106 relations: Acra (fortress), Acronym, Alexander Jannaeus, Alexander the Great, Antinomianism, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, Antiochus VII Sidetes, Apocrypha, Aramaic language, Aristobulus I, Aristobulus II, Augustus, Book of Exodus, Catholic Church, Civil war, Coele-Syria, Commemoration (liturgy), Congregation for the Causes of Saints, David, Demetrius II Nicator, Deuterocanonical books, Diadochi, Diodotus Tryphon, Dormition of the Mother of God, Eastern Orthodox Church, Edom, Eleazar (2 Maccabees), Elohim, Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Forced conversion, Foreskin restoration, General Roman Calendar, Gezer, Guerrilla warfare, Gymnasium (ancient Greece), Hanukkah, Hasmonean dynasty, Hellenistic Judaism, Hellenization, Herod the Great, Herodian kingdom, High Priest of Israel, Howard Fast, Hyrcanus II, Israel, Jaffa, Jason, Jason (high priest), Jerusalem, Jewish prayer, ..., John Gaddi, John Hyrcanus, Jonathan Apphus, Judas Maccabeus, Judea, Liberation of Saint Peter, List of Greek mythological figures, List of minor Old Testament figures, L–Z, Livy, Lower Egypt, Mark Antony, Mattathias, Menelaus, Menelaus (High Priest), Menorah (Temple), Meqabyan, Mishnah, Modi'in-Maccabim-Re'ut, My Glorious Brothers, Mysterii Paschalis, Nicholas de Lange, Old Testament, Onias III, Oxford English Dictionary, Parthian Empire, Pharisees, Phoenicia, Polis, Pope John XXIII, Priest, Protestantism, Ptolemaic Kingdom, Rabbinic literature, Religious male circumcision, Roman Rite, Roman Senate, Sadducees, Salome Alexandra, Seleucid Empire, Septuagint, Siege of Jerusalem (63 BC), Simon Thassi, Talmud, Tanakh, Temple in Jerusalem, Tetragrammaton, Tobiads, Torah, Tribute, Tridentine Calendar, Victor Tcherikover, Wojciech Stattler, Zeus, Zionism, 1 Maccabees, 2 Maccabees. Expand index (56 more) » « Shrink index
The Acra or Akra (חקרא or חקרה, Ἄκρα) was a fortified compound in Jerusalem built by Antiochus Epiphanes, ruler of the Seleucid Empire, following his sack of the city in 168 BCE.
An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).
Alexander Jannaeus (also known as Alexander Jannai/Yannai; יהונתן "ינאי" אלכסנדר, born Jonathan Alexander) was the second Hasmonean king of Judaea from 103 to 76 BC.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Antinomianism (from the Greek: ἀντί, "against" + νόμος, "law"), is any view which rejects laws or legalism and is against moral, religious, or social norms (Latin: mores), or is at least considered to do so.
Antiochus IV Epiphanes (Ἀντίοχος ὁ Ἐπιφανής, Antíochos ho Epiphanḗs, "God Manifest"; c. 215 BC – 164 BC) was a Hellenistic Greek king of the Seleucid Empire from 175 BC until his death in 164 BC.
Antiochus VII Euergetes (Ἀντίοχος Ζ΄ Ευεργέτης), nicknamed Sidetes (Σιδήτης) (from Side, a city in Asia Minor), ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, reigned from 138 to 129 BC.
Apocrypha are works, usually written, of unknown authorship or of doubtful origin.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
Judah Aristobulus I (Ἰούδας Ἀριστόβουλος Ioúdās Aristóboulos, the epithet meaning "best-advising"; reigned c. 104 – 103 BC) was the first ruler of the Hasmonean Dynasty to declare himself "king".
Aristobulus II (אריסטובולוס; Ἀριστόβουλος Aristóboulos) was the Jewish High Priest and King of Judea, 66 BC to 63 BC, from the Hasmonean Dynasty.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
The Book of Exodus or, simply, Exodus (from ἔξοδος, éxodos, meaning "going out"; וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמוֹת, we'elleh shəmōṯ, "These are the names", the beginning words of the text: "These are the names of the sons of Israel" וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמֹות בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל), is the second book of the Torah and the Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament) immediately following Genesis.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country.
Coele-Syria, Coele Syria, Coelesyria (Κοίλη Συρία, Koílē Syría), also rendered as Coelosyria and Celesyria, otherwise Hollow Syria (Cava Syria, Hohl Syrien), was a region of Syria in classical antiquity.
In the Latin liturgical rites, a commemoration is the recital, within the Liturgy of the Hours or the Mass of one celebration, of part of another celebration, generally of lower rank, that is impeded because of a coincidence of date.
The Congregation for the Causes of Saints is the congregation of the Roman Curia that oversees the complex process that leads to the canonization of saints, passing through the steps of a declaration of "heroic virtues" and beatification.
David is described in the Hebrew Bible as the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
Demetrius II (Δημήτριος Β`, Dēmḗtrios B; died 125 BC), called Nicator (Νικάτωρ, Nikátōr, "the Victor"), was one of the sons of Demetrius I Soter possibly by Laodice V, as was his brother Antiochus VII Sidetes.
The deuterocanonical books (from the Greek meaning "belonging to the second canon") is a term adopted in the 16th century by the Roman Catholic Church to denote those books and passages of the Christian Old Testament, as defined in 1546 by the Council of Trent, that were not found in the Hebrew Bible.
The Diadochi (plural of Latin Diadochus, from Διάδοχοι, Diádokhoi, "successors") were the rival generals, families, and friends of Alexander the Great who fought for control over his empire after his death in 323 BC.
Diodotus Tryphon (Διόδοτος Τρύφων) was a king of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire who initially acted as regent and tutor for the son of Alexander Balas, but soon declared himself king in 142 BC after the death of his charge, Antiochus VI Dionysus, and reigned until his own death in 138 BC.
The Dormition of the Mother of God (Κοίμησις Θεοτόκου, Koímēsis Theotokou often anglicized as Kimisis; Slavonic: Успение Пресвятыя Богородицы, Uspenie Presvetia Bogoroditsi; Georgian: მიძინება ყოვლადწმიდისა ღვთისმშობელისა) is a Great Feast of the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches which commemorates the "falling asleep" or death of Mary the Theotokos ("Mother of God", literally translated as God-bearer), and her bodily resurrection before being taken up into heaven.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Edom (Assyrian: 𒌑𒁺𒈠𒀀𒀀 Uduma; Syriac: ܐܕܘܡ) was an ancient kingdom in Transjordan located between Moab to the northeast, the Arabah to the west and the Arabian Desert to the south and east.
Eleazar was a Jewish man whose story is portrayed in 2 Maccabees 6.
Elohim (Hebrew: ’ĕlōhîm) is one of the many names or titles for God in the Hebrew Bible; the term is also used in the Hebrew Bible to refer to other gods.
The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (የኢትዮጵያ:ኦርቶዶክስ:ተዋሕዶ:ቤተ:ክርስቲያን; Yäityop'ya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is the largest of the Oriental Orthodox Christian Churches.
Forced conversion is adoption of a different religion or irreligion under duress.
Foreskin restoration is the process of expanding the skin on the penis to reconstruct an organ similar to the foreskin, which has been removed by circumcision or other injury.
The General Roman Calendar is the liturgical calendar that indicates the dates of celebrations of saints and mysteries of the Lord (Jesus Christ) in the Roman Rite, wherever this liturgical rite is in use.
Gezer, or Tel Gezer (גֶּזֶר)(also Tell el-Jezer) is an archaeological site in the foothills of the Judaean Mountains at the border of the Shfela region roughly midway between Jerusalem and Tel Aviv.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
The gymnasium (Greek: gymnasion) in Ancient Greece functioned as a training facility for competitors in public games.
Hanukkah (חֲנֻכָּה, Tiberian:, usually spelled rtl, pronounced in Modern Hebrew, or in Yiddish; a transliteration also romanized as Chanukah or Ḥanukah) is a Jewish holiday commemorating the rededication of the Holy Temple (the Second Temple) in Jerusalem at the time of the Maccabean Revolt against the Seleucid Empire.
The Hasmonean dynasty (חַשְׁמוֹנַּאִים, Ḥašmōna'īm) was a ruling dynasty of Judea and surrounding regions during classical antiquity.
Hellenistic Judaism was a form of Judaism in the ancient world that combined Jewish religious tradition with elements of Greek culture.
Hellenization or Hellenisation is the historical spread of ancient Greek culture, religion and, to a lesser extent, language, over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or brought into their sphere of influence, particularly during the Hellenistic period following the campaigns of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC.
Herod (Greek:, Hērōdēs; 74/73 BCE – c. 4 BCE/1 CE), also known as Herod the Great and Herod I, was a Roman client king of Judea, referred to as the Herodian kingdom.
The Herodian kingdom of Judea was a client state of the Roman Republic from 37 BCE, when Herod the Great was appointed "King of the Jews" by the Roman Senate.
High priest (כהן גדול kohen gadol; with definite article ha'kohen ha'gadol, the high priest; Aramaic kahana rabba) was the title of the chief religious official of Judaism from the early post-Exilic times until the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE.
Howard Melvin Fast (November 11, 1914 – March 12, 2003) was an American novelist and television writer.
John Hyrcanus II (Yohanan Hurqanos), a member of the Hasmonean dynasty, was for a long time the Jewish High Priest in the 1st century BCE.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Jaffa, in Hebrew Yafo, or in Arabic Yaffa (יפו,; يَافَا, also called Japho or Joppa), the southern and oldest part of Tel Aviv-Yafo, is an ancient port city in Israel.
Jason (Ἰάσων Iásōn) was an ancient Greek mythological hero who was the leader of the Argonauts whose quest for the Golden Fleece featured in Greek literature.
Jason (Hebrew: Yason, יאסון) of the Oniad family, brother to Onias III, was a High Priest in the Temple in Jerusalem.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jewish prayer (תְּפִלָּה, tefillah; plural תְּפִלּוֹת, tefillot; Yiddish תּפֿלה tfile, plural תּפֿלות tfilles; Yinglish: davening from Yiddish דאַוון daven ‘pray’) are the prayer recitations and Jewish meditation traditions that form part of the observance of Rabbinic Judaism.
Johanan (or John Gaddi/Caddis in the King James Version, Hebrew: יוחנן הגדי) was the oldest of the sons of Mattathias, and brother of Judas Maccabeus.
John Hyrcanus (Yōḥānān Hurqanōs; Ἰωάννης Ὑρκανός Iōánnēs Urkanós) was a Hasmonean (Maccabeean) leader and Jewish high priest of the 2nd century BCE (born 164 BCE, reigned from 134 BCE until his death in 104 BCE).
Jonathan Apphus (Hebrew: יונתן אפפוס Yōnāṯān 'Apefūs, Ancient Greek: Ἰωνάθαν Ἀπφοῦς Iōnáthan Apphoûs) was leader of the Hasmonean dynasty of Judea from 161 to 143 BCE.
Judah Maccabee (or Judas Maccabeus, also spelled Machabeus, or Maccabaeus, Hebrew: יהודה המכבי, Yehudah ha-Makabi) was a Jewish priest (kohen) and a son of the priest Mattathias.
Judea or Judæa (from יהודה, Standard Yəhuda, Tiberian Yəhûḏāh, Ἰουδαία,; Iūdaea, يهودا, Yahudia) is the ancient Hebrew and Israelite biblical, the exonymic Roman/English, and the modern-day name of the mountainous southern part of Canaan-Israel.
The Liberation of Saint Peter is an event described in the Acts of the Apostles, chapter 12 in which Saint Peter is rescued from prison by an angel.
The following is a list of gods, goddesses and many other divine and semi-divine figures from Ancient Greek mythology and Ancient Greek religion.
This list contains persons named in the Bible of minor notability, about whom either nothing or very little is known, aside from any family connections.
Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.
Lower Egypt (مصر السفلى.) is the northernmost region of Egypt: the fertile Nile Delta, between Upper Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea — from El Aiyat, south of modern-day Cairo, and Dahshur.
Marcus Antonius (Latin:; 14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Marc Antony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.
Mattathias ben Johanan (מַתִּתְיָהוּ הַכֹּהֵן בֶּן יוֹחָנָן, Matiṯyāhu haKohēn ben Yōḥānān) (died 165 BCE) was a Kohen (Jewish priest) whose role in the religion-driven Maccabean Revolt against the Greek Seleucid Empire is related in the Books of the Maccabees.
In Greek mythology, Menelaus (Μενέλαος, Menelaos, from μένος "vigor, rage, power" and λαός "people," "wrath of the people") was a king of Mycenaean (pre-Dorian) Sparta, the husband of Helen of Troy, and the son of Atreus and Aerope.
Menelaus (Hebrew: מנלאוס) was High Priest in Jerusalem from 171 BC to about 161 BC.
The menorah (מְנוֹרָה) is described in the Bible as the seven-lamp (six branches) ancient Hebrew lampstand made of pure gold and used in the portable sanctuary set up by Moses in the wilderness and later in the Temple in Jerusalem.
Meqabyan, also referred to as Ethiopian Maccabees or Ethiopic Maccabees (Amharic: መቃብያን, which is also transliterated as Makabian), are three books found only in the Ethiopian Orthodox Old Testament and Beta Israel Mäṣḥafä Kedus Biblical canon.
The Mishnah or Mishna (מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb shanah, or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah".
Modi'in-Maccabim-Re'ut (מוֹדִיעִין-מַכַּבִּים-רֵעוּת) is an Israeli city located in central Israel, about southeast of Tel Aviv and west of Jerusalem, and is connected to those two cities via Highway 443.
My Glorious Brothers is a historical novel by the Jewish American novelist Howard Fast, depicting the 167 BC Maccabeean revolt against the Greek-Seleucid Empire.
Mysterii Paschalis is the incipit of an apostolic letter issued motu proprio (that is, "of his own accord") by Pope Paul VI on 14 February 1969.
Nicholas Robert Michael de Lange (often known simply as N. de Lange) (7 August 1944, Nottingham) is Professor of Hebrew and Jewish Studies at the University of Cambridge and is an ordained Reform rabbi.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
Onias III (חוֹנִיּוֹ Ḥōniyyō), son of Simon II, was High Priest during the Second Temple period of Judaism.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.
The Pharisees were at various times a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought in the Holy Land during the time of Second Temple Judaism.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
Polis (πόλις), plural poleis (πόλεις), literally means city in Greek.
Pope John XXIII (Ioannes; Giovanni; born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli,; 25 November 18813 June 1963) was head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 28 October 1958 to his death in 1963 and was canonized on 27 April 2014.
A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.
Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history.
Religious male circumcision generally occurs shortly after birth, during childhood or around puberty as part of a rite of passage.
The Roman Rite (Ritus Romanus) is the most widespread liturgical rite in the Catholic Church, as well as the most popular and widespread Rite in all of Christendom, and is one of the Western/Latin rites used in the Western or Latin Church.
The Roman Senate (Senatus Romanus; Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome.
The Sadducees (Hebrew: Ṣĕḏûqîm) were a sect or group of Jews that was active in Judea during the Second Temple period, starting from the second century BCE through the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE.
Salome Alexandra or Alexandra of Jerusalem (שְׁלוֹמְצִיּוֹן אלכסנדרה, Shelomtzion or Shlom Tzion; 141–67 BCE), was one of only two women to rule over Judea (the other being Athaliah).
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
The Septuagint or LXX (from the septuāgintā literally "seventy"; sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew.
The Siege of Jerusalem (63 BC) occurred during Pompey the Great's campaigns in the east, shortly after his successful conclusion of the Third Mithridatic War.
Simon Maccabeus (also referred to as Simon Thassi, שמעון התסי Šiməōn HaṮasī; died 135 BCE) was the second son of Mattathias and thus a member of the Hasmonean family.
The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
The Temple in Jerusalem was any of a series of structures which were located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem, the current site of the Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa Mosque.
The tetragrammaton (from Greek Τετραγράμματον, meaning " four letters"), in Hebrew and YHWH in Latin script, is the four-letter biblical name of the God of Israel.
The Tobiads were a Jewish faction in Ammon at the beginning of the Maccabean period.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
A tribute (/ˈtrɪbjuːt/) (from Latin tributum, contribution) is wealth, often in kind, that a party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance.
The Tridentine Calendar is the calendar of saints to be honoured in the course of the liturgical year in the official liturgy of the Roman Rite as reformed by Pope Pius V, implementing a decision of the Council of Trent, which entrusted the task to the Pope.
Victor A. Tcherikover (אביגדור צ'ריקובר‎; 1894–1958) was a Russian-born Israeli scholar.
Wojciech Korneli Stattler or Albert Kornel Stattler (April 20, 1800 – November 6, 1875) was a Polish Romantic painter of Swiss aristocratic ancestry, who started training in Vienna and at age 17 went to St.
Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.
Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת Tsiyyonut after Zion) is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Canaan, the Holy Land, or the region of Palestine).
1 Maccabees is a book of the Bible written in Hebrew by a Jewish author after the restoration of an independent Jewish kingdom by the Hasmonean dynasty, about the latter part of the 2nd century BC.
2 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book which focuses on the Maccabean Revolt against Antiochus IV Epiphanes and concludes with the defeat of the Seleucid empire general Nicanor in 161 BC by Judas Maccabeus, the hero of the hard work.
Macabbees, Macabees, Maccabaean, Maccabbees, Maccabean, Maccabean period, Maccabean wars, Maccabeans, Maccabee, Maccabees (family), Maccabees, The, Machabean, Machabees, Machabees, The, Machabi, Makkabaioi, Maqabim.