167 relations: Accordion, Adaptive differential pulse-code modulation, Advanced Audio Coding, Alcatel-Lucent, Alcatel-Lucent v. Microsoft Corp., Alfred M. Mayer, Amazon (company), APE tag, Apple Lossless, AT&T, Audio bit depth, Audio coding format, Audio normalization, Auditory masking, Average bitrate, Baker Botts, Bandwidth (computing), BBC News, Beatport, Bell Labs, Bernhard Grill, Bit rate, Bleep.com, Bloomberg Businessweek, Central processing unit, Centre commun d'études de télévision et télécommunications, Centre national d'études des télécommunications, CNET, Codec, Compact disc, Compact Disc Digital Audio, Comparison of audio coding formats, Compression artifact, Computer memory, Constant bitrate, Copyright infringement, CSELT, Data compression, Data compression ratio, Data-rate units, Digital audio, Digital Audio Tape, Digital container format, Digital rights management, Digital signal processor, Elementary stream, EMusic, European Broadcasting Union, Fedora (operating system), File format, ..., File sharing, Filename extension, Filter (software), FLAC, Foundation for a Free Information Infrastructure, Fourier transform, Fraunhofer Society, Free and open-source software, Fujitsu, Gapless playback, Geert Lovink, Glockenspiel, Hard disk drive, Hertz, Hiroshi Yasuda, ID3, Institut für Rundfunktechnik, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, International Electrotechnical Commission, International Organization for Standardization, Internationale Funkausstellung Berlin, Internet, John Wiley & Sons, Joint (audio engineering), Juno Records, JVC, Karlheinz Brandenburg, Kilobit, Kuro5hin, L3enc, LAME, Leonardo Chiariglione, Linear predictive coding, Lossless compression, Lossy compression, Lumen (website), Manfred R. Schroeder, Megabyte, Metadata, Microsoft, MIDI, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Monaural, Motorola 56000, Moving Picture Experts Group, MP3 blog, MP3 player, MP3 Surround, MP3.com, MP3Gain, Mp3HD, Mp3PRO, MPEG-1, MPEG-1 Audio Layer II, MPEG-2, MPEG-4 Part 14, MPMan, Murray Hill, New Jersey, Music piracy, Music tracker, Napster, Napster (pay service), Napster (streaming music service), NEC, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone, Nullsoft, Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem, Opus (audio format), Orange S.A., Panasonic, Patent, Peer-to-peer, Peer-to-peer file sharing, Philips, Podcast, Portable media player, Pre-echo, Psychoacoustics, Recording Industry Association of America, Reference implementation, ReplayGain, Rio PMP300, Ripping, Rounding, SaeHan Information Systems, Sampling (signal processing), SanDisk, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Seoul, Smartphone, Software patent, Sony, South Korea, Stanford University, Streaming media, Sub-band coding, Submarine patent, Surround channels, Suzanne Vega, Syncword, Tag editor, Technicolor SA, Thomson-CSF, Tom's Diner, Transient (acoustics), Transparency (data compression), Triangle (musical instrument), United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, University of Hanover, Variable bitrate, Vorbis, Walmart, Winamp, WinPlay3, Working group, Zune software. Expand index (117 more) » « Shrink index
Accordions (from 19th-century German Akkordeon, from Akkord—"musical chord, concord of sounds") are a family of box-shaped musical instruments of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone type, colloquially referred to as a squeezebox.
Adaptive differential pulse-code modulation (ADPCM) is a variant of differential pulse-code modulation (DPCM) that varies the size of the quantization step, to allow further reduction of the required data bandwidth for a given signal-to-noise ratio.
Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) is a proprietary audio coding standard for lossy digital audio compression.
Alcatel-Lucent S.A. was a French global telecommunications equipment company, headquartered in Boulogne-Billancourt, France.
Lucent Technologies Inc.
Alfred Marshall Mayer (born in Baltimore, Maryland, 13 November 1836; died in Maplewood, New Jersey, 13 July 1897) was a United States physicist.
Amazon.com, Inc., doing business as Amazon, is an American electronic commerce and cloud computing company based in Seattle, Washington that was founded by Jeff Bezos on July 5, 1994.
An APE tag is a tag used to add metadata, such as the title, artist, or track number, to digital audio files.
Apple Lossless, also known as Apple Lossless Audio Codec (ALAC), or Apple Lossless Encoder (ALE), is an audio coding format, and its reference audio codec implementation, developed by Apple Inc. for lossless data compression of digital music.
AT&T Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered at Whitacre Tower in Downtown Dallas, Texas.
In digital audio using pulse-code modulation (PCM), bit depth is the number of bits of information in each sample, and it directly corresponds to the resolution of each sample.
An audio coding format (or sometimes audio compression format) is a content representation format for storage or transmission of digital audio (such as in digital television, digital radio and in audio and video files).
Audio normalization is the application of a constant amount of gain to an audio recording to bring the average or peak amplitude to a target level (the norm).
Auditory masking occurs when the perception of one sound is affected by the presence of another sound.
Average bitrate (ABR) refers to the average amount of data transferred per unit of time, usually measured per second, commonly for digital music or video.
Baker Botts L.L.P. is a major United States-based international law firm of around 725 lawyers, with a long, prominent history and significant political connections, claiming more than half of the Fortune 100 companies among its clients.
In computing, bandwidth is the maximum rate of data transfer across a given path.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Beatport is an American electronic music-oriented online music store owned by LiveStyle.
Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.
Bernhard Grill (born January 5, 1961) is one of the developers of the MP3 technology.
In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (bitrate or as a variable R) is the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time.
Bleep is an online independent record shop that mainly showcases music from independent artists and labels.
Bloomberg Businessweek is an American weekly business magazine published by Bloomberg L.P. Businessweek was founded in 1929.
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.
CCETT or Centre commun d'études de télévision et télécommunications (Centre for the Study of Television broadcasting and Telecommunication or Common Study Center of Telediffusion and Telecommunication) was a research centre created in Rennes (France) in 1972 jointly by the Office de Radiodiffusion Télévision Française (ORTF) (later Télédiffusion de France) and Centre National d'Etudes des Telecommunications (CNET) (Direction Générale des Télécommunications, part of the French Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications) for development of new techniques for processing, transmission and distribution of audiovisual signals.
The Centre national d'études des télécommunications (French language acronym CNET, national center for telecommunication studies in English) was a French national research centre in telecommunications.
CNET (stylized as c|net) is an American media website that publishes reviews, news, articles, blogs, podcasts and videos on technology and consumer electronics globally.
A codec is a device or computer program for encoding or decoding a digital data stream or signal.
Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format that was co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982.
Compact Disc Digital Audio (CDDA or CD-DA) is the standard format for audio compact discs.
The following tables compare general and technical information for a variety of audio coding formats.
A compression artifact (or artefact) is a noticeable distortion of media (including images, audio, and video) caused by the application of lossy compression.
In computing, memory refers to the computer hardware integrated circuits that store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage".
Constant bitrate (CBR) is a term used in telecommunications, relating to the quality of service.
Copyright infringement is the use of works protected by copyright law without permission, infringing certain exclusive rights granted to the copyright holder, such as the right to reproduce, distribute, display or perform the protected work, or to make derivative works.
Centro Studi e Laboratori Telecomunicazioni (CSELT) was an Italian research center for Telecommunication based in Torino, the biggest in Italy and one of the most important in Europe.
In signal processing, data compression, source coding, or bit-rate reduction involves encoding information using fewer bits than the original representation.
Data compression ratio, also known as compression power, is a computer science term used to quantify the reduction in data-representation size produced by a data compression algorithm.
In telecommunications, data-transfer rate is the average number of bits (bitrate), characters or symbols (baudrate), or data blocks per unit time passing through a communication link in a data-transmission system.
Digital audio is audio, or simply sound, signal that has been recorded as or converted into digital form, where the sound wave of the audio signal is encoded as numerical samples in continuous sequence, typically at CD audio quality which is 16 bit sample depth over 44.1 thousand samples per second.
Digital Audio Tape (DAT or R-DAT) is a signal recording and playback medium developed by Sony and introduced in 1987.
A container or wrapper format is a metafile format whose specification describes how different elements of data and metadata coexist in a computer file.
Digital rights management (DRM) is a set of access control technologies for restricting the use of proprietary hardware and copyrighted works.
A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor (or a SIP block), with its architecture optimized for the operational needs of digital signal processing.
An elementary stream (ES) as defined by the MPEG communication protocol is usually the output of an audio or video encoder.
eMusic is an online music and audiobook store that operates by subscription.
The European Broadcasting Union (EBU; Union européenne de radio-télévision, UER) is an alliance of public service media organisations, established on 12 February 1950.
Fedora is a Linux distribution developed by the community-supported Fedora Project and sponsored by Red Hat.
A file format is a standard way that information is encoded for storage in a computer file.
File sharing is the practice of distributing or providing access to digital media, such as computer programs, multimedia (audio, images and video), documents or electronic books.
A filename extension is an identifier specified as a suffix to the name of a computer file.
A filter is a computer program or subroutine to process a stream, producing another stream.
FLAC (Free Lossless Audio Codec) is an audio coding format for lossless compression of digital audio, and is also the name of the free software project producing the FLAC tools, the reference software package that includes a codec implementation.
The Foundation for a Free Information Infrastructure (FFII) is a non-profit organisation based in Munich, Germany, dedicated to establishing a free market in information technology, by the removal of barriers to competition.
The Fourier transform (FT) decomposes a function of time (a signal) into the frequencies that make it up, in a way similar to how a musical chord can be expressed as the frequencies (or pitches) of its constituent notes.
The Fraunhofer Society (Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V., "Fraunhofer Society for the Advancement of Applied Research") is a German research organization with 69institutes spread throughout Germany, each focusing on different fields of applied science (as opposed to the Max Planck Society, which works primarily on basic science).
Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software that can be classified as both free software and open-source software.
is a Japanese multinational information technology equipment and services company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.
Gapless playback is the uninterrupted playback of consecutive audio tracks, such that relative time distances in the original audio source are preserved over track boundaries on playback.
Geert Lovink (born 1959, Amsterdam) is the founding director of the Institute of Network Cultures, whose goals are to explore, document and feed the potential for socio-economical change of the new media field through events, publications and open dialogue.
A glockenspiel (or, Glocken: bells and Spiel: set) is a percussion instrument composed of a set of tuned keys arranged in the fashion of the keyboard of a piano.
A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk is an electromechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.
ID3 is a metadata container most often used in conjunction with the MP3 audio file format.
The Institut für Rundfunktechnik GmbH (IRT) (Institute for Broadcasting Technology Ltd.) is the research centre of the German broadcasters (ARD / ZDF / DLR), Austria's broadcaster (ORF) and the Swiss public broadcaster (SRG / SSR).
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.
The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC; in French: Commission électrotechnique internationale) is an international standards organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies – collectively known as "electrotechnology".
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
The IFA or Internationale Funkausstellung Berlin (International radio exhibition Berlin, a.k.a. 'Berlin Radio Show') is one of the oldest industrial exhibitions in Germany.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
In audio engineering, joint refers to a joining of several channels of similar information in order to obtain higher quality, a smaller file size, or both.
Juno Records is a UK-based online dance music retail store, selling vinyl records, CDs, music downloads and music accessories, founded by Richard Atherton and Sharon Boyd.
,, usually referred to as JVC or The Japan Victor Company, is a Japanese international professional and consumer electronics corporation based in Yokohama.
Karlheinz Brandenburg (born 20 June 1954, in Erlangen) is a German electrical engineer and mathematician.
The kilobit is a multiple of the unit bit for digital information or computer storage.
Kuro5hin (K5; "corrosion") was a collaborative discussion website founded by Rusty Foster in 1999, having been inspired by Slashdot.
Fraunhofer l3enc was the first public software able to encode PCM (.wav) files to the MP3 format.
LAME is a software encoder that converts audio to the MP3 file format.
Leonardo Chiariglione (born 1943 in Almese, Turin province, Piedmont, Italy) is an Italian engineer.
Linear predictive coding (LPC) is a tool used mostly in audio signal processing and speech processing for representing the spectral envelope of a digital signal of speech in compressed form, using the information of a linear predictive model.
Lossless compression is a class of data compression algorithms that allows the original data to be perfectly reconstructed from the compressed data.
In information technology, lossy compression or irreversible compression is the class of data encoding methods that uses inexact approximations and partial data discarding to represent the content.
Lumen, formerly Chilling Effects, is a collaborative archive created by Wendy Seltzer and founded along with several law school clinics and the Electronic Frontier Foundation to protect lawful online activity from legal threats.
Manfred Robert Schroeder (12 July 1926 – 28 December 2009) was a German physicist, most known for his contributions to acoustics and computer graphics.
The megabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.
Metadata is "data that provides information about other data".
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
MIDI (short for Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is a technical standard that describes a communications protocol, digital interface, and electrical connectors that connect a wide variety of electronic musical instruments, computers, and related music and audio devices.
The MIT Lincoln Laboratory, located in Lexington, Massachusetts, is a United States Department of Defense research and development center chartered to apply advanced technology to problems of national security.
Monaural or monophonic sound reproduction (often shortened to mono) is sound intended to be heard as if it were emanating from one position.
The Motorola DSP56000 (also known as 56K) is a family of digital signal processor (DSP) chips produced by Motorola Semiconductor (later known as Freescale Semiconductor, now acquired by NXP) starting in 1986 and is still being produced in more advanced models in the 2010s.
The Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) is a working group of authorities that was formed by ISO and IEC to set standards for audio and video compression and transmission.
An MP3 blog is a type of blog in which the creator makes music files, normally in the MP3 format, available for download.
An MP3 player or Digital Audio Player is an electronic device that can play digital audio files.
MP3 Surround is an extension of MP3 for multi-channel audio support including 5.1 surround sound.
MP3.com is a web site operated by CNET Networks providing information about digital music and artists, songs, services, community, and technologies.
MP3Gain is an audio normalization software tool.
MPEG-1 Audio Layer III HD more commonly known and advertised by its abbreviation mp3HD is an audio compression codec developed by Technicolor formerly known as Thomson.
mp3PRO is an unmaintained proprietary audio compression codec that combines the MP3 audio format with the spectral band replication (SBR) compression method.
MPEG-1 is a standard for lossy compression of video and audio.
MPEG-1 Audio Layer II or MPEG-2 Audio Layer II (MP2, sometimes incorrectly called Musicam or MUSICAM) is a lossy audio compression format defined by ISO/IEC 11172-3 alongside MPEG-1 Audio Layer I and MPEG-1 Audio Layer III (MP3).
MPEG-2 (a.k.a. H.222/H.262 as defined by the ITU) is a standard for "the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information".
MPEG-4 Part 14 or MP4 is a digital multimedia container format most commonly used to store video and audio, but it can also be used to store other data such as subtitles and still images.
The MPMan music player, manufactured by the South Korean company SaeHan Information Systems, debuted in Asia in March 1998, and was the first mass-produced portable solid state digital audio players.
Murray Hill is an unincorporated community located within portions of both Berkeley Heights and New Providence, located in Union County in northern New Jersey, United States.
Music piracy is the copying and distributing of copies of a piece of music for which the composer, recording artist, or copyright-holding record company did not give consent.
A music tracker (short version tracker) is a type of music sequencer software for creating music.
Napster is the name given to three music-focused online services.
Napster was an online music store and a Rhapsody company, branded under the purchased name and trademarks of former free file sharing service Napster.
Napster, known as Rhapsody prior to June 14, 2016, is an online music store subscription service based in Seattle, Washington.
is a Japanese multinational provider of information technology (IT) services and products, headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan.
, commonly known as NTT, is a Japanese telecommunications company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.
Nullsoft, Inc. was a software house founded in Sedona, Arizona in 1997 by Justin Frankel.
In the field of digital signal processing, the sampling theorem is a fundamental bridge between continuous-time signals (often called "analog signals") and discrete-time signals (often called "digital signals").
Opus is a lossy audio coding format developed by the Xiph.Org Foundation and standardized by the Internet Engineering Task Force, designed to efficiently code speech and general audio in a single format, while remaining low-latency enough for real-time interactive communication and low-complexity enough for low-end embedded processors.
Orange S.A., formerly France Télécom S.A., is a French multinational telecommunications corporation.
, formerly known as, is a Japanese multinational electronics corporation headquartered in Kadoma, Osaka, Japan.
A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.
Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers.
Peer-to-peer file sharing is the distribution and sharing of digital media using peer-to-peer (P2P) networking technology.
Koninklijke Philips N.V. (Philips, stylized as PHILIPS) is a Dutch multinational technology company headquartered in Amsterdam currently focused in the area of healthcare.
A podcast, or generically netcast, is an episodic series of digital audio or video files which a user can download and listen to.
A portable media player (PMP) or digital audio player (DAP) is a portable consumer electronics device capable of storing and playing digital media such as audio, images, and video files.
Pre-echo, sometimes called a forward echo, (not to be confused with reverse echo) is a digital audio compression artifact where a sound is heard before it occurs (hence the name).
Psychoacoustics is the scientific study of sound perception and audiology.
The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) is a trade organization that represents the recording industry in the United States.
In the software development process, a reference implementation (or, less frequently, sample implementation or model implementation) is the standard from which all other implementations and corresponding customizations are derived.
ReplayGain is a proposed standard published by David Robinson in 2001 to measure the perceived loudness of audio in computer audio formats such as MP3 and Ogg Vorbis.
The Rio PMP300 is one of the first portable consumer MP3 digital audio players, and the first commercially successful one.
Ripping is extracting all or parts of digital contents from a container.
Rounding a numerical value means replacing it by another value that is approximately equal but has a shorter, simpler, or more explicit representation; for example, replacing $ with $, or the fraction 312/937 with 1/3, or the expression with.
SaeHan Information Systems is a South Korean information systems company based in Yeouido, Seoul.
In signal processing, sampling is the reduction of a continuous-time signal to a discrete-time signal.
SanDisk is a manufacturer of flash memory products, including memory cards and readers, USB flash drives, and solid state drives.
The Seattle Post-Intelligencer (popularly known as the Seattle P-I, the Post-Intelligencer, or simply the P-I) is an online newspaper and former print newspaper based in Seattle, Washington, United States.
Seoul (like soul; 서울), officially the Seoul Special Metropolitan City – is the capital, Constitutional Court of Korea and largest metropolis of South Korea.
A smartphone is a handheld personal computer with a mobile operating system and an integrated mobile broadband cellular network connection for voice, SMS, and Internet data communication; most, if not all, smartphones also support Wi-Fi.
A software patent is a patent on a piece of software, such as a computer program, libraries, user interface, or algorithm.
is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Kōnan, Minato, Tokyo.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
Streaming media is multimedia that is constantly received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider.
In signal processing, sub-band coding (SBC) is any form of transform coding that breaks a signal into a number of different frequency bands, typically by using a fast Fourier transform, and encodes each one independently.
A submarine patent is a patent whose issuance and publication are intentionally delayed by the applicant for a long time, which can be several years, or a decade.
Surround channels are audio channels in surround sound multichannel audio.
Suzanne Nadine Vega (born July 11, 1959) is an American singer-songwriter, musician and record producer, best known for her eclectic folk-inspired music.
In computer networks, a syncword, sync character, sync sequence or preamble is used to synchronize a data transmission by indicating the end of header information and the start of data.
A tag editor (or tagger) is a piece of software that supports editing metadata of multimedia file formats, rather than the actual file content.
Technicolor SA, formerly Thomson SARL and Thomson Multimedia, is a French multinational corporation that provides services and products for the communication, media and entertainment industries.
Thomson-CSF was a major electronics and defence contractor.
"Tom's Diner" is a song written in 1981 by American singer and songwriter Suzanne Vega.
In acoustics and audio, a transient is a high amplitude, short-duration sound at the beginning of a waveform that occurs in phenomena such as musical sounds, noises or speech.
In data compression and psychoacoustics, transparency is the result of lossy data compression accurate enough that the compressed result is perceptually indistinguishable from the uncompressed input.
The triangle is an idiophone type of musical instrument in the percussion family.
The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas (in case citations, E.D. Tex.) is a federal court in the Fifth Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit).
Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg (Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, FAU) is a public research university in the cities of Erlangen and Nuremberg in Bavaria, Germany.
The University of Hanover, officially the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Hannover, short Leibniz University Hannover, is a public university located in Hannover, Germany.
Variable bitrate (VBR) is a term used in telecommunications and computing that relates to the bitrate used in sound or video encoding.
Vorbis is a free and open-source software project headed by the Xiph.Org Foundation.
Walmart Inc. (formerly branded as Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.) is an American multinational retail corporation that operates a chain of hypermarkets, discount department stores, and grocery stores.
Winamp is a media player for Windows, macOS and Android, originally developed by Justin Frankel and Dmitry Boldyrev by their company Nullsoft, which they later sold to AOL in 1999 for $80 million.
WinPlay3 was the first real-time MP3 audio player for PCs running Windows, both 16-bit (Windows 3.1) and 32-bit (Windows 95).
A working group or working party is a group of experts working together to achieve specified goals.
Zune is a discontinued media management app for Microsoft Windows that functions as a full media player application with a library, an interface to the Zune Marketplace, and as a media streaming server.
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