a London Borough in East London which covers much of the traditional East End.
Mainul Hosein is a lawyer and the printer and publisher of daily newspaper The New Nation.
Martial race was a designation created by Army officials of British India after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, where they classified each caste into one of two categories, 'martial' and 'non-martial'.
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.
In business management, micromanagement is a management style whereby a manager closely observes and/or controls the work of his/her subordinates or employees.
A minister is a politician who heads a government department, making and implementing decisions on policies in conjunction with the other ministers.
Muhammed Ishfakul Majid (17 March 1903 – 31 March 1976) was the first Bengali-speaking general in the Pakistan Army.
The Mujib Bahini, or '"Bangladesh Liberation Force (BLF) was an armed force formed during the Bangladesh Liberation War to fight against Pakistan in 1971.
The Mukti Bahini (মুক্তি বাহিনী translates as 'Freedom Fighters', or Liberation Forces; also known as the Bangladesh Forces) is a popular Bengali term which refers to the guerrilla resistance movement formed by the Bangladeshi military, paramilitary and civilians during the War of Liberation that transformed East Pakistan into Bangladesh in 1971.
Narayanganj (নারায়ণগঞ্জ Naraeongônj) is a city in central Bangladesh.
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of Government of India.
Nishan-e-Haider (نشان حیدر) (abbreviated as "NH") is Pakistan's highest military gallantry award.
Notuner Gaan (নতুনের গান, The Song of Youth), more popularly known (after its first line) as Chol Chol Chol is the national march (রণ-সঙ্গীত) of Bangladesh., whose lyrics and tune were written by national poet Kazi Nazrul Islam in 1928.
Dhaka Central Jail was the largest jail in Bangladesh, located in the old section of Dhaka, the country's capital.
Operation Jackpot was the codename for several military operations during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971.
Operation Searchlight was a planned military operation carried out by the Pakistan Army to curb the Bengali nationalist movement in the erstwhile East Pakistan in March 1971, which the Pakistani state justified on the basis of anti-Bihari violence by Bengalis in early March.
Osmani International Airport (ওসমানী আন্তর্জাতিক বিমানবন্দর) is third largest international airport in Bangladesh after Dhaka and Chittagong.
Osmani Museum is a museum in Kotwali Thana of Sylhet, Bangladesh.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Pakistan Air Force (PAF) (پاک فِضائیہ—, or alternatively پاکیستان هاوایی فوج, reporting name: PAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces, tasked primarily with the aerial defence of Pakistan, with a secondary role of providing air support to the Pakistan Army and the Pakistan Navy.
The Pakistan Armed Forces (پاکستان مُسَلّح افواج, Pākistān Musallah Afwāj) are the military forces of Pakistan.
Pakistan Army (پاک فوج Pak Fauj (IPA: pɑk fɒ~ɔd͡ʒ); Reporting name: PA) is the land-based force of the Pakistan Armed Forces.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
The Provisional Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh was established following the declaration of independence of East Pakistan on 10 April 1971.
The Punjab Regiment is an infantry regiment of the Pakistan Army.
Quetta (کوټه; کویته; کوٹه; کوئٹہ) is the provincial capital and largest city of Balochistan, Pakistan.
Rabindranath Tagore FRAS, also written Ravīndranātha Ṭhākura (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali polymath who reshaped Bengali literature and music, as well as Indian art with Contextual Modernism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Rao Farman Ali (Urdu: راؤ فرمان علی; English IPA: Rəoʊ Fərmən ɑlɪ; 1 January 1923 – 20 January 2004), was a two-star general in the Pakistan Army and former political figure who is widely accused as a "conspirator" of the civil war in East Pakistan and one of directly responsible of committing the mass atrocities in East Pakistan.
During the 1971 Bangladesh war for independence, members of the Pakistani military and supporting Islamist militias from Jamaat e Islami raped between 200,000 and 400,000 Bangladeshi women and girls in a systematic campaign of genocidal rape.
Rawalpindi (Punjabi, راولپِنڈى), commonly known as Pindi (پِنڈی), is a city in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
The Rawalpindi Conspiracy (also known as the Rawalpindi Conspiracy Case) was an alleged attempted coup d'état against the government of Liaquat Ali Khan, the first Prime Minister of Pakistan, in 1951.
Razakar (رضاکار, literally "volunteer"; রাজাকার) was an anti-Bangladesh paramilitary force organised by the Pakistan Army in Bangladesh during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971.
The Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW or RAW) (IAST: Anusaṃdhān Aur Viśleṣaṇ Viṃg) is the foreign intelligence agency of India.
Field Marshal Sam Hormusji Framji Jamshedji Manekshaw, MC (3 April 1914 – 27 June 2008), popularly known as Sam Bahadur ("Sam the Brave"), was the Chief of the Army Staff of the Indian Army during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, and the first Indian Army officer to be promoted to the rank of field marshal.
Second lieutenant (called lieutenant in some countries) is a junior commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces, comparable to NATO OF-1b rank.
The second-in-command (2i/c or 2IC) is the deputy commander of any British Army or Royal Marines unit, from battalion or regiment downwards.
Shāh Jalāl ad-Dīn al-Mujarrad al-Naqshbandi (شاه جلال الدين المجرد النقشبندي), popularly known as Hazrat Shah Jalal (شاه جلال, শাহ জালাল, ꠡꠣꠢ ꠎꠣꠟꠣꠟ) (1271 CE – 15 March 1346 CE), is a celebrated Sufi Muslim figure in Bengal.
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (শেখ মুজিবুর রহমান);; (17 March 1920 – 15 August 1975), shortened as Sheikh Mujib or just Mujib, was a Bengali politician and statesman.
Shimla, also known as Simla, is the capital and the largest city of the northern Indian state of Himachal Pradesh.
Sitara-e-Jurat (Star of Courage) is the third highest military award of Pakistan.
The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) was an international organization for collective defense in Southeast Asia created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, or Manila Pact, signed in September 1954 in Manila, Philippines.
Sunamganj (Bengali: সুনামগঞ্জ, Sylheti: ꠡꠥꠘꠣꠝꠉꠘ꠆ꠎ) is a district located in north-eastern Bangladesh within the Sylhet Division.
Sylhet (সিলেট, ꠍꠤꠟꠐ), also known as Jalalabad, the spiritual capital; is a metropolitan city in northeastern Bangladesh.
Sylhet (সিলেট, ꠍꠤꠟꠐ), located in north-east Bangladesh, is one of the four districts in the Sylhet Division.
Sylhet Division (সিলেট বিভাগ, ꠍꠤꠟꠐ ꠛꠤꠜꠣꠉ), also known as Greater Sylhet, is the northeastern division of Bangladesh, named after its main city, Sylhet.
Sylhet MAG Osmani Medical College (SOMC) (িলেট এ.এ.জি ওসমানী মেডিকেল কলেজ) is a government medical school in Bangladesh, established in 1962.
Tajuddin Ahmad (তাজউদ্দীন আহমদ; 23 July 1925 – 3 November 1975) was a Bangladeshi statesman and freedom fighter.
Tamgha-i-Jurat (Medal of Courage), is the fourth highest military award of Pakistan.
Teknaf (টেকনাফ Ṭeknaf) is an Upazila of Cox's Bazar District in the Division of Chittagong, Bangladesh.
The Tet Offensive (Sự kiện Tết Mậu Thân 1968), or officially called The General Offensive and Uprising of Tet Mau Than 1968 (Tổng Tiến công và Nổi dậy Tết Mậu Thân 1968) by North Vietnam and the NLF (National Liberation Front), was one of the largest military campaigns of the Vietnam War, launched on January 30, 1968, by forces of the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese People's Army of Vietnam against the forces of the South Vietnamese Army of the Republic of Vietnam, the United States Armed Forces, and their allies.
General Tikka Khan (ٹِکّا خان), (February 1915 – 28 March 2002),, was a four-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army who served as the first chief of army staff from 3 March 1972 till retiring on 1 March 1976.
The Bangladesh Liberation War started on 26 March 1971 and ended on 16 December 1971.
Waziristan (Pashto and وزیرستان, "land of the Wazir") is a mountainous region covering the North Waziristan and South Waziristan districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The XV Corps was a corps-sized formation of the British Indian Army, which was formed in India during World War II.
Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (آغا محمد یحییٰ خان; 4 February 1917 – 10 August 1980), widely known as Yahya Khan,, was the third President of Pakistan, serving in this post from 25 March 1969 until turning over his presidency in December 1971.
Ziaur Rahman (জিয়াউর রহমান Ji-yaur Rôhman; 19 January 1936 – 30 May 1981) was the 7th President of Bangladesh.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
Bangabir, General M A G Osmany, General Osmani, M A G Osmani, M. A. G. Osmany, M.A.G Osmani, M.A.G. Osmani, MAG Osmani, Mohammad Ataul Ghani Osmany, Muhammad Ataul Gani Osmani, Muhammad Ataul Ghani Osmani, Muhammad Ataul Ghani Osmany.