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Index MS-DOS

MS-DOS (acronym for Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system for x86-based personal computers mostly developed by Microsoft. [1]

156 relations: AARD code, Addison-Wesley, ANSI.SYS, Apple II, Application programming interface, Application software, April Fools' Day, Assembly language, AT&T Computer Systems, AUTOEXEC.BAT, Bad command or file name, Bootstrapping, Brad Silverberg, Breakup of the Bell System, Byte (magazine), Caldera (company), CBS Interactive, CMD file (CP/M), Cmd.exe, Code page, COM file, Command-line interface, COMMAND.COM, Commodore 64, Comparison of DOS operating systems, Computer History Museum, Computer multitasking, Computer Russification, CONFIG.SYS, CP/M, CP/M-86, Datalight, Digital Research, Disk compression, Disk operating system, DOS, DOS Plus, DOS/V, DOSBox, DR-DOS, DriveSpace, Due diligence, Edlin, Executable, Expanded memory, Fear, uncertainty and doubt, Federal Trade Commission, File Allocation Table, File Control Block, Filename extension, ..., Floppy disk, FM Towns, Forward compatibility, Free Software Foundation, FreeDOS, Fujitsu, Graphical user interface, Graphics Environment Manager, Hardware abstraction, High memory area, HIMEM.SYS, HP 95LX, IBM PC compatible, IBM PC DOS, IBM Personal Computer, InfoWorld, Installable File System, Intel 80286, Intel 80386, Intel 8086, Intel 8088, Itanium, Lempel–Ziv–Stac, Lifeboat Associates, List of DOS commands, London, Ontario, Look and feel, Macintosh, Microsoft, Microsoft Developer Network, Microsoft litigation, Microsoft Lumia, Microsoft Mobile, Microsoft Pascal, Microsoft TechNet, Microsoft Windows, Microsoft Windows version history, Monolithic kernel, Motorola 68000, MS-DOS, MS-DOS 4.0 (multitasking), MS-DOS API, MS-DOS Editor, MSAV, Multi-user software, Norton Utilities, Open Source Initiative, Open-source model, Operating system, Original equipment manufacturer, OS/2, PC Tools (software), PC1512, PDP-11, Personal computer, POSIX, Program information file, Program Segment Prefix, Programming language, Proprietary software, PTS-DOS, QBasic, QEMM, QuickC, Santa Cruz Operation, Seattle Computer Products, Self-modifying code, Shared source, Source-available, Stac Electronics, Tandy 2000, Tao ExDOS, TechRepublic, Text-based user interface, Tim Paterson, Timeline of DOS operating systems, Unix, UNIX System V, Upper memory area, Vendor lock-in, Virtual DOS machine, Virtual machine, VMware, Win32 console, Windows 2000, Windows 3.0, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 9x, Windows ME, Windows NT, Windows Phone, Windows Virtual PC, Windows Vista, Windows XP, X86, X86-64, Xenix, Z-DOS, Zilog Z8000, .exe, 16-bit, 32-bit, 4DOS, 64-bit computing, 86-DOS. Expand index (106 more) »

AARD code

The AARD code was a segment of code in a beta release of Microsoft Windows 3.1 that would determine whether Windows was running on MS-DOS or PC DOS, rather than a competing workalike such as DR-DOS, and would result in a cryptic error message in the latter case.

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Addison-Wesley is a publisher of textbooks and computer literature.

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ANSI.SYS is a device driver in the DOS family of operating systems that provides extra console functions through ANSI escape sequences.

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Apple II

The Apple II (stylized as Apple.

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Application programming interface

In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building software.

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Application software

An application software (app or application for short) is a computer software designed to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities for the benefit of the user.

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April Fools' Day

April Fools' Day is an annual celebration in some European and Western countries commemorated on April 1 by playing practical jokes and spreading hoaxes.

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Assembly language

An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.

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AT&T Computer Systems

AT&T Computer Systems is the generic name for American Telephone & Telegraph's unsuccessful attempt to compete in the computer business.

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AUTOEXEC.BAT is a system file that was originally on DOS-type operating systems.

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Bad command or file name

"Bad command or file name" is a common error message in MS-DOS and some other operating systems.

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In general, bootstrapping usually refers to a self-starting process that is supposed to proceed without external input.

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Brad Silverberg

Brad Silverberg is an American computer scientist and businessman, most noted for his work at Microsoft in 1990–99 as Senior VP and product manager for MS-DOS, Windows, Internet Explorer, and Office.

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Breakup of the Bell System

The breakup of the Bell System was mandated on January 8, 1982, by an agreed consent decree providing that AT&T Corporation would, as had been initially proposed by AT&T, relinquish control of the Bell Operating Companies that had provided local telephone service in the United States and Canada up until that point.

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Byte (magazine)

Byte was an American microcomputer magazine, influential in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s because of its wide-ranging editorial coverage.

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Caldera (company)

Caldera was a US-based software company founded in 1994 to develop Linux- and DOS-based operating system products.

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CBS Interactive

CBS Interactive Inc. (formerly CBS Digital Media Group) is an American media company and is a division of the CBS Corporation.

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CMD file (CP/M)

In CP/M-86, Concurrent CP/M-86, Personal CP/M-86, S5-DOS, DOS Plus, Concurrent DOS, FlexOS, Multiuser DOS, System Manager and REAL/32, CMD is the filename extension used by CP/M-style executable programs.

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Command Prompt, also known as cmd.exe or cmd (after its executable file name), is the command-line interpreter on Windows NT, Windows CE, OS/2 and eComStation operating systems.

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Code page

In computing, a code page is a table of values that describes the character set used for encoding a particular set of characters, usually combined with a number of control characters.

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COM file

A COM file is a type of simple executable file.

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Command-line interface

A command-line interface or command language interpreter (CLI), also known as command-line user interface, console user interface and character user interface (CUI), is a means of interacting with a computer program where the user (or client) issues commands to the program in the form of successive lines of text (command lines).

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COMMAND.COM is the default command-line interpreter for DOS, Windows 95, Windows 98 and Windows ME.

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Commodore 64

The Commodore 64, also known as the C64 or the CBM 64, is an 8-bit home computer introduced in January 1982 by Commodore International (first shown at the Consumer Electronics Show, in Las Vegas, January 7–10, 1982).

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Comparison of DOS operating systems

This article details various versions of DOS-compatible operating systems.

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Computer History Museum

The Computer History Museum (CHM) is a museum established in 1996 in Mountain View, California, US.

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Computer multitasking

In computing, multitasking is the concurrent execution of multiple tasks (also known as processes) over a certain period of time.

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Computer Russification

In computing, Russification involves the localization of computers and software, allowing the user interface of a computer and its software to communicate in the Russian language using Cyrillic script.

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CONFIG.SYS is the primary configuration file for the DOS and OS/2 operating systems.

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CP/M, originally standing for Control Program/Monitor and later Control Program for Microcomputers, is a mass-market operating system created for Intel 8080/85-based microcomputers by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc.

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CP/M-86 was a version of the CP/M operating system that Digital Research (DR) made for the Intel 8086 and Intel 8088.

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Datalight is a privately held software company specializing in power failsafe and high performance software for preserving data integrity in embedded systems.

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Digital Research

Digital Research, Inc. (also known as DR or DRI) was a company created by Gary Kildall to market and develop his CP/M operating system and related 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit systems like MP/M, Concurrent DOS, Multiuser DOS, DOS Plus, DR DOS and GEM.

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Disk compression

A disk compression software utility increases the amount of information that can be stored on a hard disk drive of given size.

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Disk operating system

A disk operating system (abbreviated DOS) is a computer operating system that can use a disk storage device, such as a floppy disk, hard disk drive, or optical disc.

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DOS is a family of disk operating systems.

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DOS Plus

DOS Plus (erroneously also known as DOS+) was the first operating system developed by Digital Research's OEM Support Group in Newbury, Berkshire, UK, first released in 1985.

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DOS/V was a Japanese computing initiative starting in 1990 to allow DOS on IBM PC compatibles with VGA cards to handle double-byte (DBCS) Japanese text via software alone.

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DOSBOX (stylized as DOSBox) is an emulator program which emulates an IBM PC compatible computer running a DOS operating system.

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DR-DOS (DR DOS, without hyphen up to and including version 6.0) is an operating system of the DOS family, written for IBM PC-compatible personal computers.

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DriveSpace (initially known as DoubleSpace) is a disk compression utility supplied with MS-DOS starting from version 6.0.

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Due diligence

Due diligence is an investigation of a business or person prior to signing a contract, or an act with a certain standard of care.

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Edlin is a line editor, and the only text editor provided with early versions of MS-DOS.

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In computing, executable code or an executable file or executable program, sometimes simply referred to as an executable or binary, causes a computer "to perform indicated tasks according to encoded instructions," as opposed to a data file that must be parsed by a program to be meaningful.

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Expanded memory

In DOS memory management, expanded memory is a system of bank switching that provided additional memory to DOS programs beyond the limit of conventional memory (640 KB).

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Fear, uncertainty and doubt

Fear, uncertainty and doubt (often shortened to FUD) is a disinformation strategy used in sales, marketing, public relations, talk radio, politics, cults, and propaganda.

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Federal Trade Commission

The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is an independent agency of the United States government, established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act.

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File Allocation Table

File Allocation Table (FAT) is a computer file system architecture and a family of industry-standard file systems utilizing it.

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File Control Block

A File Control Block (FCB) is a file system structure in which the state of an open file is maintained.

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Filename extension

A filename extension is an identifier specified as a suffix to the name of a computer file.

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Floppy disk

A floppy disk, also called a floppy, diskette, or just disk, is a type of disk storage composed of a disk of thin and flexible magnetic storage medium, sealed in a rectangular plastic enclosure lined with fabric that removes dust particles.

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FM Towns

system is a Japanese PC variant, built by Fujitsu from February 1989 to the summer of 1997.

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Forward compatibility

Forward compatibility or upward compatibility is a design characteristic that allows a system to accept input intended for a later version of itself.

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Free Software Foundation

The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization founded by Richard Stallman on 4 October 1985 to support the free software movement, which promotes the universal freedom to study, distribute, create, and modify computer software, with the organization's preference for software being distributed under copyleft ("share alike") terms, such as with its own GNU General Public License.

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FreeDOS (formerly Free-DOS and PD-DOS) is a free operating system for IBM PC compatible computers.

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is a Japanese multinational information technology equipment and services company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.

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Graphical user interface

The graphical user interface (GUI), is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.

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Graphics Environment Manager

Graphics Environment Manager (GEM) was an operating environment created by Digital Research (DRI) for use with the DOS operating system on Intel 8088 and Motorola 68000 microprocessors.

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Hardware abstraction

Hardware abstractions are sets of routines in software that emulate some platform-specific details, giving programs direct access to the hardware resources.

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High memory area

In DOS memory management, the high memory area (HMA) is the RAM area consisting of the first 65520 bytes above the one megabyte in an IBM AT or compatible computer.

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HIMEM.SYS is a DOS device driver which allows DOS programs to store data in extended memory via the Extended Memory Specification (XMS).

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The HP 95LX Palmtop PC (F1000A, F1010A), also known as project Jaguar, was Hewlett Packard's first MS-DOS-based pocket computer or personal digital assistant, introduced in April 1991 in collaboration with Lotus Development Corporation.

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IBM PC compatible

IBM PC compatible computers are computers similar to the original IBM PC, XT, and AT, able to use the same software and expansion cards.

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IBM PC DOS (an acronym for IBM personal computer disk operating system) is a discontinued operating system for the IBM Personal Computer, manufactured and sold by IBM from the early 1980s into the 2000s.

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IBM Personal Computer

The IBM Personal Computer, commonly known as the IBM PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform.

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InfoWorld (formerly The Intelligent Machines Journal) is an information technology media business.

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Installable File System

The Installable File System (IFS) is a filesystem API in MS-DOS/PC DOS 4.x, IBM OS/2 and Microsoft Windows that enables the operating system to recognize and load drivers for file systems.

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Intel 80286

The Intel 80286 (also marketed as the iAPX 286 and often called Intel 286) is a 16-bit microprocessor that was introduced on 1 February 1982.

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Intel 80386

The Intel 80386, also known as i386 or just 386, is a 32-bit microprocessor introduced in 1985.

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Intel 8086

The 8086 (also called iAPX 86) is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel between early 1976 and mid-1978, when it was released.

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Intel 8088

The Intel 8088 ("eighty-eighty-eight", also called iAPX 88) microprocessor is a variant of the Intel 8086.

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Itanium is a family of 64-bit Intel microprocessors that implement the Intel Itanium architecture (formerly called IA-64).

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Lempel–Ziv–Stac (LZS, or Stac compression) is a lossless data compression algorithm that uses a combination of the LZ77 sliding-window compression algorithm and fixed Huffman coding.

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Lifeboat Associates

Lifeboat Associates was a New York City company that was one of the largest microcomputer software distributors in the late 1970s and early 1980s.

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List of DOS commands

This article presents a list of commands used by DOS operating systems, especially as used on x86-based IBM PC compatibles (PCs).

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London, Ontario

London is a city in Southwestern Ontario, Canada along the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor.

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Look and feel

In software design, look and feel is a term used in respect of a graphical user interface and comprises aspects of its design, including elements such as colors, shapes, layout, and typefaces (the "look"), as well as the behavior of dynamic elements such as buttons, boxes, and menus (the "feel").

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The Macintosh (pronounced as; branded as Mac since 1998) is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984.

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Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.

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Microsoft Developer Network

Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN) is the portion of Microsoft responsible for managing the firm's relationship with developers and testers, such as hardware developers interested in the operating system (OS), and software developers developing on the various OS platforms or using the API or scripting languages of Microsoft's applications.

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Microsoft litigation

Microsoft has been involved in numerous high-profile legal matters that involved litigation over the history of the company, including cases against the United States, the European Union, and competitors.

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Microsoft Lumia

Microsoft Lumia (previously the Nokia Lumia Series) is a discontinued line of mobile devices that was originally designed and marketed by Nokia and later by Microsoft Mobile.

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Microsoft Mobile

Microsoft Mobile was a subsidiary of Microsoft involved in the development and manufacturing of mobile phones.

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Microsoft Pascal

Microsoft Pascal was an implementation of the Pascal programming language that was developed by the Microsoft Corporation for compiling programs for running on its MS-DOS operating system and, in later versions, on OS/2 (like many other Microsoft programming tools, albeit they were only capable of generating 16-bit programs for the latter).

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Microsoft TechNet

Microsoft TechNet is a Microsoft web portal and web service for IT professionals.

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Microsoft Windows

Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.

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Microsoft Windows version history

Microsoft Windows was announced by Bill Gates on November 10, 1983.

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Monolithic kernel

A monolithic kernel is an operating system architecture where the entire operating system is working in kernel space and is alone in supervisor mode.

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Motorola 68000

The Motorola 68000 ("'sixty-eight-thousand'"; also called the m68k or Motorola 68k, "sixty-eight-kay") is a 16/32-bit CISC microprocessor, which implements a 32-bit instruction set, with 32-bit registers and 32-bit internal data bus, but with a 16-bit data ALU and two 16-bit arithmetic ALUs and a 16-bit external data bus, designed and marketed by Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector.

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MS-DOS (acronym for Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system for x86-based personal computers mostly developed by Microsoft.

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MS-DOS 4.0 (multitasking)

MS-DOS 4.0 was a multitasking release of MS-DOS developed by Microsoft based on MS-DOS 2.0.

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The MS-DOS API is an API which originated with 86-DOS and is used in MS-DOS/PC DOS and other DOS-compatible operating systems.

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MS-DOS Editor

MS-DOS Editor, commonly just called edit, is a character-based text editor that comes with MS-DOS (since version 5) and 32-bit versions of Microsoft Windows.

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Microsoft Anti-Virus (MSAV) was an antivirus program introduced by Microsoft for its MS-DOS operating system.

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Multi-user software

Multi-user software is software that allows access by multiple users of a computer.

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Norton Utilities

Norton Utilities is a utility software suite designed to help analyze, configure, optimize and maintain a computer.

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Open Source Initiative

The Open Source Initiative (OSI) is a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting open-source software.

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Open-source model

The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.

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Operating system

An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.

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Original equipment manufacturer

An Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) is a company that produces parts and equipment that may be marketed by another manufacturer.

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OS/2 is a series of computer operating systems, initially created by Microsoft and IBM under the leadership of IBM software designer Ed Iacobucci.

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PC Tools (software)

PC Tools was a collection of software utilities for MS-DOS developed by Central Point Software.

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The Amstrad PC1512 was Amstrad's mostly IBM PC-compatible computer system, first manufactured in 1986.

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The PDP-11 is a series of 16-bit minicomputers sold by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1970 into the 1990s, one of a succession of products in the PDP series.

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Personal computer

A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.

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The Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) is a family of standards specified by the IEEE Computer Society for maintaining compatibility between operating systems.

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Program information file

A program information file (PIF) defines how a given DOS program should be run in a multi-tasking environment, especially in order to avoid giving it unnecessary resources which could remain available to other programs.

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Program Segment Prefix

The Program Segment Prefix (PSP) is a data structure used in DOS systems to store the state of a program.

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Programming language

A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.

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Proprietary software

Proprietary software is non-free computer software for which the software's publisher or another person retains intellectual property rights—usually copyright of the source code, but sometimes patent rights.

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PTS-DOS is a disk operating system, an MS-DOS clone, developed in Russia by PhysTechSoft.

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QBasic, a short form of Quick Beginners All purpose Symbolic Instruction Code, is an integrated development environment and interpreter for a variety of BASIC programming languages which are based on QuickBASIC.

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Quarterdeck Expanded Memory Manager (QEMM) is a memory manager produced by Quarterdeck Office Systems in the late 1980s through late 1990s.

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Microsoft QuickC was a commercial integrated development environment (IDE) product engineered by Microsoft for the C programming language, superseded by Visual C++ Standard Edition.

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Santa Cruz Operation

Santa Cruz Operation (SCO) was a software company based in Santa Cruz, California which was best known for selling three Unix variants for Intel x86 processors: Xenix, SCO UNIX (later known as SCO OpenServer), and UnixWare.

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Seattle Computer Products

Seattle Computer Products (SCP) was a Seattle, Washington, microcomputer hardware company which was one of the first manufacturers of computer systems based on the 16-bit Intel 8086 processor.

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Self-modifying code

In computer science, self-modifying code is code that alters its own instructions while it is executing – usually to reduce the instruction path length and improve performance or simply to reduce otherwise repetitively similar code, thus simplifying maintenance.

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Shared source

A shared source or source available software source code distribution model includes arrangements where the source can be viewed, and in some cases modified, but without necessarily meeting the criteria to be called open source.

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So-called source available software (or source-available software) is a software for which its source code is made publicly available for access.

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Stac Electronics

Stac Electronics, originally incorporated as State of the Art Consulting and later shortened to Stac, Inc., was a technology company founded in 1983.

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Tandy 2000

The Tandy 2000 is a personal computer introduced by Radio Shack in September 1983 based on the 8 MHz Intel 80186 microprocessor running MS-DOS.

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Tao ExDOS is an emulator software application designed to allow users of old MS-DOS applications to run these applications on new operating systems such as Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, Windows XP, Windows 2000 and Windows Terminal Server.

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TechRepublic is an online trade publication and social community for IT professionals, with advice on best practices and tools for the day-to-day needs of IT decision-makers.

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Text-based user interface

Text-based user interface (TUI), also called textual user interface or terminal user interface, is a retronym coined sometime after the invention of graphical user interfaces.

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Tim Paterson

Tim Paterson (born 1956) is an American computer programmer, best known for creating 86-DOS, an operating system for the Intel 8086.

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Timeline of DOS operating systems

This article presents a timeline of events in the history of x86 DOS operating systems from 1973 to 2016.

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Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.

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UNIX System V

UNIX System V (pronounced: "System Five") is one of the first commercial versions of the Unix operating system.

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Upper memory area

In DOS memory management, the upper memory area (UMA) refers to memory between the addresses of 640 KB and 1024 KB (0xA0000–0xFFFFF) in an IBM PC or compatible.

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Vendor lock-in

In economics, vendor lock-in, also known as proprietary lock-in or customer lock-in, makes a customer dependent on a vendor for products and services, unable to use another vendor without substantial switching costs.

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Virtual DOS machine

Virtual DOS machine (VDM) is a technology that allows running 16-bit/32-bit DOS and 16-bit Windows programs on Intel 80386 or higher computers when there is already another operating system running and controlling the hardware.

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Virtual machine

In computing, a virtual machine (VM) is an emulation of a computer system.

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VMware, Inc. is a subsidiary of Dell Technologies that provides cloud computing and platform virtualization software and services.

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Win32 console

Win32 console is a text user interface implementation within the system of Windows API, which runs console applications.

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Windows 2000

Windows 2000 (codenamed NT 5.0) is an operating system for use on both client and server computers.

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Windows 3.0

Windows 3.0, a graphical environment, is the third major release of Microsoft Windows, and was released on May 22, 1990.

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Windows 95

Windows 95 (codenamed Chicago) is a consumer-oriented operating system developed by Microsoft.

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Windows 98

Windows 98 (codenamed Memphis while in development) is a graphical operating system by Microsoft.

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Windows 9x

Windows 9x is a generic term referring to a series of Microsoft Windows computer operating systems produced from 1995 to 2000, which were based on the Windows 95 kernel and its underlying foundation of MS-DOS, both of which were updated in subsequent versions.

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Windows ME

Windows Millennium Edition, or Windows ME (marketed with the pronunciation of the pronoun "me", commonly pronounced as an initialism, "M-E (Codenamed Millennium)", is a graphical operating system from Microsoft released to manufacturing in June 2000, and launched in September 2000.

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Windows NT

Windows NT is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993.

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Windows Phone

Windows Phone (WP) is a family of discontinued mobile operating systems developed by Microsoft for smartphones as the replacement successor to Windows Mobile and Zune.

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Windows Virtual PC

Windows Virtual PC (successor to Microsoft Virtual PC 2007, Microsoft Virtual PC 2004, and Connectix Virtual PC) is a virtualization program for Microsoft Windows.

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Windows Vista

Windows Vista (codenamed Longhorn) is an operating system by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, tablet PCs and media center PCs.

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Windows XP

Windows XP (codenamed Whistler) is a personal computer operating system that was produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems.

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x86 is a family of backward-compatible instruction set architectures based on the Intel 8086 CPU and its Intel 8088 variant.

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x86-64 (also known as x64, x86_64, AMD64 and Intel 64) is the 64-bit version of the x86 instruction set.

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Xenix is a discontinued version of the Unix operating system for various microcomputer platforms, licensed by Microsoft from AT&T Corporation in the late 1970s.

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Z-DOS is a discontinued OEM version of Microsoft's MS-DOS specifically adapted to run on the hardware of the Zenith Z-100 personal computer.

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Zilog Z8000

The Z8000 ("zee-eight-thousand") is a 16-bit microprocessor introduced by Zilog in early 1979, between the launch of the Intel 8086 (April 1978) and the Motorola 68000 (September 1979).

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.exe is a common filename extension denoting an executable file (the main execution point of a computer program) for DOS, OpenVMS, Microsoft Windows, Symbian or OS/2.

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16-bit microcomputers are computers in which 16-bit microprocessors were the norm.

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32-bit microcomputers are computers in which 32-bit microprocessors are the norm.

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4DOS is a command line interpreter by JP Software, designed to replace the default command interpreter COMMAND.COM in DOS and Windows 95/98/SE/ME.

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64-bit computing

In computer architecture, 64-bit computing is the use of processors that have datapath widths, integer size, and memory address widths of 64 bits (eight octets).

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86-DOS is a discontinued operating system developed and marketed by Seattle Computer Products (SCP) for its Intel 8086-based computer kit.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MS-DOS

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