157 relations: Accumulator (computing), Acorn Atom, Address bus, Addressing mode, AIM-65, Allen-Bradley, Apple I, Apple II, Apple II accelerators, Apple II series, Apple IIe, Apple IIGS, ARM architecture, Array data type, Assembly language, Assertion (software development), Asteroids Deluxe, Atari 2600, Atari 8-bit family, Atari BASIC, Atari Lynx, BBC Master, BBC Micro, Bill Mensch, Binary-coded decimal, Breakpoint, Byte (magazine), Carry flag, Central processing unit, Chuck Peddle, Circular shift, CMOS, Commodore 1541, Commodore 64, Commodore CBM-II, Commodore International, Commodore PET, Commodore VIC-20, Compact Cassette, Compute!, Computer terminal, Control unit, Cross-licensing, CSG 65CE02, Depletion-load NMOS logic, Die (integrated circuit), Direct memory access, Disk storage, Dual in-line package, EDN (magazine), ..., EE Times, Elektor Junior Computer, Embedded system, Endianness, Floppy disk, Forth (programming language), General Instrument, Hertz, Hexadecimal, Home computer, IBM System/360, IBM System/370, Illegal opcode, Index register, Indirect branch, Intel, Intel 8080, Intel 8086, Interrupt, Interrupt flag, Interrupt handler, Interrupt request (PC architecture), Interrupts in 65xx processors, John Wiley & Sons, KERNAL, Kilobyte, KIM-1, Literal (computer programming), Machine code, Machine code monitor, McGraw-Hill Education, Memory divider, Microcode, Microcomputer, Microcomputer Associates, Incorporated, Microcomputer revolution, Microprocessor, Mnemonic, MOS Technology, MOS Technology 6507, MOS Technology 6508, MOS Technology 6509, MOS Technology 6510, MOSFET, Motorola, Motorola 6800, Negative flag, Nintendo, Nintendo Entertainment System, NMOS logic, Non-maskable interrupt, NOP, NTSC, Null-terminated string, Ohio Scientific, Opcode, Operand, Operating system, Oric, Overflow flag, PAL, PDF, PDP-8, Peripheral Interface Adapter, Polling (computer science), Processor register, Program counter, Programmable logic array, Read-modify-write, Reduced instruction set computer, Ricoh, Ricoh 2A03, Ricoh 5A22, Rockwell International, Second source, Serialization, Signetics, Signetics 2650, Single-board computer, Source code, Sprite (computer graphics), Stack (abstract data type), Status register, String (computer science), Super Nintendo Entertainment System, SYM-1, Synertek, System on a chip, Tamagotchi, Thousandth of an inch, Three-state logic, Transistor count, Universal asynchronous receiver-transmitter, VHDL, Video game console, Wafer (electronics), WDC 65816/65802, WDC 65C02, Western Design Center, Westin St. Francis, Wired logic connection, ZDNet, Zero flag, Zero page, Zilog Z80, 16-bit, 8-bit. Expand index (107 more) » « Shrink index
In a computer's central processing unit (CPU), an accumulator is a register in which intermediate arithmetic and logic results are stored.
The Acorn Atom is a home computer made by Acorn Computers Ltd from 1980 to 1982, when it was replaced by the BBC Micro.
An address bus is a computer bus (a series of lines connecting two or more devices) that is used to specify a physical address.
Addressing modes are an aspect of the instruction set architecture in most central processing unit (CPU) designs.
The Rockwell AIM-65 computer was a development computer introduced in 1978 based on the MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor.
Allen-Bradley is the brand-name of a line of Factory Automation Equipment manufactured by Rockwell Automation.
Apple Computer 1, also known later as the Apple I, or Apple-1, is a desktop computer released by the Apple Computer Company (now Apple Inc.) in 1976.
The Apple II (stylized as Apple.
Apple II accelerators are computer hardware devices which enable an Apple II computer to operate faster than their intended clock rate.
The Apple II series (trademarked with square brackets as "Apple.
The Apple IIe (styled as Apple //e) is the third model in the Apple II series of personal computers produced by Apple Computer.
The Apple IIGS (styled as II), the fifth and most powerful model of the Apple II family, is a 16-bit personal computer produced by Apple Computer, Inc.
ARM, previously Advanced RISC Machine, originally Acorn RISC Machine, is a family of reduced instruction set computing (RISC) architectures for computer processors, configured for various environments.
Language support for array types may include certain built-in array data types, some syntactic constructions (array type constructors) that the programmer may use to define such types and declare array variables, and special notation for indexing array elements.
An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.
In computer programming, an assertion is a statement that a predicate (Boolean-valued function, i.e. a true–false expression) is always true at that point in code execution.
Asteroids Deluxe is a vector graphic arcade game released in May 1981 by Atari Inc. as the sequel to Asteroids.
The Atari 2600 (or Atari Video Computer System before November 1982) is a home video game console from Atari, Inc. Released on September 11, 1977, it is credited with popularizing the use of microprocessor-based hardware and games contained on ROM cartridges, a format first used with the Fairchild Channel F in 1976.
The Atari 8-bit family is a series of 8-bit home computers introduced by Atari, Inc. in 1979 and manufactured until 1992.
Atari BASIC is an interpreter for the BASIC programming language that shipped with the Atari 8-bit family of 6502-based home computers.
The Atari Lynx is a 16-bit handheld game console that was released by Atari Corporation in September 1989 in North America, and in Europe and Japan in 1990.
The BBC Master is a home computer released by Acorn Computers in early 1986.
The British Broadcasting Corporation Microcomputer System, or BBC Micro, is a series of microcomputers and associated peripherals designed and built by the Acorn Computer company for the BBC Computer Literacy Project, operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation.
William (Bill) David Mensch, Jr. (born February 9, 1945), is an American electrical engineer born in Quakertown, Pennsylvania.
In computing and electronic systems, binary-coded decimal (BCD) is a class of binary encodings of decimal numbers where each decimal digit is represented by a fixed number of bits, usually four or eight.
In software development, a breakpoint is an intentional stopping or pausing place in a program, put in place for debugging purposes.
Byte was an American microcomputer magazine, influential in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s because of its wide-ranging editorial coverage.
In computer processors the carry flag (usually indicated as the C flag) is a single bit in a system status (flag) register used to indicate when an arithmetic carry or borrow has been generated out of the most significant ALU bit position.
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.
Charles Ingerham Peddle (born 1937) is an American electrical engineer best known as the main designer of the MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor, as well as the KIM-1 SBC (single-board computer) and its successor the Commodore PET PC (personal computer), both based on the 6502.
In combinatorial mathematics, a circular shift is the operation of rearranging the entries in a tuple, either by moving the final entry to the first position, while shifting all other entries to the next position, or by performing the inverse operation.
Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor, abbreviated as CMOS, is a technology for constructing integrated circuits.
The Commodore 1541 (also known as the CBM 1541 and VIC-1541) is a floppy disk drive which was made by Commodore International for the Commodore 64 (C64), Commodore's most popular home computer.
The Commodore 64, also known as the C64 or the CBM 64, is an 8-bit home computer introduced in January 1982 by Commodore International (first shown at the Consumer Electronics Show, in Las Vegas, January 7–10, 1982).
The Commodore CBM-II series is a short-lived range of 8-bit personal computers from Commodore Business Machines (CBM), released in 1982 and intended as a follow-on to the Commodore PET series.
Commodore International (or Commodore International Limited) was an American home computer and electronics manufacturer founded by Jack Tramiel.
The Commodore PET (Personal Electronic Transactor) is a line of home/personal computers produced starting in 1977 by Commodore International.
The VIC-20 (in Germany: VC-20; In Japan: VIC-1001) is an 8-bit home computer that was sold by Commodore Business Machines.
The Compact Audio Cassette (CAC) or Musicassette (MC), also commonly called the cassette tape or simply tape or cassette, is an analog magnetic tape recording format for audio recording and playback.
Compute!, often stylized as COMPUTE!, was an American home computer magazine that was published from 1979 to 1994.
A computer terminal is an electronic or electromechanical hardware device that is used for entering data into, and displaying or printing data from, a computer or a computing system.
The control unit (CU) is a component of a computer's central processing unit (CPU) that directs the operation of the processor.
A cross-licensing agreement is a contract between two or more parties where each party grants rights to their intellectual property to the other parties.
The CSG 65CE02 is a 8/16-bit microprocessor developed by Commodore Semiconductor Group in 1988.
In integrated circuits, depletion-load NMOS is a form of digital logic family that uses only a single power supply voltage, unlike earlier nMOS logic families that needed more than one different power supply voltage.
A die (pronunciation: /daɪ/) in the context of integrated circuits is a small block of semiconducting material, on which a given functional circuit is fabricated.
Direct memory access (DMA) is a feature of computer systems that allows certain hardware subsystems to access main system memory (Random-access memory), independent of the central processing unit (CPU).
Disk storage (also sometimes called drive storage) is a general category of storage mechanisms where data is recorded by various electronic, magnetic, optical, or mechanical changes to a surface layer of one or more rotating disks.
In microelectronics, a dual in-line package (DIP or DIL), or dual in-line pin package (DIPP) is an electronic component package with a rectangular housing and two parallel rows of electrical connecting pins.
EDN is an electronics industry website and formerly a magazine owned by AspenCore Media an Arrow Electronics company.
EE Times (Electronic Engineering Times) is an online electronics industry magazine published in the United States by AspenCore Media an Arrow Electronics company.
The Elektor Junior Computer was a simple 6502-based microprocessor development board published in the 1980s in the Dutch, German and later French, Spanish and British versions of Elektor/Elektuur, in the form of a series of articles, and four books.
An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.
Endianness refers to the sequential order in which bytes are arranged into larger numerical values when stored in memory or when transmitted over digital links.
A floppy disk, also called a floppy, diskette, or just disk, is a type of disk storage composed of a disk of thin and flexible magnetic storage medium, sealed in a rectangular plastic enclosure lined with fabric that removes dust particles.
Forth is an imperative stack-based computer programming language and environment originally designed by Charles "Chuck" Moore.
General Instrument (GI) was an American electronics manufacturer based in Horsham, Pennsylvania, specializing in semiconductors and cable television equipment.
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.
In mathematics and computing, hexadecimal (also base, or hex) is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16.
Home computers were a class of microcomputers entering the market in 1977, and becoming common during the 1980s.
The IBM System/360 (S/360) is a family of mainframe computer systems that was announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, and delivered between 1965 and 1978.
The IBM System/370 (S/370) was a model range of IBM mainframe computers announced on June 30, 1970 as the successors to the System/360 family.
An illegal opcode, also called an undocumented instruction, is an instruction to a CPU that is not mentioned in any official documentation released by the CPU's designer or manufacturer, which nevertheless has an effect.
An index register in a computer's CPU is a processor register used for modifying operand addresses during the run of a program, typically for doing vector/array operations.
An indirect branch (also known as a computed jump, indirect jump and register-indirect jump) is a type of program control instruction present in some machine language instruction sets.
Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.
The Intel 8080 ("eighty-eighty") was the second 8-bit microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and was released in April 1974.
The 8086 (also called iAPX 86) is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel between early 1976 and mid-1978, when it was released.
In system programming, an interrupt is a signal to the processor emitted by hardware or software indicating an event that needs immediate attention.
IF (Interrupt Flag) is a system flag bit in the x86 architecture's FLAGS register, which determines whether or not the CPU will handle maskable hardware interrupts.
In computer systems programming, an interrupt handler, also known as an interrupt service routine or ISR, is a special block of code associated with a specific interrupt condition.
In a computer, an interrupt request (or IRQ) is a hardware signal sent to the processor that temporarily stops a running program and allows a special program, an interrupt handler, to run instead.
The 65xx family of microprocessors, consisting of the MOS Technology 6502 and its derivatives, the WDC 65C02, WDC 65C802 and WDC 65C816, and CSG 65CE02, all handle interrupts in a similar fashion.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
KERNAL is Commodore's name for the ROM-resident operating system core in its 8-bit home computers; from the original PET of 1977, followed by the extended but strongly related versions used in its successors: the VIC-20, Commodore 64, Plus/4, C16, and C128.
The kilobyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.
The KIM-1, short for Keyboard Input Monitor, is a small 6502-based single-board computer developed and produced by MOS Technology, Inc. and launched in 1976.
In computer science, a literal is a notation for representing a fixed value in source code.
Machine code is a computer program written in machine language instructions that can be executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU).
A machine code monitor (machine language monitor) is software that allows a user to enter commands to view and change memory locations on a computer, with options to load and save memory contents from/to secondary storage.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
A memory divider is a ratio which is used to determine the operating clock frequency of computer memory in accordance with front side bus (FSB) frequency, if the memory system is dependent on FSB clock speed.
Microcode is a computer hardware technique that imposes an interpreter between the CPU hardware and the programmer-visible instruction set architecture of the computer.
A microcomputer is a small, relatively inexpensive computer with a microprocessor as its central processing unit (CPU).
Microcomputer Associates was founded by Manny Lemas and Ray Holt.
The microcomputer revolution (or personal computer revolution or digital revolution) is a phrase used to describe the rapid advances of microprocessor-based computers from esoteric hobby projects to a commonplace fixture of homes in industrial societies during the 1970s and 1980s.
A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.
A mnemonic (the first "m" is silent) device, or memory device, is any learning technique that aids information retention or retrieval (remembering) in the human memory.
MOS Technology, Inc. ("MOS" being short for Metal Oxide Semiconductor), also known as CSG (Commodore Semiconductor Group), was a semiconductor design and fabrication company based in Norristown, Pennsylvania, in the United States.
The 6507 is an 8-bit microprocessor from MOS Technology, Inc. It is essentially a 6502 chip in a smaller, cheaper 28-pin package.
The MOS Technology 6508 is an 8-bit microprocessor designed by MOS Technology.
The MOS Technology 6509, an enhanced version of the popular 6502 microprocessor, was capable of addressing up to 1 megabyte of RAM via bank switching.
6581 SID. The production week/year (WWYY) of each chip is given below its name. The MOS Technology 6510 is an 8-bit microprocessor designed by MOS Technology.
MOSFET showing gate (G), body (B), source (S) and drain (D) terminals. The gate is separated from the body by an insulating layer (white). surface-mount packages. Operating as switches, each of these components can sustain a blocking voltage of 120nbspvolts in the ''off'' state, and can conduct a continuous current of 30 amperes in the ''on'' state, dissipating up to about 100 watts and controlling a load of over 2000 watts. A matchstick is pictured for scale. A cross-section through an nMOSFET when the gate voltage ''V''GS is below the threshold for making a conductive channel; there is little or no conduction between the terminals drain and source; the switch is off. When the gate is more positive, it attracts electrons, inducing an ''n''-type conductive channel in the substrate below the oxide, which allows electrons to flow between the ''n''-doped terminals; the switch is on. Simulation result for formation of inversion channel (electron density) and attainment of threshold voltage (IV) in a nanowire MOSFET. Note that the threshold voltage for this device lies around 0.45 V The metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is a type of field-effect transistor (FET), most commonly fabricated by the controlled oxidation of silicon.
Motorola, Inc. was an American multinational telecommunications company founded on September 25, 1928, based in Schaumburg, Illinois.
The 6800 ("sixty-eight hundred") is an 8-bit microprocessor designed and first manufactured by Motorola in 1974.
In a computer processor the negative flag or sign flag is a single bit in a system status (flag) register used to indicate whether the result of the last mathematical operation resulted in a value in which the most significant bit was set.
Nintendo Co., Ltd. is a Japanese multinational consumer electronics and video game company headquartered in Kyoto.
The Nintendo Entertainment System (commonly abbreviated as NES) is an 8-bit home video game console that was developed and manufactured by Nintendo.
N-type metal-oxide-semiconductor logic uses n-type field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) to implement logic gates and other digital circuits.
In computing, a non-maskable interrupt (NMI) is a hardware interrupt that standard interrupt-masking techniques in the system cannot ignore.
In computer science, a NOP, no-op, or NOOP (pronounced "no op"; short for no operation) is an assembly language instruction, programming language statement, or computer protocol command that does nothing.
NTSC, named after the National Television System Committee,National Television System Committee (1951–1953),, 17 v. illus., diagrs., tables.
In computer programming, a null-terminated string is a character string stored as an array containing the characters and terminated with a null character ('\0', called NUL in ASCII).
Ohio Scientific Inc. (also known as Ohio Scientific Instruments) was an Ohio-based computer company that built and marketed microcomputers from 1975 to 1981.
In computing, an opcode (abbreviated from operation code, also known as instruction syllable, instruction parcel or opstring) is the portion of a machine language instruction that specifies the operation to be performed.
In mathematics an operand is the object of a mathematical operation, i.e. it is the quantity that is operated on.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
Oric was the name used by Tangerine Computer Systems for a series of home computers, including the original Oric-1, its successor the Oric Atmos and the later Oric Stratos/IQ164 and Oric Telestrat models (model names stylized in upper case).
In computer processors, the overflow flag (sometime called V flag) is usually a single bit in a system status register used to indicate when an arithmetic overflow has occurred in an operation, indicating that the signed two's-complement result would not fit in the number of bits used for the operation (the ALU width).
Phase Alternating Line (PAL) is a color encoding system for analogue television used in broadcast television systems in most countries broadcasting at 625-line / 50 field (25 frame) per second (576i).
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
The PDP-8 was a 12-bit minicomputer produced by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC).
A Peripheral Interface Adapter (PIA) is a peripheral integrated circuit providing parallel I/O interfacing for microprocessor systems.
Polling, or polled operation, in computer science, refers to actively sampling the status of an external device by a client program as a synchronous activity.
In computer architecture, a processor register is a quickly accessible location available to a computer's central processing unit (CPU).
The program counter (PC), commonly called the instruction pointer (IP) in Intel x86 and Itanium microprocessors, and sometimes called the instruction address register (IAR), the instruction counter, or just part of the instruction sequencer, is a processor register that indicates where a computer is in its program sequence.
A programmable logic array (PLA) is a kind of programmable logic device used to implement combinational logic circuits.
In computer science, read-modify-write is a class of atomic operations (such as test-and-set, fetch-and-add, and compare-and-swap) that both read a memory location and write a new value into it simultaneously, either with a completely new value or some function of the previous value.
A reduced instruction set computer, or RISC (pronounced 'risk'), is one whose instruction set architecture (ISA) allows it to have fewer cycles per instruction (CPI) than a complex instruction set computer (CISC).
is a Japanese multinational imaging and electronics company.
RP2A03E The Ricoh 2A03 or RP2A03 (NTSC version) / Ricoh 2A07 or RP2A07 (PAL version) is the 8-bit microprocessor in the Nintendo Entertainment System video game console manufactured by Ricoh.
The Ricoh 5A22 is a microprocessor produced by Ricoh for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES) video game console.
Rockwell International was a major American manufacturing conglomerate in the latter half of the 20th century, involved in aircraft, the space industry, both defense-oriented and commercial electronics, automotive and truck components, printing presses, valves and meters, and industrial automation.
In the electronics industry, a second source is a company that is licensed to manufacture and sell components originally designed by another company (the first source).
In computer science, in the context of data storage, serialization is the process of translating data structures or object state into a format that can be stored (for example, in a file or memory buffer) or transmitted (for example, across a network connection link) and reconstructed later (possibly in a different computer environment).
Signetics was an American electronics manufacturer specifically established to make integrated circuits.
The Signetics 2650 was an 8-bit microprocessor introduced in mid-1975.
A single-board computer (SBC) is a complete computer built on a single circuit board, with microprocessor(s), memory, input/output (I/O) and other features required of a functional computer.
In computing, source code is any collection of code, possibly with comments, written using a human-readable programming language, usually as plain text.
In computer graphics, a sprite is a two-dimensional bitmap that is integrated into a larger scene.
In computer science, a stack is an abstract data type that serves as a collection of elements, with two principal operations.
A status register, flag register, or condition code register (CCR) is a collection of status flag bits for a processor.
In computer programming, a string is traditionally a sequence of characters, either as a literal constant or as some kind of variable.
The Super Nintendo Entertainment System (officially abbreviated the Super NES or SNES, and colloquially shortened to Super Nintendo) is a 16-bit home video game console developed by Nintendo that was released in 1990 in Japan and South Korea, 1991 in North America, 1992 in Europe and Australasia (Oceania), and 1993 in South America.
The SYM-1 was a single board "trainer" computer produced by Synertek Systems Corp in 1975.
Synertek, Inc. was an American semiconductor manufacturer founded in 1973.
A system on a chip or system on chip (SoC) is an integrated circuit (also known as an "IC" or "chip") that integrates all components of a computer or other electronic systems.
The is a handheld digital pet, created in Japan by of WiZ and Aki Maita of Bandai.
A thousandth of an inch is a derived unit of length in an inch-based system of units.
In digital electronics three-state, tri-state, or 3-state logic allows an output port to assume a high impedance state, effectively removing the output from the circuit, in addition to the 0 and 1 logic levels.
The transistor count is the number of transistors on an integrated circuit (IC).
A universal asynchronous receiver-transmitter (UART) is a computer hardware device for asynchronous serial communication in which the data format and transmission speeds are configurable.
VHDL (VHSIC Hardware Description Language) is a hardware description language used in electronic design automation to describe digital and mixed-signal systems such as field-programmable gate arrays and integrated circuits.
A video game console is an electronic, digital or computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play.
A wafer, also called a slice or substrate, is a thin slice of semiconductor material, such as a crystalline silicon, used in electronics for the fabrication of integrated circuits and in photovoltaics for conventional, wafer-based solar cells.
The W65C816S (also 65C816 or 65816) is a 16-bit microprocessor (MPU) developed and sold by the Western Design Center (WDC).
The Western Design Center (WDC) 65C02 microprocessor is an enhanced CMOS version of the popular NMOS-based 8-bit MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor—the CMOS redesign being made by Bill Mensch in 1978.
The Western Design Center (WDC), located in Mesa, Arizona, USA, is a company developing and manufacturing MOS 65xx-based microprocessors, microcontrollers (µCs), and related support devices.
The Westin St.
A wired logic connection is a logic gate that implements boolean algebra (logic) using only passive components such as diodes and resistors.
ZDNet is a business technology news website published by CBS Interactive, along with TechRepublic.
The zero flag is a single bit flag that is a central feature on most conventional CPU architectures (including x86, ARM, PDP-11, 68000, 6502, and numerous others).
The zero page is the series of memory addresses at the absolute beginning of a computer's address space; that is, the page whose starting address is zero.
The Z80 CPU is an 8-bit based microprocessor.
16-bit microcomputers are computers in which 16-bit microprocessors were the norm.
8-bit is also a generation of microcomputers in which 8-bit microprocessors were the norm.