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Abrupolis (Ancient Greek,"Αβρουπόλις") (fl. 2nd century BC) was a king of the Thracian Sapaei, and ally of the Romans.
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
Acarnania (Ακαρνανία) is a region of west-central Greece that lies along the Ionian Sea, west of Aetolia, with the Achelous River for a boundary, and north of the gulf of Calydon, which is the entrance to the Gulf of Corinth.
The Acarnanian League (τὸ κοινὸν τῶν Ἁκαρνάνων, to koinon tōn Akarnanōn) was the tribal confederation, and later a fully-fledged federation (koinon), of the Acarnanians in Classical, Hellenistic, and early Roman-era Greece.
Achaea or Achaia, sometimes transliterated from Greek as Akhaïa (Αχαΐα Achaïa), is one of the regional units of Greece.
The Achaean League (Greek: Κοινὸν τῶν Ἀχαιῶν, Koinon ton Akhaion - "League of Achaeans") was a Hellenistic-era confederation of Greek city states on the northern and central Peloponnese.
The Achaeans (Ἀχαιοί, Akhaioi) were one of the four major tribes into which the people of Classical Greece divided themselves (along with the Aeolians, Ionians and Dorians).
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Achaemenid Macedonia refers to the period in which the ancient Greek Kingdom of Macedonia was under the sway of the Achaemenid Persians.
In Greek mythology, Achilles or Achilleus (Ἀχιλλεύς, Achilleus) was a Greek hero of the Trojan War and the central character and greatest warrior of Homer's Iliad.
Achinos (Αχινός) is a village on the northern shore of the Malian Gulf, in the Phthiotis Prefecture, Central Greece.
In common law jurisdictions, an acquittal certifies that the accused is free from the charge of an offense, as far as the criminal law is concerned.
The Acritic songs ("frontiersmen songs") are the heroic or epic poetry that emerged in the Byzantine Empire probably around the 9th century.
Acrocorinth (Ακροκόρινθος), "Upper Corinth", the acropolis of ancient Corinth, is a monolithic rock overseeing the ancient city of Corinth, Greece.
The Acropolis Museum (Μουσείο Ακρόπολης, Mouseio Akropolis) is an archaeological museum focused on the findings of the archaeological site of the Acropolis of Athens.
An actor (often actress for women; see terminology) is a person who portrays a character in a performance.
Ada of Caria (Ἄδα) (fl. 377 – 326 BC)377 BC is the date of her father's death: was a member of the House of Hecatomnus (the Hecatomnids) and ruler of Caria in the 4th century BC, first as Persian Satrap and later as Queen under the auspices of Alexander III (the Great) of Macedon.
AdolescenceMacmillan Dictionary for Students Macmillan, Pan Ltd.
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
Aeacidae (Greek: Αἰακίδαι) refers to the Greek descendants of Aeacus, including Peleus, son of Aeacus, and Achilles, grandson of Aeacus—several times in the Iliad Homer refers to Achilles as Αἰακίδης (Aiakides: II.860, 874; IX.184, 191, etc.). Neoptolemus was the son of Achilles and the princess Deidamea.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
The Aeolians (Αἰολεῖς) were one of the four major tribes in which Greeks divided themselves in the ancient period (along with the Achaeans, Dorians and Ionians).
In linguistics, Aeolic Greek (also Aeolian, Lesbian or Lesbic dialect) is the set of dialects of Ancient Greek spoken mainly in Boeotia (a region in Central Greece); Thessaly, in the Aegean island of Lesbos; and the Greek colonies of Aeolis in Anatolia and adjoining islands.
In Greek mythology, Aeolus (Αἴολος, Aiolos, Modern Greek: "quick-moving, nimble") is a name shared by three mythical characters.
Aeropus II of Macedon (Greek: Ἀέροπος Βʹ ὁ Μακεδών), king of Macedon, son of Perdiccas II was guardian of his nephew Orestes, the son of Aeropus's brother Archelaus I, reigned nearly five years from 399 BC.
Aeschines (Greek: Αἰσχίνης, Aischínēs; 389314 BC) was a Greek statesman and one of the ten Attic orators.
Aeschylus (Αἰσχύλος Aiskhulos;; c. 525/524 – c. 456/455 BC) was an ancient Greek tragedian.
The Aetolian League (also transliterated as Aitolian League) was a confederation of tribal communities and cities in ancient Greece centered in Aetolia in central Greece.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Agathocles (Ἀγαθοκλῆς, Agathoklḗs; 361–289 BC) was a Greek tyrant of Syracuse (317–289 BC) and king of Sicily (304–289 BC).
Agathon (Ἀγάθων, gen.: Ἀγάθωνος; BC) was an Athenian tragic poet whose works have been lost.
The age of majority is the threshold of adulthood as recognized or declared in law.
Agema (Ἄγημα), is a term to describe a military detachment, used for a special cause, such as guarding high valued targets.
Agesilaus II (Ἀγησίλαος Agesilaos; c. 444 – c. 360 BC), was a Eurypontid king of the Ancient Greek city-state of Sparta, ruling from 398 to about 360 BC, during most of which time he was, in Plutarch's words, "as good as though commander and king of all Greece," and was for the whole of it greatly identified with his country's deeds and fortunes.
Agios Athanasios (Άγιος Αθανάσιος) is a town and a former municipality in the Thessaloniki regional unit, Greece.
Agis III (Greek: Ἄγις) was the eldest son of Archidamus III, and the 21st Eurypontid king of Sparta.
The agora (ἀγορά agorá) was a central public space in ancient Greek city-states.
Agron (Ἄγρων) was the king of the Ardiaean Kingdom in 250–231 BC.
Ai-Khanoum (Aï Khānum, also Ay Khanum, lit. “Lady Moon” in Uzbek), possibly the historical Alexandria on the Oxus, also possibly later named اروکرتیه or Eucratidia) was one of the primary cities of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom. Previous scholars have argued that Ai Khanoum was founded in the late 4th century BC, following the conquests of Alexander the Great. Recent analysis now strongly suggests that the city was founded c. 280 BC by the Seleucid king Antiochus I. The city is located in Takhar Province, northern Afghanistan, at the confluence of the Panj river and the Kokcha river, both tributaries of the Amu Darya, historically known as the Oxus, and at the doorstep of the Indian subcontinent. Ai-Khanoum was one of the focal points of Hellenism in the East for nearly two centuries, until its annihilation by nomadic invaders around 145 BC about the time of the death of Eucratides. The site was excavated through archaeological work by a (DAFA) mission under between 1964 and 1978, as well as Russian scientists. The work had to be abandoned with the onset of the Soviet war in Afghanistan, during which the site was looted and used as a battleground, leaving very little of the original material.
Alba Fucens was an ancient Italic town occupying a lofty location (1,000 m) at the foot of the Monte Velino, c. 6.5 km north of Avezzano, Abruzzo, central Italy.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Alexander I of Epirus (Ἀλέξανδρος Α' τῆς Ἠπείρου, 370 BC – 331 BC), also known as Alexander Molossus (Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μολοσσός), was a king of Epirus (350–331 BC) of the Aeacid dynasty.
Alexander I of Macedon (Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μακεδών), known with the title Philhellene (Greek: φιλέλλην, "lover of the Greeks"), was the ruler of the ancient Kingdom of Macedon from c. 498 BC until his death in 454 BC.
Alexander II of Macedon (Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος Β΄) was king of Macedon in 371–369 BC, following the death of his father Amyntas III.
Alexander IV (Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος Δ΄; 323–309 BC), erroneously called sometimes in modern times Aegus, was the son of Alexander the Great (Alexander III of Macedon) and Princess Roxana of Bactria.
The Alexander Mosaic, dating from circa 100 BC, is a Roman floor mosaic originally from the House of the Faun in Pompeii.
Alexander (died 247 BC) was a Macedonian governor and tyrant of Corinth.
Alexander (Ἀλέξανδρος) was tagus or despot of Pherae in Thessaly, and ruled from 369 to 358 BC.
The Alexander Sarcophagus is a late 4th century BC Hellenistic stone sarcophagus adorned with bas-relief carvings of Alexander the Great.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Alexander V of Macedon (Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος Εʹ ὁ Μακεδών; died 294 BC) was the third and youngest son of Cassander and Thessalonica of Macedon, who was a half-sister of Alexander the Great.
The Balkan campaign of '''Alexander''' the Great took place in 335 BC, against a number of rebellious vassals of the Macedonian kingdom.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Alexis (Ἄλεξις; c. 375 – c. 275 BC) was a Greek comic poet of the Middle Comedy period.
An alliance is a relationship among people, groups, or states that have joined together for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose, whether or not explicit agreement has been worked out among them.
Almopia (Αλμωπία), or Enotia, also known in the Middle Ages as Moglena (Greek: Μογλενά, Macedonian: Меглен and Bulgarian: Меглен or Мъглен), is a municipality and a former province (επαρχία) of the Pella regional unit in Macedonia, Greece.
Amfissa (Άμφισσα, also mentioned in classical sources as Amphissa) is a town in Phocis, Greece, part of the municipality of Delphi, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit.
In the Archaic period of Greek history, an amphictyony (ἀμφικτυονία), a "league of neighbors", or Amphictyonic League was an ancient religious association of Greek tribes formed in the dim past, before the rise of the Greek polis.
Amphipolis (Αμφίπολη - Amfipoli; Ἀμφίπολις, Amphípolis) is best known for being a magnificent ancient Greek polis (city), and later a Roman city, whose impressive remains can still be seen.
Amun (also Amon, Ammon, Amen; Greek Ἄμμων Ámmōn, Ἅμμων Hámmōn) was a major ancient Egyptian deity who appears as a member of the Hermopolitan ogdoad.
Amyntas I (Greek: Ἀμύντας Aʹ; 498 BC) was a king of Macedon.
Amyntas II (Greek: Ἀμύντας Βʹ) or Amyntas the Little, of Macedon, was a son of Philip, brother of Perdiccas II (Thucydides ii. 95).
Amyntas III (Greek: Ἀμύντας Γ΄; died 370 BC) was king of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon in 393 BC, and again from 392 to 370 BC.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an antecedent (i.e., a grandparent, great-grandparent, great-great-grandparent, and so forth).
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the Phoenician state, including, during the 7th–3rd centuries BC, its wider sphere of influence, known as the Carthaginian Empire.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals which were an integral part of ancient Egyptian society.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
The architecture of ancient Greece is the architecture produced by the Greek-speaking people (Hellenic people) whose culture flourished on the Greek mainland, the Peloponnese, the Aegean Islands, and in colonies in Anatolia and Italy for a period from about 900 BC until the 1st century AD, with the earliest remaining architectural works dating from around 600 BC.
Ancient Greek art stands out among that of other ancient cultures for its development of naturalistic but idealized depictions of the human body, in which largely nude male figures were generally the focus of innovation.
The history of ancient Greek coinage can be divided (along with most other Greek art forms) into four periods, the Archaic, the Classical, the Hellenistic and the Roman.
Ancient Greek funerary practices are attested widely in the literature, the archaeological record, and the art of ancient Greece.
Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in the Ancient Greek language from the earliest texts until the time of the Byzantine Empire.
Ancient Greek weapons and armor were primarily geared towards combat between individuals.
Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.
Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices.
Ancient Greek sculpture is the sculpture of ancient Greece.
Ancient Greek technology developed during the 5th century BC, continuing up to and including the Roman period, and beyond.
Greek temples (dwelling, semantically distinct from Latin templum, "temple") were structures built to house deity statues within Greek sanctuaries in ancient Greek religion.
The army of the Kingdom of Macedonia was among the greatest military forces of the ancient world.
Ancient Macedonian, the language of the ancient Macedonians, either a dialect of Ancient Greek or a separate language closely related to Greek, was spoken in the kingdom of Macedonia during the 1st millennium BC and belongs to the Indo-European language family.
The Macedonians (Μακεδόνες, Makedónes) were an ancient tribe that lived on the alluvial plain around the rivers Haliacmon and lower Axios in the northeastern part of mainland Greece.
Mesopotamian religion refers to the religious beliefs and practices of the civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia, particularly Sumer, Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia between circa 3500 BC and 400 AD, after which they largely gave way to Syriac Christianity.
Ancient navies had a large impact on the navies of today.
The ancient Olympic Games were originally a festival, or celebration of and for Zeus; later, events such as a footrace, a javelin contest, and wrestling matches were added.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Thessaly or Thessalia (Attic Greek: Θεσσαλία, Θετταλία) was one of the traditional regions of Ancient Greece.
Andriscus (Ἀνδρίσκος, Andrískos), also often referenced as Pseudo-Philip, was the last King of Macedon (149–148 BC).
*For the modern municipality, see Anthemountas Anthemous or Anthemus (Ἀνθεμοῦς) was a district, lake and a city of ancient Macedonia, lying to the southwest of Mygdonia.
The Antigonid dynasty (Ἀντιγονίδαι) was a dynasty of Hellenistic kings descended from Alexander the Great's general Antigonus I Monophthalmus ("the One-eyed").
The Antigonid Macedonian army was the army of Macedonia in the period when it was ruled by the Antigonid dynasty from 276 BC to 168 BC.
Antigonus I Monophthalmus (Antigonos ho Monophthalmos, Antigonus the One-eyed, 382–301 BC), son of Philip from Elimeia, was a Macedonian nobleman, general, and satrap under Alexander the Great.
Antigonus II Gonatas (Ἀντίγονος B΄ Γονατᾶς) (c. 319–239 BC) was a powerful ruler who solidified the position of the Antigonid dynasty in Macedon after a long period defined by anarchy and chaos and acquired fame for his victory over the Gauls who had invaded the Balkans.
Antigonus III Doson (Ἀντίγονος Γ΄ Δώσων, 263–221 BC) was king of Macedon from 229 BC to 221 BC.
Antiochus II Theos (Greek: Ἀντίοχος Β΄ ὁ Θεός; 286–246 BC) was a Greek king of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire who reigned from 261 to 246 BC.
Antiochus III the Great (Greek: Ἀντίoχoς Μέγας; c. 241187 BC, ruled 222–187 BC) was a Hellenistic Greek king and the 6th ruler of the Seleucid Empire.
Antipater (Ἀντίπατρος Antipatros; c. 397 BC319 BC) was a Macedonian general and statesman under kings Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great, and father of King Cassander.
Antipater II of Macedon (Greek: Ἀντίπατρος Βʹ ὁ Μακεδών), was the son of Cassander and Thessalonike of Macedon, who was a half-sister of Alexander the Great.
The Antipatrid dynasty (Ἀντιπατρίδαι) was a dynasty of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon founded by Cassander, the son of Antipater, who declared himself King of Macedon in 302 BC.
Aphrodite is the ancient Greek goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation.
Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology.
Apollonia (Apolonia; Ἀπολλωνία κατ᾿ Ἐπίδαμνον or Ἀπολλωνία πρὸς Ἐπίδαμνον, Apollonia kat' Epidamnon or Apollonia pros Epidamnon) was an ancient Greek city located on the right bank of the Aous river (modern-day Vjosë).
Apotheosis (from Greek ἀποθέωσις from ἀποθεοῦν, apotheoun "to deify"; in Latin deificatio "making divine"; also called divinization and deification) is the glorification of a subject to divine level.
Arable land (from Latin arabilis, "able to be plowed") is, according to one definition, land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.
Aratus (Ἄρατος; 271–213 BC) was a statesman of the ancient Greek city-state of Sicyon and a leader of the Achaean League.
Arcadia (Αρκαδία, Arkadía) is one of the regional units of Greece.
An arch is a vertical curved structure that spans an elevated space and may or may not support the weight above it, or in case of a horizontal arch like an arch dam, the hydrostatic pressure against it.
The Archaeological Museum of Dion (Αρχαιολογικό Μουσείο Δίου) is a museum in Dion in the Pieria regional unit of Central Macedonia, Greece.
The Archaeological Museum of Pella (Αρχαιολογικό Μουσείο Πέλλας) is a museum in Pella in the Pella regional unit of Central Macedonia.
Archaic Greece was the period in Greek history lasting from the eighth century BC to the second Persian invasion of Greece in 480 BC, following the Greek Dark Ages and succeeded by the Classical period.
Archelaus I (Ἀρχέλαος Α΄ Arkhelaos) was a king of Macedon from 413 to 399 BC.
Archon (ἄρχων, árchon, plural: ἄρχοντες, árchontes) is a Greek word that means "ruler", frequently used as the title of a specific public office.
Areus I (Ἀρεύς Α΄) (died 265 BC) was Agiad King of Sparta from 309 to 265 BC, who died in battle near Corinth during the Chremonidean War.
Argaeus II (Greek: Ἀργαῖος Βʹ ὁ Μακεδών) was a pretender to the Macedonian crown who, with the assistance of the Illyrians, expelled King Amyntas III from his dominions in 393 BC and kept possession of the throne for about a year.
The Argead dynasty (Greek: Ἀργεάδαι, Argeádai) was an ancient Macedonian Greek royal house.
Argos (Modern Greek: Άργος; Ancient Greek: Ἄργος) is a city in Argolis, the Peloponnese, Greece and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.
The Argyraspides (in Ἀργυράσπιδες "Silver Shields"), were a division of the Macedonian army of Alexander the Great, who were so called because they carried silver-plated shields.
Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.
Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Arrhabaeus (Ἀρραβαῖος) or Arrhibaeus may refer to.
Arrian of Nicomedia (Greek: Ἀρριανός Arrianos; Lucius Flavius Arrianus) was a Greek historian, public servant, military commander and philosopher of the Roman period.
Artaxerxes III Ochus of Persia (𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂 Artaxšaçā) (338 BC) was the eleventh emperor of the Achaemenid Empire, as well as the first Pharaoh of the 31st dynasty of Egypt.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
Arybbas (Greek: Ἀρύββας; 373–343 BC) was a king of the Molossians.
Asclepius (Ἀσκληπιός, Asklēpiós; Aesculapius) was a hero and god of medicine in ancient Greek religion and mythology.
The Ashmolean Museum (in full the Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology) on Beaumont Street, Oxford, England, is the world's first university museum.
An aspis (ἀσπίς, plural aspides, ἀσπίδες), sometimes also referred to as a hoplon, was the heavy wooden shield used by the infantry in various periods of ancient Greece.
An assembly hall is a kind of function hall, a large room used to hold public meetings or meetings of the members of an organization such as a school, church, or deliberative assembly.
In financial accounting, an asset is an economic resource.
In ancient Greece and Rome, an asylum referred to a place where people facing persecution could seek refuge.
Athenaeus of Naucratis (Ἀθήναιος Nαυκρατίτης or Nαυκράτιος, Athēnaios Naukratitēs or Naukratios; Athenaeus Naucratita) was a Greek rhetorician and grammarian, flourishing about the end of the 2nd and beginning of the 3rd century AD.
Athenian democracy developed around the fifth century BC in the Greek city-state (known as a polis) of Athens, comprising the city of Athens and the surrounding territory of Attica, and is often described as the first known democracy in the world.
The Athenian military was the military force of Athens, one of the major city-states (poleis) off Ancient Greece.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
In architecture, an atrium (plural: atria or atriums) is a large open air or skylight covered space surrounded by a building.
The Attalid dynasty (Δυναστεία των Ατταλιδών Dynasteía ton Attalidón) was a Hellenistic dynasty that ruled the city of Pergamon in Asia Minor after the death of Lysimachus, a general of Alexander the Great.
Attalus (Greek: Ἄτταλος; c. 390 BC – 336 BC), important courtier of Macedonian king Philip II of Macedonia.
Attalus I (Ἄτταλος Α΄), surnamed Soter (Σωτήρ, "Savior"; 269–197 BC) ruled Pergamon, an Ionian Greek polis (what is now Bergama, Turkey), first as dynast, later as king, from 241 BC to 197 BC.
Attic Greek is the Greek dialect of ancient Attica, including the city of Athens.
Audata (Ancient Greek Αὐδάτη; ruled c. 359 – 336 BC) was an Illyrian princess and later a Macedonian queen when she married Philip II of Macedon in 359 BC.
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).
Autokratōr (αὐτοκράτωρ, autokrátor, αὐτοκράτορες, autokrátores, Ancient Greek pronunciation, Byzantine pronunciation lit. "self-ruler", "one who rules by himself", from αὐτός and κράτος) is a Greek epithet applied to an individual who exercises absolute power, unrestrained by superiors.
In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
Babylonian religion is the religious practice of Babylonia.
Bactria or Bactriana was the name of a historical region in Central Asia.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Balkh (Pashto and بلخ; Ancient Greek and Βάχλο Bakhlo) is a town in the Balkh Province of Afghanistan, about northwest of the provincial capital, Mazar-e Sharif, and some south of the Amu Darya river and the Uzbekistan border.
The ballista (Latin, from Greek βαλλίστρα ballistra and that from βάλλω ballō, "throw"), plural ballistae, sometimes called bolt thrower, was an ancient missile weapon that launched a large projectile at a distant target.
A barbarian is a human who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive.
Bardylis (also Bardyllis; Βάρδυλις; 448 – c. 358 BC) was a king of the Dardanian Kingdom and probably its founder.
Bargylia (Βαργυλία), was an ancient city on the coast of Caria in southwestern Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) between Iasos and Myndus.
Basileus (βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title that has signified various types of monarchs in history.
A battering ram is a siege engine that originated in ancient times and designed to break open the masonry walls of fortifications or splinter their wooden gates.
The Battle of Andros was an obscure naval battle during the Third Syrian War.
The Battle of Callinicus (μάχη του Καλλίνικου) was fought in 171 BC between the Kingdom of Macedon and the Roman Republic near a hill called Callinicus, close to the Roman camp at Tripolis Larisaia, five kilometres north of Larissa, the capital of Thessaly.
The Battle of Carthage was the main engagement of the Third Punic War between the Punic city of Carthage in Africa and the Roman Republic.
The Battle of Chaeronea was fought in 338 BC, near the city of Chaeronea in Boeotia, between the Macedonians led by Philip II of Macedon and an alliance of some of the Greek city-states led by Athens and Thebes.
The Battle of Chios was fought in 201 BC between the fleet of Philip V of Macedon against the combined fleet of Rhodes, Pergamum, Byzantium and Cyzicus.
The Battle of Corinth was a battle fought between the Roman Republic and the Greek city-state of Corinth and its allies in the Achaean League in 146 BC, which resulted in the complete and total destruction of Corinth.
The Battle of Corupedium, also called Corupedion or Curupedion (Κύρου πεδίον or Κόρου πεδίον, "the plain of Kyros or Koros") is the name of the last battle of the Diadochi, the rival successors to Alexander the Great.
The Battle of Cos was fought in ca.
The so-called Battle of Crocus Field (Krokion pedion) was a battle in the Third Sacred War, fought between the armies of Phocis, under Onomarchos, and the combined Thessalian and Macedonian army under Philip II of Macedon.
The Battle of Cynoscephalae (Μάχη τῶν Κυνὸς Κεφαλῶν) was an encounter battle fought in Thessaly in 197 BC between the Roman army, led by Titus Quinctius Flamininus, and the Antigonid dynasty of Macedon, led by Philip V.
The Battle of Erigon Valley or the Battle of Lyncus Plain took place in 358 BC between the Dardanians under Bardyllis and the Macedonians under Philip II.
The Battle of Gaugamela (Γαυγάμηλα), also called the Battle of Arbela (Ἄρβηλα), was the decisive battle of Alexander the Great's invasion of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
The Battle of Ipsus (Ἱψός) was fought between some of the Diadochi (the successors of Alexander the Great) in 301 BC near the village of that name in Phrygia.
The Battle of Issus occurred in southern Anatolia, on November 5, 333 BC between the Hellenic League led by Alexander the Great and the Achaemenid Empire, led by Darius III, in the second great battle of Alexander's conquest of Asia.
The Battle of Lake Trasimene (24 June 217 BC, April on the Julian calendar) was a major battle in the Second Punic War.
The Battle of Lyncestis/Lyncus took place in 423 BC between the allied forces of the Lyncestians and Illyrians against those of the Spartans and Macedonians.
The Battle of Lysimachia was fought in 277 BC between the Gallic tribes settled in Thrace and a Greek army of Antigonus at Lysimachia, Thracian Chersonese.
The Battle of Magnesia was the concluding battle of the Roman–Seleucid War, fought in 190 BC near Magnesia ad Sipylum on the plains of Lydia between Romans, led by the consul Lucius Cornelius Scipio and the Roman ally Eumenes II of Pergamum, and the army of Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid Empire.
The First Battle of Mantinea of 418 BC was a significant engagement in the Peloponnesian War.
The Battle of Megalopolis was fought in 331 BC between Spartan led forces and Macedonia.
The Battle of Paxos was a naval battle between a coalition of Illyrian tribes with their Acarnanian allies, against the allies of Corcyra (modern Corfu), the Achaean League and Aetolian League.
The Battle of Plataea was the final land battle during the second Persian invasion of Greece.
This article describes the battle immediately prior to the Peloponnesian War in 432 BC.
The Battle of Pydna took place in 168 BC between Rome and Macedon during the Third Macedonian War.
The Battle of Pydna was fought in 148 BC between Rome and the forces of the Macedonian leader Andriscus.
The Battle of Salamis (Ναυμαχία τῆς Σαλαμῖνος, Naumachia tēs Salaminos) was a naval battle fought between an alliance of Greek city-states under Themistocles and the Persian Empire under King Xerxes in 480 BC which resulted in a decisive victory for the outnumbered Greeks.
The naval Battle of Salamis in 306 BC took place near Salamis, Cyprus between the fleets of Ptolemy I of Egypt and Antigonus I Monophthalmus, two of the Diadochi, the generals who, after the death of Alexander the Great, fought each other for control of his empire.
The Battle of Sellasia took place during the summer of 222 BC between Macedon and the Achaean League, led by Antigonus III Doson, and Sparta under the command of King Cleomenes III.
The Battle of the Aous was fought in 274 BC between the invading Epirote army of Pyrrhus of Epirus and the army of Antigonus II Gonatas of Macedon near the Aous (or Aoös, Greek Αώος) river.
The Battle of the Granicus River in May 334 BC was the first of three major battles fought between Alexander the Great and the Persian Empire.
The Battle of the Hydaspes was fought in 326 BC between Alexander the Great and King Porus of the Paurava kingdom on the banks of the river Jhelum (known to the Greeks as Hydaspes) in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent (modern-day Punjab, Pakistan).
The Battle of Thebes was a battle that took place between Alexander the Great and the Greek city state of Thebes in 335 BC immediately outside of and in the city proper in Boeotia.
The Battle of Thermopylae was fought in 191 BC between a Roman army led by consul Manius Acilius Glabrio and a Seleucid force led by King Antiochus III the Great.
The Battle of Thermopylae was fought in 323 BC between the Macedonians and a coalition of armies mostly from central Greece in the pass of Thermopylae during the Lamian War.
Berisades (Greek: Bηρισάδης) was a ruler in Thrace, who inherited, in conjunction with Amadocus II and Cersobleptes, the dominions of the Thracian king Cotys on the death of the latter in 358 BC.
Bessus, also known as Artaxerxes V (died summer 329 BC), was a prominent Persian Satrap of Bactria in Persia, and later self-proclaimed King of Kings of Persia.
A blockade is an effort to cut off supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally.
A bodyguard (or close protection officer) is a type of security guard or government law enforcement officer or soldier who protects a person or people — usually high-ranking public officials or officers, wealthy people, and celebrities — from danger: generally theft, assault, kidnapping, assassination, harassment, loss of confidential information, threats, or other criminal offences.
Boeotia, sometimes alternatively Latinised as Boiotia, or Beotia (Βοιωτία,,; modern transliteration Voiotía, also Viotía, formerly Cadmeis), is one of the regional units of Greece.
Bolgios (Greek Βόλγιος, also Bolgius, Belgius) was a Gaulish leader during the Gallic invasion of the Balkans who led an invasion of Macedon and Illyria in 279 BC, killing the Macedonian king Ptolemy Keraunos.
Bonče (Бонче) is a village in the Prilep municipality, in the Republic of Macedonia.
The Bosporus or Bosphorus;The spelling Bosporus is listed first or exclusively in all major British and American dictionaries (e.g.,,, Merriam-Webster,, and Random House) as well as the Encyclopædia Britannica and the.
Bottiaea (Greek: Βοττιαία Bottiaia) was a geographical region of ancient Macedonia and an administrative district of the Macedonian Kingdom.
In cities of ancient Greece, the boule (βουλή, boulē; plural βουλαί, boulai) was a council of over 500 citizens (βουλευταί, bouleutai) appointed to run daily affairs of the city.
Brasidas (Βρασίδας, died 422 BC) was the most distinguished Spartan officer during the first decade of the Peloponnesian War.
A breastplate or chestplate is a device worn over the torso to protect it from injury, as an item of religious significance, or as an item of status.
Brennus (or Brennos) (died 279 BC at Delphi, Ancient Greece) was one of the Gaul leaders of the army of the Gallic invasion of the Balkans.
Bribery is the act of giving or receiving something of value in exchange for some kind of influence or action in return, that the recipient would otherwise not alter.
A brick is building material used to make walls, pavements and other elements in masonry construction.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
Bronze is the most popular metal for cast metal sculptures; a cast bronze sculpture is often called simply a "bronze".
Bryges or Briges (Βρύγοι or Βρίγες) is the historical name given to a people of the ancient Balkans.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Byzantine Greeks (or Byzantines) were the Greek or Hellenized people of the Byzantine Empire (or Eastern Roman Empire) during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages who spoke medieval Greek and were Orthodox Christians.
Byzantine literature is the Greek literature of the Middle Ages, whether written in the territory of the Byzantine Empire or outside its borders.
Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.
In Greek mythology, the Cabeiri, Cabiri or Kabiri (Κάβειροι, Kábeiroi) were a group of enigmatic chthonic deities.
The Cadmea, or Cadmeia (Greek: Καδμεία, Kadmía), was the citadel of ancient Thebes, Greece, which was named after Cadmus, the legendary founder of Thebes.
Calabria (Calàbbria in Calabrian; Calavría in Calabrian Greek; Καλαβρία in Greek; Kalavrì in Arbëresh/Albanian), known in antiquity as Bruttium, is a region in Southern Italy.
Callimachus (Καλλίμαχος Kallímachos) was an architect and sculptor working in the second half of the 5th century BC in the manner established by Polyclitus.
Callisthenes of Olynthus ((); Καλλισθένης; c. 360 – 328 BC) was a well-connected Greek historian in Macedon who accompanied Alexander the Great during the Asiatic expedition.
Callistratus of Aphidnae (Kallistratos; died 350s BC) was an Athenian orator and general in the 4th century BCE.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
Caranus or Karanos (Κάρανος, Káranos) was the first king of the ancient kingdom of Macedon according to later traditions.
Caria (from Greek: Καρία, Karia, Karya) was a region of western Anatolia extending along the coast from mid-Ionia (Mycale) south to Lycia and east to Phrygia.
. Antoine Charles Horace Vernet aka.
Cassander (Greek: Κάσσανδρος Ἀντιπάτρου, Kassandros Antipatrou; "son of Antipatros": c. 350 BC – 297 BC), was king of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon from 305 BC until 297 BC, and de facto ruler of much of Greece from 317 BC until his death.
Cassandreia (Κασσάνδρεια - Kassandreia) was once one of the most important cities in Ancient Macedonia, founded by and named after Cassander in 316 BC.
Casus belli is a Latin expression meaning "an act or event that provokes or is used to justify war" (literally, "a case of war").
The Catalogue of Women (Γυναικῶν Κατάλογος, Gynaikôn Katálogos) — also known as the Ehoiai (Ἠοῖαι)The Latin transliterations Eoeae and Ehoeae are also used (e.g.); see Title and the ''ē' hoiē''-formula, below.
A catapult is a ballistic device used to launch a projectile a great distance without the aid of explosive devices—particularly various types of ancient and medieval siege engines.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
Gallic groups, originating from the various La Tène chiefdoms, began a south-eastern movement into the Balkan peninsula from the 4th century BC.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
A central government is the government of a nation-state and is a characteristic of a unitary state.
Continental Greece (Στερεά Ελλάδα, Stereá Elláda; formerly Χέρσος Ἑλλάς, Chérsos Ellás), colloquially known as Roúmeli (Ρούμελη), is a traditional geographic region of Greece.
Central Macedonia (Κεντρική Μακεδονία, Kentrikí Makedonía) is one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece, consisting of the central part of the geographical and historical region of Macedonia.
The Centuriate Assembly (Latin: comitia centuriata) of the Roman Republic was one of the three voting assemblies in the Roman constitution.
Cersobleptes (Kερσoβλέπτης), also spelled Kersobleptes, Kersebleptes, and Cersebleptes, was son of Cotys, king of Thrace, on whose death in 358 BC he inherited the kingdom in conjunction with Berisades and Amadocus II, who were probably his brothers.
The Chalcidian League (Κοινόν τῶν Χαλκιδέων, Koinon tōn Chalkideōn, "League of the Chalcidians"), also referred to as the Olynthians or the Chalcidians in Thrace (Χαλκιδεῖς ἐπί Θρᾴκης, Chalkideis epi Thrakēs) to distinguish them from the Chalcidians in Euboea, was a federal state that existed on the Chalcidice peninsula, on the shores of the northwest Aegean Sea, from around 430 BCE until it was destroyed by Philip II of Macedon in 348 BCE.
Chalcis (Ancient Greek & Katharevousa: Χαλκίς, Chalkís) or Chalkida (Modern Χαλκίδα) is the chief town of the island of Euboea in Greece, situated on the Euripus Strait at its narrowest point.
The Chalkaspides (Χαλκάσπιδες "Bronze Shields") made up one of the two probable corps of the Antigonid-era Macedonian phalanx in the Hellenistic period, with the Leukaspides ("White Shields") forming the other.
Chalkidiki, also spelt Chalkidike, Chalcidice or Halkidiki (Χαλκιδική, Chalkidikí), is a peninsula and regional unit of Greece, part of the Region of Central Macedonia in Northern Greece.
A charge is a maneuver in battle in which combatants advance towards their enemy at their best speed in an attempt to engage in close combat.
Charidemus (Χαρίδημος), of Oreus in Euboea, was a Greek mercenary leader of the 4th century BC.
Chariot racing (harmatodromia, ludi circenses) was one of the most popular ancient Greek, Roman, and Byzantine sports.
List |F. jubata Erxleben, 1777 |F. jubatus Schreber, 1775 |Felis guttata Hermann, 1804 |F. venatica Griffith, 1821 |Acinonyx venator Brookes, 1828 |F. fearonii Smith, 1834 |F. megaballa Heuglin, 1868 |C. jubatus Blanford, 1888 |Cynælurus jubata Mivart, 1900 |C. guttatus Hollister, 1911 --> The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is a large cat of the subfamily Felinae that occurs in Southern, North and East Africa, and a few localities in Iran. The species is IUCN Red Listed as vulnerable, as it suffered a substantial decline in its historic range in the 20th century due to habitat loss, poaching, illegal pet trade, and conflict with humans. By 2016, the global cheetah population has been estimated at approximately 7,100 individuals in the wild. Several African countries have taken steps to improve cheetah conservation measures. It is the fastest land animal. The only extant member of the genus Acinonyx, the cheetah was formally described by Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber in 1775. The cheetah is characterised by a slender body, deep chest, spotted coat, small rounded head, black tear-like streaks on the face, long thin legs and long spotted tail. Its lightly built, slender form is in sharp contrast with the robust build of the big cats, making it more similar to the cougar. The cheetah reaches nearly at the shoulder, and weighs. Though taller than the leopard, it is notably smaller than the lion. Typically yellowish tan or rufous to greyish white, the coat is uniformly covered with nearly 2,000 solid black spots. Cheetahs are active mainly during the day, with hunting their major activity. Adult males are sociable despite their territoriality, forming groups called coalitions. Females are not territorial; they may be solitary or live with their offspring in home ranges. Carnivores, cheetah mainly prey upon antelopes and gazelles. They will stalk their prey to within, charge towards it and kill it by tripping it during the chase and biting its throat to suffocate it to death. Cheetahs can reach speeds of in short bursts, but this is disputed by more recent measurements. The average speed of cheetahs is about. Cheetahs are induced ovulators, breeding throughout the year. Gestation is nearly three months long, resulting in a litter of typically three to five cubs (the number can vary from one to eight). Weaning occurs at six months; siblings tend to stay together for some time. Cheetah cubs face higher mortality than most other mammals, especially in the Serengeti region. Cheetahs inhabit a variety of habitatsdry forests, scrub forests and savannahs. Because of its prowess at hunting, the cheetah was tamed and used to kill game at hunts in the past. The animal has been widely depicted in art, literature, advertising and animation.
Chief judge is the highest-ranking judge of a court that has more than one judge.
Chiliarch (from χιλίαρχος, chiliarchos, sometimes χιλιάρχης, chiliarches or χειλίαρχος, cheiliarchos; meaning "commander of a thousand" and occasionally rendered "thousandman" in English) is a military rank dating back to Antiquity.
Chios (Χίος, Khíos) is the fifth largest of the Greek islands, situated in the Aegean Sea, off the Anatolian coast.
Choerilus of Samos (Χοιρίλος ὁ Σάμιος) was an epic poet of Samos, who flourished at the end of the 5th century BC.
The Chremonidean War (267–261 BC) was fought by a coalition of Greek city-states against Antigonid Macedonian domination.
Chremonides (Χρεμωνίδης), son of Eteokles of Aithalidai, was an Athenian 3rd century BC statesman and general.
Chronological summary of the expedition of Alexander the Great into Asia against the Persian Empire of king Darius III, with indication of the countries/places visited or simply crossed, including the most important battles/sieges and the cities founded (Alexandrias).
In monetary economics, circulation is the continuing use of individual units of a currency for transactions.
A city council, town council, town board, or board of aldermen is the legislative body that governs a city, town, municipality, or local government area.
A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country.
Anatolia, also known by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is considered to be the westernmost extent of Asia.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
The city of Athens (Ἀθῆναι, Athênai a.tʰɛ̂ː.nai̯; Modern Greek: Ἀθῆναι, Athínai) during the classical period of Ancient Greece (508–322 BC) was the major urban center of the notable polis (city-state) of the same name, located in Attica, Greece, leading the Delian League in the Peloponnesian War against Sparta and the Peloponnesian League.
Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture.
An order in architecture is a certain assemblage of parts subject to uniform established proportions, regulated by the office that each part has to perform". Coming down to the present from Ancient Greek and Ancient Roman civilization, the architectural orders are the styles of classical architecture, each distinguished by its proportions and characteristic profiles and details, and most readily recognizable by the type of column employed.
Cleitus (Ancient Greek: Κλεῖτος; ruled c. 356 – 335 BC) was an Illyrian king of the Dardanian State attested in 335 BC.
Cleitus (Clitus) the Black (Κλεῖτος ὁ μέλας; c. 375 BC – 328 BC) was an officer of the Macedonian army led by Alexander the Great.
The Cleomenean WarPolybius.
Cleomenes III was one of the two kings of Sparta from 235 to 222 BC.
Eurydice (Greek: Εὐρυδίκη), born Cleopatra (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα) was a mid-4th century BC Macedonian noblewoman, niece of Attalus, and last of the seven wives of Philip II of Macedon.
Cleopatra of Macedonia (Κλεοπάτρα; c. 355/354 BC – 308 BC), or Cleopatra of Epirus, was a Greek Epirote-Macedonian princess and later queen regent of Epirus.
A client state is a state that is economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state in international affairs.
A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.
The coinage metals comprise, at a minimum, those metallic chemical elements which have historically been used as components in alloys used to mint coins.
Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city (its "metropolis"), not from a territory-at-large.
Colonization (or colonisation) is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good.
The Companions (ἑταῖροι, hetairoi) were the elite cavalry of the Macedonian army from the time of king Philip II of Macedon, achieved their greatest prestige under Alexander the Great, and have been regarded as the best cavalry in the ancient world and the first shock cavalry.
A concert is a live music performance in front of an audience.
Conon (Κόνων) (before 444 BC – after 394 BC) was an Athenian general at the end of the Peloponnesian War, who led the Athenian naval forces when they were defeated by a Peloponnesian fleet in the crucial Battle of Aegospotami; later he contributed significantly to the restoration of Athens' political and military power.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
Corfu or Kerkyra (translit,; translit,; Corcyra; Corfù) is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea.
Corinth (Κόρινθος, Kórinthos) is an ancient city and former municipality in Corinthia, Peloponnese, which is located in south-central Greece.
Cosmopolitanism is the ideology that all human beings belong to a single community, based on a shared morality.
Craterus or Krateros (Κρατερός; c. 370 BC – 321 BC) was an ancient Macedonian general under Alexander the Great and one of the Diadochi.
Craterus (Greek: Κρατερός; 321 – c. 263 BC) was a Macedonian historian.
Cremation is the combustion, vaporization, and oxidation of cadavers to basic chemical compounds, such as gases, ashes and mineral fragments retaining the appearance of dry bone.
Crestonia (or Crestonice) (Κρηστωνία) was an ancient region immediately north of Mygdonia.
Cretan archers were a well known class of warrior whose specialist skills were extensively utilized in both ancient and medieval warfare.
The Cretan War (205–200 BC) was fought by King Philip V of Macedon, the Aetolian League, many Cretan cities (of which Olous and Hierapytna were the most important) and Spartan pirates against the forces of Rhodes and later Attalus I of Pergamum, Byzantium, Cyzicus, Athens, and Knossos.
A quarrel or bolt is the arrow used in a crossbow.
Crown land, also known as royal domain or demesne, is a territorial area belonging to the monarch, who personifies the Crown.
A cuirass (cuirasse, coriaceus) is a piece of armour, formed of a single or multiple pieces of metal or other rigid material which covers the front of the torso.
Cult is literally the "care" (Latin cultus) owed to deities and to temples, shrines, or churches.
The Cult of Dionysus is strongly associated with satyrs, centaurs, and sileni, and its characteristic symbols are the bull, the serpent, tigers/leopards, the ivy, and the wine.
Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble those of a dominant group.
A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.
A curtain wall is a defensive wall between two towers (bastions) of a castle, fortress, or town.
Customs is an authority or agency in a country responsible for collecting tariffs and for controlling the flow of goods, including animals, transports, personal, and hazardous items, into and out of a country.
The Cyclades (Κυκλάδες) are an island group in the Aegean Sea, southeast of mainland Greece and a former administrative prefecture of Greece.
Cynane (Kυνάνη, Kynane or Κύνα, Kyna; killed 323 BC) was half-sister to Alexander the Great, and daughter of Philip II by Audata, an Illyrian princess.
Cyrene (translit) was an ancient Greek and Roman city near present-day Shahhat, Libya.
Cyzicus (Κύζικος Kyzikos; آیدینجق, Aydıncıḳ) was an ancient town of Mysia in Anatolia in the current Balıkesir Province of Turkey.
A dagger is a knife with a very sharp point and one or two sharp edges, typically designed or capable of being used as a thrusting or stabbing weapon.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
The Dardanelles (Çanakkale Boğazı, translit), also known from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont (Ἑλλήσποντος, Hellespontos, literally "Sea of Helle"), is a narrow, natural strait and internationally-significant waterway in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey.
The Dardani (Δαρδάνιοι, Δάρδανοι; Dardani), or Dardanians (Δαρδανίωνες) were a tribe which occupied the region that took its name from them of Dardania, at the Thraco-Illyrian contact zone; their identification as either an Illyrian or Thracian tribe is uncertain.
Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: rtl Dāryuš;; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
Darius III (c. 380 – July 330 BC), originally named Artashata and called Codomannus by the Greeks, was the last king of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia from 336 BC to 330 BC.
The death of Alexander the Great and subsequent related events have been the subjects of debates.
The Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace (Αποκεντρωμένη Διοίκηση Μακεδονίας–Θράκης) is one of the seven decentralized administrations of Greece, consisting of the peripheries of Central Macedonia and Eastern Macedonia and Thrace.
Deidamia or Deidameia (Δηϊδάμεια) or Laodamia (Λαοδάμεια) (died c. 233 BC) was a Greek princess, daughter of Pyrrhus II of Epirus, king of Epirus.
The Delian League, founded in 478 BC, was an association of Greek city-states, with the amount of members numbering between 150 to 330under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire after the Greek victory in the Battle of Plataea at the end of the Second Persian invasion of Greece.
Delphi is famous as the ancient sanctuary that grew rich as the seat of Pythia, the oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world.
Demetrias (Δημητριάς) was an ancient Greek city in Magnesia (east central Greece), near the modern city of Volos.
Demetrius was the younger son of Philip V of Macedon, but his only son by his legitimate wife, the elder brother Perseus being the son of a concubine.
Demetrius I (Δημήτριος; 337–283 BC), called Poliorcetes (Πολιορκητής, "The Besieger"), son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus and Stratonice, was a Macedonian Greek nobleman, military leader, and finally king of Macedon (294–288 BC).
Demetrius II Aetolicus (Greek: Δημήτριος ὁ Αἰτωλικός) son of Antigonus II Gonatas and Phila, reigned as king of Macedonia from the winter of 239 to 229 BC.
Demetrius of Phalerum (also Demetrius of Phaleron or Demetrius Phalereus; Δημήτριος ὁ Φαληρεύς; c. 350 – c. 280 BC) was an Athenian orator originally from Phalerum, a student of Theophrastus, and perhaps of Aristotle, himself, and one of the first Peripatetics.
Demetrius of Pharos (also Pharus) (Δημήτριος ἐκ Φάρου) was a ruler of Pharos involved in the First Illyrian War, after which he ruled a portion of the Illyrian Adriatic coast on behalf of the Romans, as a client king.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
Demosthenes (Δημοσθένης Dēmosthénēs;; 384 – 12 October 322 BC) was a Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens.
The Derveni Krater is a volute krater, the most elaborate of its type, discovered in 1962 in a tomb at Derveni, not far from Thessaloniki, and displayed at the Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki.
Dessert is a confectionery course that concludes a main meal.
A diadem is a type of crown, specifically an ornamental headband worn by monarchs and others as a badge of royalty.
Diades of Pella (Διάδης Πελλαίος), surnamed the "Besieger" (Πολιορκητής), was a Thessalian inventor of many siege engines, student of Philip II's military engineer Polyidus of Thessaly.
The Diadochi (plural of Latin Diadochus, from Διάδοχοι, Diádokhoi, "successors") were the rival generals, families, and friends of Alexander the Great who fought for control over his empire after his death in 323 BC.
Didyma (Δίδυμα) was an ancient Greek sanctuary on the coast of Ionia.
Digenes Akrites (Διγενῆς Ἀκρίτης), known in folksongs as Digenes Akritas (Διγενῆς Ἀκρίτας) and also transliterated as Digenis Akritis, is the most famous of the Acritic Songs.
Diodorus Siculus (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.
Dion or Dio (Δίον, Díon; Δίο, Dío; Dium) is a village and a former municipality in the Pieria regional unit, Greece.
The Dionysia was a large festival in ancient Athens in honor of the god Dionysus, the central events of which were the theatrical performances of dramatic tragedies and, from 487 BC, comedies.
Dionysus (Διόνυσος Dionysos) is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility, theatre and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth.
Diplomatic immunity is a form of legal immunity that ensures diplomats are given safe passage and are considered not susceptible to lawsuit or prosecution under the host country's laws, but they can still be expelled.
Direct democracy or pure democracy is a form of democracy in which people decide on policy initiatives directly.
The Dorians (Δωριεῖς, Dōrieis, singular Δωριεύς, Dōrieus) were one of the four major ethnic groups among which the Hellenes (or Greeks) of Classical Greece considered themselves divided (along with the Aeolians, Achaeans, and Ionians).
Doric, or Dorian, was an Ancient Greek dialect.
The Doric order was one of the three orders of ancient Greek and later Roman architecture; the other two canonical orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian.
A dowry is a transfer of parental property, gifts or money at the marriage of a daughter.
Ecbatana (𐏃𐎥𐎶𐎫𐎠𐎴 Hagmatāna or Haŋmatāna, literally "the place of gathering", אַחְמְתָא, Ἀγβάτανα in Aeschylus and Herodotus,Ἐκβάτανα, Akkadian: kura-gam-ta-nu in the Nabonidus Chronicle) was an ancient city in Media in western Iran.
The ecclesia or ekklesia (ἐκκλησία) was the principal assembly of the democracy of ancient Athens.
Education in Ancient Greece was vastly "democratized" in the 5th century BCE, influenced by the Sophists, Plato and Isocrates.
An eel is any ray-finned fish belonging to the order Anguilliformes, which consists of four suborders, 20 families, 111 genera and about 800 species.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Egyptian mythology is the collection of myths from ancient Egypt, which describe the actions of the Egyptian gods as a means of understanding the world.
An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office.
An elective monarchy is a monarchy ruled by an elected monarch, in contrast to a hereditary monarchy in which the office is automatically passed down as a family inheritance.
Elimiotis or Elimeia (Ἐλιμιώτις or Ἐλιμία or Ἐλίμεια) was a region of Upper Macedonia that was located along the Haliacmon river.
Elis or Eleia (Greek, Modern: Ήλιδα Ilida, Ancient: Ἦλις Ēlis; Doric: Ἆλις Alis; Elean: Ϝαλις Walis, ethnonym: Ϝαλειοι) is an ancient district that corresponds to the modern Elis regional unit.
Emathia (Ἠμαθία) was called the plain opposite Thermaikos Gulf when the kingdom of Macedon was formed.
Encomium is a Latin word deriving from the Classical Greek ἐγκώμιον (enkomion) meaning "the praise of a person or thing." Encomium also refers to several distinct aspects of rhetoric.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Enez is a town and a district of Edirne Province, in Thrace, Turkey.
Eordaia (Εορδαία) is a municipality in the Kozani regional unit, Greece.
Epaminondas (Ἐπαμεινώνδας, Epameinondas; d. 362 BC) was a Theban general and statesman of the 4th century BC who transformed the Ancient Greek city-state of Thebes, leading it out of Spartan subjugation into a pre-eminent position in Greek politics.
The Epic Cycle (Ἐπικὸς Κύκλος, Epikos Kyklos) was a collection of Ancient Greek epic poems, composed in dactylic hexameter and related to the story of the Trojan War, including the Cypria, the Aethiopis, the so-called Little Iliad, the Iliupersis, the Nostoi, and the Telegony.
The ancient Greek city of Epidamnos or Epidamnus (Ἐπίδαμνος), later the Roman Dyrrachium (modern Durrës, Albania, c. 30 km W of Tirana) was founded in 627 BC in Illyria by a group of colonists from Corinth and Corcyra (modern Corfu).
An epigram is a brief, interesting, memorable, and sometimes surprising or satirical statement.
Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.
The Epirote League (Northwest Greek: Κοινὸν Ἀπειρωτᾶν, Koinòn Āpeirōtân; Attic: Κοινὸν Ἠπειρωτῶν, Koinòn Ēpeirōtôn) was an ancient Greek coalition, or koinon, of Epirote tribes.
Epirus is a geographical and historical region in southeastern Europe, now shared between Greece and Albania.
Epirus (Northwest Greek: Ἄπειρος, Ápeiros; Attic: Ἤπειρος, Ḗpeiros) was an ancient Greek state, located in the geographical region of Epirus in the western Balkans. The homeland of the ancient Epirotes was bordered by the Aetolian League to the south, Thessaly and Macedonia to the east, and Illyrian tribes to the north. For a brief period (280–275 BC), the Epirote king Pyrrhus managed to make Epirus the most powerful state in the Greek world, and his armies marched against Rome during an unsuccessful campaign in Italy.
Epirus (Ήπειρος, Ípeiros), is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region in northwestern Greece.
An epistates (ἐπιστάτης) in ancient Greece was any sort of superintendent or overseer.
The Eretrian school of philosophy was originally the School of Elis where it had been founded by Phaedo of Elis; it was later transferred to Eretria by his pupil Menedemus.
Ernst Badian (August 8, 1925 – February 1, 2011) was an Austrian-born classical scholar who served as a professor at Harvard University, United States, from 1971 to 1998.
An ethnonym (from the ἔθνος, éthnos, "nation" and ὄνομα, ónoma, "name") is a name applied to a given ethnic group.
Euboea or Evia; Εύβοια, Evvoia,; Εὔβοια, Eúboia) is the second-largest Greek island in area and population, after Crete. The narrow Euripus Strait separates it from Boeotia in mainland Greece. In general outline it is a long and narrow island; it is about long, and varies in breadth from to. Its geographic orientation is from northwest to southeast, and it is traversed throughout its length by a mountain range, which forms part of the chain that bounds Thessaly on the east, and is continued south of Euboea in the lofty islands of Andros, Tinos and Mykonos. It forms most of the regional unit of Euboea, which also includes Skyros and a small area of the Greek mainland.
Eugene N. Borza was a professor emeritus of ancient history at Pennsylvania State University.
Eumenes of Cardia (Εὐμένης; c. 362 – 316 BC) was a Greek general and scholar.
Eumenes II (Εὐμένης Βʹ; ruled 197–159 BC) surnamed Soter meaning "Savior" was a ruler of Pergamon, and a son of Attalus I Soter and queen Apollonis and a member of the Attalid dynasty of Pergamon.
Euripides (Εὐριπίδης) was a tragedian of classical Athens.
The European Scythian campaign of Darius I was a military expedition into parts of European Scythia by Darius I, the king of the Achaemenid Empire, in 513 BC.
Eurydice (Greek: Εὐρυδίκη – from ευρύς eurys, "wide" and δίκη dike, "right, custom, usage, law; justice", literally "wide justice") was an ancient Greek queen from Macedon, wife of king Amyntas III of Macedon.
Eurydice (Greek: Εὐρυδίκη Eurydike; died 317 BC) was the Queen of Macedonia, daughter of Amyntas IV, son of Perdiccas III, and Cynane, daughter of Philip II and his first wife Audata.
The term export means sending of goods or services produced in one country to another country.
An extinct language is a language that no longer has any speakers, especially if the language has no living descendants.
Frank William Walbank, CBE (10 December 1909 – 23 October 2008) was a scholar of ancient history, particularly the history of Polybius.
Faber and Faber Limited, often abbreviated to Faber, is an independent publishing house in the United Kingdom.
A facade (also façade) is generally one exterior side of a building, usually, but not always, the front.
The essential Olympians' names are given in bold font.
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
Felix Jacoby (19 March 1876 – 10 November 1959) was a German classicist and philologist.
The First Macedonian War (214–205 BC) was fought by Rome, allied (after 211 BC) with the Aetolian League and Attalus I of Pergamon, against Philip V of Macedon, contemporaneously with the Second Punic War (218–201 BC) against Carthage.
A flying wedge (also called flying V or wedge formation, or simply wedge) is a configuration created from a body moving forward in a triangular formation.
The Fourth Macedonian War (150 BC to 148 BC) was fought between the Roman Republic and a Greek uprising led by the Macedonian pretender to the throne Andriscus.
Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker, commonly abbreviated FGrHist or FGrH (Fragments of the Greek Historians), is a collection by Felix Jacoby of the works of those ancient Greek historians whose works have been lost, but of which we have citations, extracts or summaries.
Fresco (plural frescos or frescoes) is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly laid, or wet lime plaster.
A full-course dinner is a dinner consisting of multiple dishes, or courses.
Ancient Galatia (Γαλατία, Galatía) was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia (Ankara, Çorum, Yozgat Province) in modern Turkey.
The Galatians (Latin: Gallograeci; Greek: Γαλάται) were a Gallic people of the Hellenistic period that dwelt mainly in the north central regions of Asia Minor or Anatolia, in what was known as Galatia, in today's Turkey.
The Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu Yarımadası; Χερσόνησος της Καλλίπολης, Chersónisos tis Kallípolis) is located in the southern part of East Thrace, the European part of Turkey, with the Aegean Sea to the west and the Dardanelles strait to the east.
Game or quarry is any animal hunted for sport or for food.
The Gauls were Celtic people inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD).
Genealogy (from γενεαλογία from γενεά, "generation" and λόγος, "knowledge"), also known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history.
Greece is a country in Southern Europe, bordered to the north by Albania, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria; to the east by the Aegean Sea and Turkey, to the south by the Libyan Sea and to the west by the Ionian Sea, which separates Greece from Italy.
Glaucias (Γλαυκίας; ruled 335 – c. 302 BC) was an Illyrian king of the Taulantii state which dominated Illyrian affairs in the second half of the 4th century BC.
The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.
The Gordian Knot is a legend of Phrygian Gordium associated with Alexander the Great.
The earliest government of Macedonia was established by the Argead dynasty of Macedonian kings some time during the period of Archaic Greece (8th–5th centuries BC).
The Grabaei were a tribe in Illyria, somewhere in what is today Albania.
Grabus (also Grabos; Γράβος; ruled c. 358 – 356 BC) was the king of the Grabaei, a minor tribe in Illyria, located somewhere in what is today the northern half of Albania.
Grants are non-repayable funds or products disbursed or gifted by one party (grant makers), often a government department, corporation, foundation or trust, to a recipient, often (but not always) a nonprofit entity, educational institution, business or an individual.
Grave goods, in archaeology and anthropology, are the items buried along with the body.
A greave (from the Old French greve "shin, shin armour" from the Arabic jaurab, meaning stocking) is a piece of armour that protects the leg.
The Greco-Persian Wars (also often called the Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire of Persia and Greek city-states that started in 499 BC and lasted until 449 BC.
Mystery religions, sacred mysteries or simply mysteries were religious schools of the Greco-Roman world for which participation was reserved to initiates (mystai).
Greece in the Roman era describes the period of Greek history when it was dominated by the Roman republic, the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire (collectively, the Roman era).
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
Drachma (δραχμή,; pl. drachmae or drachmas) was the currency used in Greece during several periods in its history.
Greek helmet may refer to any of the following.
Greek historiography refers to Hellenic efforts to track and record history.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
Greek nationalism (or Hellenic nationalism) refers to the nationalism of Greeks and Greek culture.
In mythology, the Greek underworld is an otherworld where souls go after death.
A grove is a small group of trees with minimal or no undergrowth, such as a sequoia grove, or a small orchard planted for the cultivation of fruits or nuts.
The gymnasium (Greek: gymnasion) in Ancient Greece functioned as a training facility for competitors in public games.
Hades (ᾍδης Háidēs) was the ancient Greek chthonic god of the underworld, which eventually took his name.
In earlier times, the Balkan Mountains were known as the Haemus Mons.
The Haliacmon (Modern Greek: Αλιάκμονας, Aliákmonas; formerly: Ἁλιάκμων, Aliákmon or Haliákmōn; Slavic: Бистрица, Bistrica) is the longest river in Greece, with a total length of.
Hamadān or Hamedān (همدان, Hamedān) (Old Persian: Haŋgmetana, Ecbatana) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran.
Hannibal Barca (𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋 𐤁𐤓𐤒 ḥnb‘l brq; 247 – between 183 and 181 BC) was a Carthaginian general, considered one of the greatest military commanders in history.
A harbor or harbour (see spelling differences; synonyms: wharves, haven) is a sheltered body of water where ships, boats, and barges can be docked.
Harpalus (Greek: Ἅρπαλος) son of Machatas was an aristocrat of Macedon and boyhood friend of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.
An heir apparent is a person who is first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person.
In Greek mythology, Helen of Troy (Ἑλένη, Helénē), also known as Helen of Sparta, or simply Helen, was said to have been the most beautiful woman in the world, who was married to King Menelaus of Sparta, but was kidnapped by Prince Paris of Troy, resulting in the Trojan War when the Achaeans set out to reclaim her and bring her back to Sparta.
Hellanicus (or Hellanikos) of Lesbos (Greek: Ἑλλάνικος ὁ Λέσβιος, Ἑllánikos ὁ Lésvios), also called Hellanicus of Mytilene (Greek: Ἑλλάνικος ὁ Μυτιληναῖος, Ἑllánikos ὁ Mutilēnaῖos) was an ancient Greek logographer who flourished during the latter half of the 5th century BC.
The Hellanodikai (Ἑλλανοδίκαι, literally meaning Judges of the Greeks; sing. Ἑλλανοδίκας) were the judges of the Ancient Olympic Games, and the success of the games are attributed to their efforts.
In Greek mythology, Hellen (Ἕλλην, Hellēn, "bright") was the progenitor of the Hellenes (Ἕλληνες).
Hellenic is the branch of the Indo-European language family whose principal member is Greek.
Hellenistic art is the art of the period in classical antiquity generally taken to begin with the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and end with the conquest of the Greek world by the Romans, a process well underway by 146 BCE, when the Greek mainland was taken, and essentially ending in 31 BCE with the conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt following the Battle of Actium.
In the context of ancient Greek art, architecture, and culture, Hellenistic Greece corresponds to the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the classical Greek heartlands by the Roman Republic.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Hellenistic religion is any of the various systems of beliefs and practices of the people who lived under the influence of ancient Greek culture during the Hellenistic period and the Roman Empire (c. 300 BCE to 300 CE).
From the 4th century BC on, new types of oared warships appeared in the Mediterranean Sea, superseding the trireme and transforming naval warfare.
Hellenization or Hellenisation is the historical spread of ancient Greek culture, religion and, to a lesser extent, language, over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or brought into their sphere of influence, particularly during the Hellenistic period following the campaigns of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC.
Heracles (Ἡρακλῆς, Hēraklês, Glory/Pride of Hēra, "Hera"), born Alcaeus (Ἀλκαῖος, Alkaios) or Alcides (Ἀλκείδης, Alkeidēs), was a divine hero in Greek mythology, the son of Zeus and Alcmene, foster son of AmphitryonBy his adoptive descent through Amphitryon, Heracles receives the epithet Alcides, as "of the line of Alcaeus", father of Amphitryon.
Located in the shadow of Mount Vesuvius, Herculaneum (Italian: Ercolano) was an ancient Roman town destroyed by volcanic pyroclastic flows in 79 AD.
A hereditary monarchy is a form of government and succession of power in which the throne passes from one member of a royal family to another member of the same family.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
A heroon or herõon (Greek ἡρῷον, plural ἡρῷα, heroa), also latinized as heroum, was a shrine dedicated to an ancient Greek or Roman hero and used for the commemoration or cult worship of the hero.
Hesiod (or; Ἡσίοδος Hēsíodos) was a Greek poet generally thought by scholars to have been active between 750 and 650 BC, around the same time as Homer.
Hieronymus of Cardia (Ἱερώνυμος ὁ Καρδιανός, 354–250 BC), Greek general and historian from Cardia in Thrace, was a contemporary of Alexander the Great (356–323 BC).
The term "high priest" or "high priestess" usually refers either to an individual who holds the office of ruler-priest, or to one who is the head of a religious caste.
Treason is criminal disloyalty.
A hipparchus or hipparch (ἵππαρχος hipparkhos) was the title of an ancient Greek cavalry officer, commanding a hipparchia (unit of about 500 horsemen); two such units were commanded by an epihipparchos.
Hippias of Athens (Ἱππίας ὁ Ἀθηναῖος) was one of the sons of Peisistratus, and was tyrant of Athens between about 527 BC and 510 BC when Cleomenes I of Sparta successfully invaded Athens and forced Hippias to leave Athens.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
There are numerous surviving ancient Greek and Latin sources on Alexander the Great, king of Macedon, as well as some oriental texts.
The history of Afghanistan, (تاریخ افغانستان, د افغانستان تاريخ) began in 1747 with its establishment by Ahmad Shah Durrani.
The history of agriculture records the domestication of plants and animals and the development and dissemination of techniques for raising them productively.
Athens is one of the oldest named cities in the world, having been continuously inhabited for at least 5000 years.
Carthage was founded in the 9th century BC on the coast of North Africa, in what is now Tunisia.
The production of cheese predates recorded history.
The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, Christendom, and the Church with its various denominations, from the 1st century to the present.
History of citizenship describes the changing relation between an individual and the state, commonly known as citizenship.
The History of Crete goes back to the 7th millennium BC, preceding the ancient Minoan civilization by more than four millennia.
Human habitation of Cyprus dates back to the Paleolithic era.
A democracy is a political system, or a system of decision-making within an institution or organization or a country, in which all members have an equal share of power.
The history of Egypt has been long and rich, due to the flow of the Nile River with its fertile banks and delta, as well as the accomplishments of Egypt's native inhabitants and outside influence.
The history of glass-making can be traced back to 3500 BC Asia in Mesopotamia.
The kingdom of Macedonia was an ancient state in what is now the Macedonian region of northern Greece, founded in the mid-7th century BC during the period of Archaic Greece and lasting until the mid-2nd century BC.
Music is found in every known culture, past and present, varying widely between times and places.
The city of Plovdiv is situated in southern Bulgaria.
The history of slavery spans many cultures, nationalities, and religions from ancient times to the present day.
The history of theatre charts the development of theatre over the past 2,500 years.
The earliest archaeological evidence of grape wine has been found at sites in Georgia (BC), Iran (BC), Greece (BC), and Sicily (BC) although there is earlier evidence of a wine made from fermented grapes among other fruits being consumed in China (c. 7000–5500 BC).
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
In classical antiquity, writers such as Herodotus, Plato, Xenophon, Athenaeus and many others explored aspects of homosexuality in ancient Greece.
Hoplites were citizen-soldiers of Ancient Greek city-states who were primarily armed with spears and shields.
Horse breeding is reproduction in horses, and particularly the human-directed process of selective breeding of animals, particularly purebred horses of a given breed.
Horse racing is an equestrian performance sport, typically involving two or more horses ridden by jockeys (or sometimes driven without riders) over a set distance for competition.
Horticulture is the science and art of growing plants (fruits, vegetables, flowers, and any other cultivar).
Horus is one of the most significant ancient Egyptian deities.
A hostage is a person or entity which is held by one of two belligerent parties to the other or seized as security for the carrying out of an agreement, or as a preventive measure against war.
In justice and law, house arrest (also called home confinement, home detention, or, in modern times, electronic monitoring) is a measure by which a person is confined by the authorities to a residence.
Hunting is the practice of killing or trapping animals, or pursuing or tracking them with the intent of doing so.
A hypaspist (Ὑπασπιστής "shield bearer" or "shield covered") is a squire, man at arms, or "shield carrier".
In classical antiquity, Illyria (Ἰλλυρία, Illyría or Ἰλλυρίς, Illyrís; Illyria, see also Illyricum) was a region in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula inhabited by the Illyrians.
The Illyrian languages are a group of Indo-European languages that were spoken in the western part of the Balkans in former times by groups identified as Illyrians: Ardiaei, Delmatae, Pannonii, Autariates, Taulantii (see list of ancient tribes in Illyria).
The Illyrian Wars were a set of wars fought in the period 229–168 BC between the Roman Republic and the Ardiaei kingdom.
The Illyrians (Ἰλλυριοί, Illyrioi; Illyrii or Illyri) were a group of Indo-European tribes in antiquity, who inhabited part of the western Balkans.
Imathia (Ημαθία) is one of the regional units of Greece.
An imperial cult is a form of state religion in which an emperor or a dynasty of emperors (or rulers of another title) are worshipped as demigods or deities.
An import is a good brought into a jurisdiction, especially across a national border, from an external source.
The Indian campaign of Alexander the Great began in 326BC.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
Interpretatio graeca (Latin, "Greek translation" or "interpretation by means of Greek ") is a discourse in which ancient Greek religious concepts and practices, deities, and myths are used to interpret or attempt to understand the mythology and religion of other cultures.
The Ionian Revolt, and associated revolts in Aeolis, Doris, Cyprus and Caria, were military rebellions by several Greek regions of Asia Minor against Persian rule, lasting from 499 BC to 493 BC.
The Ionians (Ἴωνες, Íōnes, singular Ἴων, Íōn) were one of the four major tribes that the Greeks considered themselves to be divided into during the ancient period; the other three being the Dorians, Aeolians, and Achaeans.
The Ionic order forms one of the three classical orders of classical architecture, the other two canonic orders being the Doric and the Corinthian.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
Isis was a major goddess in ancient Egyptian religion whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman world.
Isthmian Games or Isthmia (Ancient Greek: Ἴσθμια) were one of the Panhellenic Games of Ancient Greece, and were named after the Isthmus of Corinth, where they were held.
The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana, Penisola appenninica) extends from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south.
Jason of Pherae (Ἰάσων ὁ Φεραῖος) was the ruler of Thessaly during the period just before Philip II of Macedon came to power.
A javelin is a light spear designed primarily to be thrown, historically as a ranged weapon, but today predominantly for sport.
Johann Gustav Bernhard Droysen (6 July 180819 June 1884) was a German historian.
The Johns Hopkins University Press (also referred to as JHU Press or JHUP) is the publishing division of Johns Hopkins University.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
Justin (Marcus Junianus Justinus Frontinus; century) was a Latin historian who lived under the Roman Empire.
The Kasta Tomb, also known as the Amphipolis Tomb (Τάφος της Αμφίπολης), is an ancient Macedonian tomb that was discovered inside the Kasta mound (or tumulus) near Amphipolis, Central Macedonia, in northern Greece in 2012 and first entered in August 2014.
The kausia (καυσία, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus) was an ancient Macedonian flat hat.
In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated.
Klaus Bringmann (born 28 May 1936, in Bad Wildungen) is a German historian, an author of books on Roman history, and a professor of antiquity.
Koinon (Κοινόν, pl. Κοινά, Koina), meaning "common," in the sense of "public," had many interpretations, some societal, some governmental.
The Koinon of the Macedonians (Κοινόν Μακεδόνων) was a commonwealth institution or a confederation of all Macedonian communities united around the king, resembling earliest Greek koina.
Kotthybos (κότθυβος) was a type of Macedonian armor.
A krater or crater (κρατήρ, kratēr,."mixing vessel") was a large vase in Ancient Greece, particularly used for watering down wine.
Krinides (Κρηνίδες, before 1926: Ράχτσα - Rachtsa) is a town in the Kavala regional unit in eastern Macedonia, Greece.
A ladle (dipper) is a type of spoon used for soup, stew, or other foods.
Lamia (Λαμία, Lamía) is a city in central Greece.
The Lamian War, or the Hellenic War (323–322 BC) was fought by a coalition of Greek cities including Athens and the Aetolian League against Macedon and its ally Boeotia.
Lanassa was a daughter of king Agathocles of Syracuse, Sicily, perhaps by his second wife Alcia.
Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and also known as land fill (not to be confused with a landfill), is the process of creating new land from ocean, riverbeds, or lake beds.
Larissa (Λάρισα) is the capital and largest city of the Thessaly region, the fourth-most populous in Greece according to the population results of municipal units of 2011 census and capital of the Larissa regional unit.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The League of Corinth, also referred to as the Hellenic League (from Greek Ἑλληνικός Hellenikos, "pertaining to Greece and Greeks"), was a federation of Greek states created by Philip II during the winter of 338 BC/337 BC after the battle of Chaeronea and succeeded by Alexander the Great at 336 BC, to facilitate the use of military forces in the war of Greece against Persia.
A lease is a contractual arrangement calling for the lessee (user) to pay the lessor (owner) for use of an asset.
Leochares was a Greek sculptor from Athens, who lived in the 4th century BC.
Leonnatus (Λεοννάτος; 356 BC – 322 BC) was a Macedonian officer of Alexander the Great and one of the diadochi. He was a member of the royal house of Lyncestis, a small kingdom that had been included in Macedonia by King Philip II of Macedon.
Leosthenes (Greek: Λεωσθένης; died 323 BC) was an Athenian who was commander of the combined Greek army in the Lamian War.
The Leukaspides (Λευκάσπιδες "White Shields"), may have made up one of the two probable corps of the Antigonid Macedonian phalanx in the Hellenistic period, with the Chalkaspides ("Bronze Shields") forming the other.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Lezhë (Lezha or Lezhë) is a town and municipality in northwest Albania, in the county with the same name.
Liberty, in politics, consists of the social, political, and economic freedoms to which all community members are entitled.
The Royal Library of Alexandria or Ancient Library of Alexandria in Alexandria, Egypt, was one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world.
The Libyan Desert forms the northern and eastern part of the Sahara Desert.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
The linothorax (pronounced) is a type of upper body armor used by the ancient Greeks, as well as other Hellenic kingdoms including Macedonia, from the Mycenaean period through the Hellenistic period.
This is a list of the Ancient Macedonians.
The following is a list of gods, goddesses and many other divine and semi-divine figures from Ancient Greek mythology and Ancient Greek religion.
This is a list of Greek regents (αντιβασιλείς, sing.), a regent, from the Latin regens "one who reigns", is a person selected to act as head of state (ruling or not) because the ruler is a minor, not present, or debilitated.
This list of kings of Sparta details the important rulers of the Greek city-state of Sparta in the Peloponnesus.
This is a list of rulers in Illyria, a region of the classical antiquity in what is today the Western Balkans.
This article lists rulers of Thrace and Dacia, and includes Thracian, Paeonian, Celtic, Dacian, Scythian, Persian or Ancient Greek up to the point of its fall to the Roman empire, with a few figures from Greek mythology.
The Seleucid dynasty or the Seleucidae (from Σελευκίδαι, Seleukídai) was a Greek Macedonian royal family, founded by Seleucus I Nicator ("the Victor"), which ruled the Seleucid Empire centered in the Near East and regions of the Asian part of the earlier Achaemenid Persian Empire during the Hellenistic period.
Siege artillery (also siege guns or siege cannons) is the heavy guns designed to bombard fortifications, cities, and other fixed targets, as distinct from, e.g., field artillery.
This list of kings of Epirus below includes all kings and queens, along with princes and princesses until the last representative of the royal Aeacid dynasty whereupon a democracy was established.
Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.
Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state.
Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or logs onto trucks or skeleton cars.
Longarus (ruled c. 231 – 206 BC) was an Illyrian king of the Dardanian Kingdom.
The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France.
Lower Macedonia (Κάτω Μακεδονία, Kato Makedonia) or Macedonia proper or Emathia is a geographical term used in Antiquity referring to the coastal plain watered by the rivers Haliacmon, Axius on the west and bounded by Strymon on the east.
Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus (c. 229 BC – 160 BC) was a two-time consul of the Roman Republic and a noted general who conquered Macedon, putting an end to the Antigonid dynasty in the Third Macedonian War.
Lumber (American English; used only in North America) or timber (used in the rest of the English speaking world) is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production.
Lynkestis (also Lyncestis, Λυγκηστίς meaning "land of the lynx") or Lyncus (Λύγκος) was a region, and in earlier times a Greek kingdom of Upper Macedonia, located on the southern borders of Illyria and Paeonia.
Lysimachus (Greek: Λυσίμαχος, Lysimachos; c. 360 BC – 281 BC) was a Macedonian officer and diadochus (i.e. "successor") of Alexander the Great, who became a basileus ("King") in 306 BC, ruling Thrace, Asia Minor and Macedon.
Lysippos (Λύσιππος) was a Greek sculptor of the 4th century BC.
Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
Macedonia (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) is a geographic and historical region of Greece in the southern Balkans.
The Roman province of Macedonia (Provincia Macedoniae, Ἐπαρχία Μακεδονίας) was officially established in 146 BC, after the Roman general Quintus Caecilius Metellus defeated Andriscus of Macedon, the last self-styled King of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia in 148 BC, and after the four client republics (the "tetrarchy") established by Rome in the region were dissolved.
The Macedonia naming dispute is a political dispute over the use of the name "Macedonia" between the southeastern European countries of Greece and the Republic of Macedonia, formerly a region within Yugoslavia.
The Macedonian phalanx is an infantry formation developed by Philip II and used by his son Alexander the Great to conquer the Achaemenid Empire and other armies.
The Macedonian Wars (214–148 BC) were a series of conflicts fought by the Roman Republic and its Greek allies in the eastern Mediterranean against several different major Greek kingdoms.
The Macedonian–Carthaginian Treaty was an anti-Roman treaty between Philip V of Macedon and Hannibal, leader of the Carthaginians, which was drawn up after the Battle of Cannae when Hannibal seemed poised to conquer Rome.
The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law.
Magna Graecia (Latin meaning "Great Greece", Μεγάλη Ἑλλάς, Megálē Hellás, Magna Grecia) was the name given by the Romans to the coastal areas of Southern Italy in the present-day regions of Campania, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily that were extensively populated by Greek settlers; particularly the Achaean settlements of Croton, and Sybaris, and to the north, the settlements of Cumae and Neapolis.
Makedon, also Macedon (Μακεδών) or Makednos (Μακεδνός), was the eponymous mythological ancestor of the ancient Macedonians according to various ancient Greek fragmentary narratives.
Manolis Andronikos (Μανόλης Ανδρόνικος) (October 23, 1919 – March 30, 1992) was a Greek archaeologist and a professor at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.
Mardonius (Μαρδόνιος Mardonios, Old Persian: Marduniya, literally: "the mild one"; died 479 BC) was a leading Persian military commander during the Persian Wars with Greece in the early 5th century BC who died at the Battle of Plataea.
Marmara Ereğlisi is a town, located in a district bearing the same name, in Tekirdağ Province in the Marmara region of Turkey.
Maroneia (Μαρώνεια, Марония, Maronya) is a village and a former municipality in the Rhodope regional unit, East Macedonia and Thrace, Greece.
A marriage of state is a diplomatic marriage or union between two members of different nation-states or internally, between two power blocs, usually in authoritarian societies and is a practice which dates back into pre-history, as far back as early Grecian cultures in western society, and of similar antiquity in other civilizations.
Marsyas of Pella (Μαρσύας Περιάνδρου Πελλαῖος; c. 356 BC – c. 294 BC), son of Periander, was a Macedonian historian.
Marsyas of Philippi (Ancient Greek: Μαρσύας, Κριτοφήμου, Φιλιππεύς; 3rd century BC) was a Macedonian Greek historian and the son of Critophemus.
A master of ceremonies, abbreviated M.C. or emcee, also called compère and announcer, is the official host of a ceremony, a staged event or similar performance.
In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.
Megabazus (Μεγαβάζος) was a highly regarded Persian general under Darius.
Megalopoli (Μεγαλόπολη) is a town in the southwestern part of the regional unit of Arcadia, southern Greece.
Megara (Μέγαρα) is a historic town and a municipality in West Attica, Greece.
Melanippides of Melos (Μελανιππίδης), one of the most celebrated lyric poets in the use of dithyramb, and an exponent of the "new music.".
Menander (Μένανδρος Menandros; c. 342/41 – c. 290 BC) was a Greek dramatist and the best-known representative of Athenian New Comedy.
Menedemus of Eretria (Μενέδημος ὁ Ἐρετριεύς; 345/4 – 261/0 BC) was a Greek philosopher and founder of the Eretrian school.
For other uses, see Menelaus of Macedon Menelaus was son of Amyntas III of Macedon by his second wife Gygaea.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Messenia (Μεσσηνία Messinia) is a regional unit (perifereiaki enotita) in the southwestern part of the Peloponnese region, in Greece.
Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large-scale structures.
Methoni (Μεθώνη Πιερίας) is a village and a former municipality in Pieria regional unit, Greece.
In ancient Greece, a metic (Ancient Greek: μέτοικος, métoikos: from μετά, metá, indicating change, and οἶκος, oîkos "dwelling") was a foreign resident of Athens, one who did not have citizen rights in their Greek city-state (polis) of residence.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York, colloquially "the Met", is the largest art museum in the United States.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
A midlife crisis is a transition of identity and self-confidence that can occur in middle-aged individuals, typically 45–64 years old.
Mieza (Μίεζα), "shrine of the Nymphs", was a village in Ancient Macedon, where Aristotle taught the boy Alexander the Great between 343 BC and 340 BC.
The Military Decree of Amphipolis (c. 200 BC) is a Macedonian Greek inscription of two marble blocks, that originally contain at least three columns of text.
A military operation is the coordinated military actions of a state, or a non-state actor, in response to a developing situation.
A military parade is a formation of soldiers whose movement is restricted by close-order manouvering known as drilling or marching.
Military police (MP) are law enforcement agencies connected with, or part of, the military of a state.
Military tactics encompasses the art of organising and employing fighting forces on or near the battlefield.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
A mint is an industrial facility which manufactures coins that can be used in currency.
There were three Mithridatic Wars between Rome and the Kingdom of Pontus in the 1st century BC.
The Molossians were an ancient Greek tribe and kingdom that inhabited the region of Epirus since the Mycenaean era.
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.
In economics, the money supply (or money stock) is the total value of monetary assets available in an economy at a specific time.
Monogamy is a form of relationship in which an individual has only one partner during their lifetime — alternately, only one partner at any one time (serial monogamy) — as compared to non-monogamy (e.g., polygamy or polyamory).
A mosaic is a piece of art or image made from the assemblage of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials.
Mount Olympus (Όλυμπος Olympos, for Modern Greek also transliterated Olimbos, or) is the highest mountain in Greece.
Munichia or Munychia (Μουνιχία or Μουνυχία) is the ancient Greek name for a steep hill (high) in Piraeus, Greece, known today as Kastella (Καστέλλα).
A municipality is usually a single urban or administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate.
A mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other permanent surface.
In classical antiquity, the muscle cuirass, anatomical cuirass or heroic cuirass is a type of body armor made to fit the wearer's torso and designed to mimic an idealized human physique.
A music competition is a public event designed to identify and award outstanding musical ensembles, soloists and musicologists.
Mutiny is a criminal conspiracy among a group of people (typically members of the military or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) to openly oppose, change, or overthrow a lawful authority to which they are subject.
Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from approximately 1600–1100 BC.
Mygdonia (Μυγδονία / Μygdonia) was an ancient territory, part of Ancient Thrace, later conquered by Macedon, which comprised the plains around Therma (Thessalonica) together with the valleys of Klisali and Besikia, including the area of the Axios river mouth and extending as far east as Lake Bolbe.
The mysteries of Isis were religious initiation rites performed in the cult of the goddess Isis in the Greco-Roman world.
Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond, (15 November 1907 – 24 March 2001) was a British scholar of ancient Greece and an operative for the British Special Operations Executive (SOE) in occupied Greece during World War II.
Nabis (Νάβις) was ruler of Sparta from 207 BC to 192 BC, during the years of the First and Second Macedonian Wars and the eponymous "War against Nabis", i.e. against him.
Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is a personality disorder with a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by exaggerated feelings of self-importance, an excessive need for admiration, and a lack of empathy.
The National Archaeological Museum of Naples (italic, sometimes abbreviated to MANN) is an important Italian archaeological museum, particularly for ancient Roman remains.
Naval warfare is combat in and on the sea, the ocean, or any other battlespace involving major body of water such as a large lake or wide river.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
Nearchus or Nearchos (Νέαρχος; – 300 BC) was one of the officers, a navarch, in the army of Alexander the Great.
Nicaea (Νίκαια Nikaia), was an ancient fortress of the Locri Epicnemidii, situated upon the sea, and close to the pass of Thermopylae.
Nicanor (Nικάνωρ Nikā́nōr; executed 318 BC) was a Macedonian officer under Cassander, who secretly despatched Nicanor immediately on the death of Antipater in 319 BC to take the command of the Macedonian garrison at Munychia in Attica.
Nicesipolis or Nicasipolis of Pherae (Νικησίπολις Nikesipolis), was a Thessalian woman, native of the city Pherae, wife or concubine of king Philip II of Macedon and mother of Thessalonica of Macedon.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
The Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek (Glypto-, from the Greek root glyphein, to carve and theke, a storing-place) is an art museum in Copenhagen, Denmark.
Obverse and its opposite, reverse, refer to the two flat faces of coins and some other two-sided objects, including paper money, flags, seals, medals, drawings, old master prints and other works of art, and printed fabrics.
Odeon is the name for several ancient Greek and Roman buildings built for music: singing exercises, musical shows, poetry competitions, and the like.
The Odrysian Kingdom (Ancient Greek: Βασίλειον Ὀδρυσῶν; Regnum Odrysium) was a state union of over 40 Thracian tribes and 22 kingdoms that existed between the 5th century BC and the 1st century AD.
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority.
The Ohio State University, commonly referred to as Ohio State or OSU, is a large, primarily residential, public university in Columbus, Ohio.
Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.
Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.
Olive oil extraction is the process of extracting the oil present in olive drupes, known as olive oil.
The olive wreath also known as kotinos (κότινος), was the prize for the winner at the ancient Olympic Games.
Olympia (Greek: Ὀλυμπία;; Olymbía), a sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis on the Peloponnese peninsula, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times.
Olympias (Ὀλυμπιάς,, c. 375–316 BC) was a daughter of king Neoptolemus I of Epirus, sister to Alexander I of Epirus, fourth wife of Philip II, the king of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedonia, and mother of Alexander the Great.
Olympias (in Greek Ὀλυμπιάς,; lived 3rd century BC) was daughter of Pyrrhus, king of Epirus from his first wife Antigone.
The Olympic flame is a symbol used in the Olympic movement.
The Olynthiacs were three political speeches, all delivered by the Athenian statesman and orator Demosthenes.
Olynthus (Ὄλυνθος Olynthos, named for the ὄλυνθος olunthos, "the fruit of the wild fig tree") was an ancient city of Chalcidice, built mostly on two flat-topped hills 30–40m in height, in a fertile plain at the head of the Gulf of Torone, near the neck of the peninsula of Pallene, about 2.5 kilometers from the sea, and about 60 stadia (c. 9–10 kilometers) from Poteidaea.
On the Peace (Περὶ τῆς εἰρήνης) is one of the most famous political orations of the prominent Athenian statesman and orator Demosthenes.
Onomarchus (Ὀνόμαρχος) was general of the Phocians in the Third Sacred War, brother of Philomelus and son of Theotimus.
Opis (Akkadian Upî or Upija; Ὦπις) was an ancient Babylonian city near the Tigris, not far from modern Baghdad.
In classical antiquity, an oracle was a person or agency considered to provide wise and insightful counsel or prophetic predictions or precognition of the future, inspired by the god.
An order of succession is the sequence of those entitled to hold a high office such as head of state or an honour such as a title of nobility in the order in which they stand in line to it when it becomes vacated.
Orestes of Macedon (Greek: Ὀρέστης ὁ Μακεδών) was son of Archelaus I and successor king of his murdered father.
Oricum or Orikos (Ὤρικος or Ὠρικός) was an ancient Greek city in the northern part of Epirus (modern south Albania), at the south end of the Bay of Vlorë.
An origin myth is a myth that purports to describe the origin of some feature of the natural or social world.
An overlord in the English feudal system was a lord of a manor who had subinfeudated a particular manor, estate or fee, to a tenant.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
In antiquity, Paeonia or Paionia (Παιονία) was the land and kingdom of the Paeonians (Παίονες).
While a page is a comparatively low-ranking servant, a Page of Honour is a ceremonial position in the Royal Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
A palace is a grand residence, especially a royal residence, or the home of a head of state or some other high-ranking dignitary, such as a bishop or archbishop.
The Pangaion Hills (Greek, Παγγαίο, ancient forms: Pangaeon, Pangaeum, Homeric name: Nysa) are a mountain range in Greece, approximately 40 km from Kavala.
Parmenion (also Parmenio; Παρμενίων; c. 400 – Ecbatana, 330 BC) was an ancient Macedonian general in the service of Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great.
The Partition of Babylon designates the attribution of the territories of Alexander the Great between his generals after his death in 323 BC.
The Partition of Triparadisus was a power-sharing agreement passed at Triparadisus in 321 BCE between the generals (Diadochi) of Alexander the Great, in which they named a new regent and arranged the repartition of the satrapies of Alexander's empire among themselves.
Parysatis, the youngest daughter of Artaxerxes III of Persia, married Alexander the Great in 324 BC at the Susa weddings.
Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another.
Pauravas or Paurav Rashtra was an ancient Indian kingdom in the northwest Indian subcontinent (present-day Pakistan and India).
Pausanias (Greek: Παυσανίας), also known as Pausanias the Pretender, was a Macedonian who claimed the right the Macedonian throne in the 360's B.C., during the time of Philip II of Macedon.
Pausanias of Macedon (Παυσανίας), was the successor of Archelaus II.
Pausanias of Orestis (Greek: Παυσανίας ἐκ τῆς Ὀρεστίδος) was a member of Philip II of Macedon's somatophylakes, his personal bodyguard.
The Peace of Nicias, also known as the Fifty-Year Peace, was a peace treaty signed between the Greek city-states of Athens and Sparta in March 421 BC, ending the first half of the Peloponnesian War.
Peace of Philocrates is the name given to the peace treaty concluded in 346 BC between Athens and Macedon under Philip II.
A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or governments, which formally ends a state of war between the parties.
A pediment is an architectural element found particularly in classical, neoclassical and baroque architecture, and its derivatives, consisting of a gable, usually of a triangular shape, placed above the horizontal structure of the entablature, typically supported by columns.
Pelagonia (Greek: Πελαγονíα, Pelagonía; Macedonian: Пелагонија, Pelagonija) is a geographical region of Macedonia.
Pelion, also Pellion or Pelium (Πήλιον, Πέλλιον or Πήλεον), was a fortified settlement of the Chaonian tribe of Dexaroi.
Pella (Πέλλα, Pélla) is an ancient city located in Central Macedonia, Greece, best known as the historical capital of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and birthplace of Alexander the Great.
Pelopidas (Πελοπίδας; died 364 BC) was an important Theban statesman and general in Greece.
The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Πελοπόννησος, Peloponnisos) is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece.
The Peloponnesian League was an alliance in the Peloponnesus from the 6th to the 4th centuries BC, dominated by Sparta.
The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek war fought by the Delian League led by Athens against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta.
A peltast (Ancient Greek: πελταστής peltastes) was a type of light infantry, originating in Thrace and Paeonia, who often served as skirmishers in Hellenic and Hellenistic armies.
Perdiccas (Περδίκκας, Perdikkas; c. 355 BC – 321/320 BC) became a general in Alexander the Great's army and participated in Alexander's campaign against Persia.
Perdiccas I of Macedon (Περδίκκας Α΄, Perdíkkas A΄) was king of Macedon.
Perdiccas II (Περδίκκας Β΄) was a king of Macedonia from about 448 BC to about 413 BC.
Perdiccas III (Greek: Περδίκκας Γ΄) was king of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia from 368 BC to 359 BC, succeeding his brother Alexander II.
Pergamon, or Pergamum (τὸ Πέργαμον or ἡ Πέργαμος), was a rich and powerful ancient Greek city in Aeolis.
Pericles (Περικλῆς Periklēs, in Classical Attic; c. 495 – 429 BC) was a prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general of Athens during the Golden Age — specifically the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars.
In Hellenistic Greek and Roman architecture a peristyle (from Greek περίστυλος) is a continuous porch formed by a row of columns surrounding the perimeter of building or a courtyard.
In Greek mythology, Persephone (Περσεφόνη), also called Kore ("the maiden"), is the daughter of Zeus and Demeter and is the queen of the underworld.
Perseus (Greek: Περσεύς, Perseus; 212 – 166 BC) was the last king (Basileus) of the Antigonid dynasty, who ruled the successor state in Macedon created upon the death of Alexander the Great.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Persian mythology are traditional tales and stories of ancient origin, all involving extraordinary or supernatural beings.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
A petty kingdom is a kingdom described as minor or "petty" by contrast to an empire or unified kingdom that either preceded or succeeded it (e.g. the numerous kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England unified into the Kingdom of England in the 10th century, or the numerous Gaelic kingdoms of Ireland as the Kingdom of Ireland in the 16th century).
Peuce in ancient geography was an island in the Danube Delta, in Scythia Minor (present-day Tulcea County, Romania).
The pezhetairoi (Greek and Ancient Macedonian: πεζέταιροι, singular: pezhetairos) were the backbone of the Macedonian army and Diadochi kingdoms.
The phalanx (φάλαγξ; plural phalanxes or phalanges, φάλαγγες, phalanges) was a rectangular mass military formation, usually composed entirely of heavy infantry armed with spears, pikes, sarissas, or similar weapons.
Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.
Pherae is the English transliteration of two towns in Ancient Greece.
Phila (Φίλα τῆς Ἐλίμειας), sister of Derdas and Machatas of Elimeia, was the first or second wife of Philip II of Macedon.
Philinna (Greek: Φίλιννα) or Philine (Greek: Φιλίνη) was the name of many Greek females, as, for instance, of the female dancer Philinna of Larissa in Thessaly, who was the mother of Philip III Arrhidaeus by Philip II.
Philip II of Macedon (Φίλιππος Β΄ ὁ Μακεδών; 382–336 BC) was the king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon from until his assassination in.
Philip III Arrhidaeus (Φίλιππος Γ΄ ὁ Ἀρριδαῖος; c. 359 BC – 25 December, 317 BC) reigned as king of Macedonia from after 11 June 323 BC until his death.
Philip IV of Macedon (Greek: Φίλιππος Δʹ ὁ Μακεδών; died 297 BC) was the son of Cassander.
Philip V (Φίλιππος; 238–179 BC) was King (Basileus) of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia from 221 to 179 BC.
The Philippeion (Φιλιππεῖον) in the Altis of Olympia was an Ionic circular memorial in limestone and marble, which contained chryselephantine (ivory and gold) statues of Philip's family; himself, Alexander the Great, Olympias, Amyntas III and Eurydice I. It was made by the Athenian sculptor Leochares in celebration of Philip's victory at the battle of Chaeronea (338 BC).
Philippi (Φίλιπποι, Philippoi) was a city in eastern Macedonia, in the Edonis region.
Philippopolis is one of the ancient names of the city of Plovdiv by which it was known for the most of its recorded history.
Philo of Alexandria (Phílōn; Yedidia (Jedediah) HaCohen), also called Philo Judaeus, was a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher who lived in Alexandria, in the Roman province of Egypt.
Philocrates (Greek: Φιλοκράτης; floruit: 340s BC) was an ancient Greek politician from Athens who first negotiated the Peace of Philocrates with Philip II of Macedonia after Philip devastated the city of Olynthos in 348 BC.
Philoi (φίλοι; plural of φίλος philos "friend") was a title to the royal friends, advisors of the king (basileus) in ancient Macedonia.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
Philosophical skepticism (UK spelling: scepticism; from Greek σκέψις skepsis, "inquiry") is a philosophical school of thought that questions the possibility of certainty in knowledge.
Phocis was an ancient region in the central part of Ancient Greece, which included Delphi.
Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
The Phrygian helmet, also known as the Thracian helmet, was a type of helmet that originated in Classical Greece and was widely used in Thrace, Dacia, Magna Graecia and the Hellenistic world until well into the Roman Empire.
The Phrygian language was the Indo-European language of the Phrygians, spoken in Asia Minor during Classical Antiquity (c. 8th century BCE to 5th century CE).
The Phrygians (gr. Φρύγες, Phruges or Phryges) were an ancient Indo-European people, initially dwelling in the southern Balkans – according to Herodotus – under the name of Bryges (Briges), changing it to Phryges after their final migration to Anatolia, via the Hellespont.
Phthia (in Greek Φθια; lived 3rd century BC) was a daughter of Alexander II (272–260 BC), king of Epirus, and his half-sister Olympias II.
A pike is a pole weapon, a very long thrusting spear formerly used extensively by infantry.
The pilaster is an architectural element in classical architecture used to give the appearance of a supporting column and to articulate an extent of wall, with only an ornamental function.
Pindar (Πίνδαρος Pindaros,; Pindarus; c. 522 – c. 443 BC) was an Ancient Greek lyric poet from Thebes.
Piraeus (Πειραιάς Pireás, Πειραιεύς, Peiraieús) is a port city in the region of Attica, Greece.
Pitch is a name for any of a number of viscoelastic polymers.
Pixodarus (in Greek Πιξώδαρoς; ruled 340–335 BC), was a ruler of Caria, nominally the Persian Satrap, who enjoyed the status of king or dynast by virtue of the powerful position his predecessors of the House of Hecatomnus (the Hecatomnids) created when they succeeded the assassinated Persian Satrap Tissaphernes in the Carian satrapy.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
The Academy (Ancient Greek: Ἀκαδημία) was founded by Plato (428/427 BC – 348/347 BC) in ca.
A play is a form of literature written by a playwright, usually consisting of dialogue between characters, intended for theatrical performance rather than just reading.
A playwright or dramatist (rarely dramaturge) is a person who writes plays.
Pleuratus I (Ancient Greek: Πλευρᾶτος; ruled 356–335 BC) was an Illyrian king of the Taulantii State.
Plovdiv (Пловдив) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria, with a city population of 341,000 and 675,000 in the greater metropolitan area.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
Polis (πόλις), plural poleis (πόλεις), literally means city in Greek.
Politarch (πολιτάρχης, politarches; plural πολιτάρχαι, politarchai) was a Hellenistic and Roman-era Macedonian title for an elected governor (archon) of a city (polis).
Politics (Πολιτικά, Politiká) is a work of political philosophy by Aristotle, a 4th-century BC Greek philosopher.
Polybius (Πολύβιος, Polýbios; – BC) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period noted for his work which covered the period of 264–146 BC in detail.
Polygamy (from Late Greek πολυγαμία, polygamía, "state of marriage to many spouses") is the practice of marrying multiple spouses.
Polyidus of Thessaly (also Polyides, Polydus; Ancient Greek: Πολύειδος ὁ Θεσσαλός, English translation: "well-grounded", "wise") was an ancient Greek military engineer of Philip, who made improvements in the covered battering-ram (testudo arietaria, poliorceticus krios) during Philip's siege of Byzantium in 340 BC.
Polyperchon (Πολυπέρχωνής Polyperkhones; b. unknown – d. after 304,Heckel, W., 'The Marshals of Alexander's Empire' (1992), p. 204 possibly into 3rd century BCBillows, R., 'Antigonos the One-Eyed and the Creation of the Hellenistic State' (1990), p. 172, n. 20), was a Macedonian general who served both Philip II and Alexander the Great and then played an active role in the ensuing battles for control between Alexander's generals (the Wars of the Diadochi).
A popular assembly (or people's assembly) is a gathering called to address issues of importance to participants.
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.
Porus or Poros (from Ancient Πῶρος, Pôros), was a great Indian king from the Punjab region, whose territory spanned the region between the Hydaspes (River of Jhelum) and Acesines (Chenab River), in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent.
Potidaea (Ποτίδαια, Potidaia) was a colony founded by the Corinthians around 600 BC in the narrowest point of the peninsula of Pallene, the westernmost of three peninsulas at the southern end of Chalcidice in northern Greece.
Ancient Greek pottery, due to its relative durability, comprises a large part of the archaeological record of ancient Greece, and since there is so much of it (over 100,000 painted vases are recorded in the Corpus vasorum antiquorum), it has exerted a disproportionately large influence on our understanding of Greek society.
Praetor (also spelled prætor) was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army (in the field or, less often, before the army had been mustered); or, an elected magistratus (magistrate), assigned various duties (which varied at different periods in Rome's history).
The Pre-Greek substrate (or Pre-Greek substratum) consists of the unknown language or languages spoken in prehistoric ancient Greece before the settlement of Proto-Hellenic speakers in the area.
In law, a prerogative is an exclusive right given from a government or state and invested in an individual or group, the content of which is separate from the body of rights enjoyed under the general law of the normative state.
A pretender is one who is able to maintain a claim that they are entitled to a position of honour or rank, which may be occupied by an incumbent (usually more recognised), or whose powers may currently be exercised by another person or authority.
A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.
Primogeniture is the right, by law or custom, of the paternally acknowledged, firstborn son to inherit his parent's entire or main estate, in preference to daughters, elder illegitimate sons, younger sons and collateral relatives; in some cases the estate may instead be the inheritance of the firstborn child or occasionally the firstborn daughter.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
In ancient Greece, the prodromoi (singular: prodromos) were skirmisher light cavalry.
Produce is a generalized term for a group of farm-produced crops and goods, including fruits and vegetables – meats, grains, oats, etc.
A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either the common law adversarial system, or the civil law inquisitorial system.
Proskynesis or proscynesis (Greek προσκύνησις, proskúnēsis) refers to the traditional Persian act of bowing or prostrating oneself before a person of higher social rank.
Proxeny or proxenia (προξενία) in ancient Greece was an arrangement whereby a citizen (chosen by the city) hosted foreign ambassadors at his own expense, in return for honorary titles from the state.
Prusias II Cynegus (Greek: Προυσίας ὁ Κυνηγός; "the Hunter", c. 220 BC – 149 BC, reigned c. 182 BC – 149 BC) was the Greek king of Bithynia.
The Ptolemaic cult of Alexander the Great was an imperial cult in Hellenistic Egypt in the 3rd–1st centuries BC, promoted by the Ptolemaic dynasty.
The Ptolemaic dynasty (Πτολεμαῖοι, Ptolemaioi), sometimes also known as the Lagids or Lagidae (Λαγίδαι, Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I's father), was a Macedonian Greek royal family, which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period.
The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.
Ptolemy I Soter (Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ, Ptolemaĩos Sōtḗr "Ptolemy the Savior"; c. 367 BC – 283/2 BC), also known as Ptolemy of Lagus (Πτολεμαῖος ὁ Λάγου/Λαγίδης), was a Macedonian Greek general under Alexander the Great, one of the three Diadochi who succeeded to his empire.
Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Πτολεμαῖος Φιλάδελφος, Ptolemaîos Philádelphos "Ptolemy Beloved of his Sibling"; 308/9–246 BCE) was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 to 246 BCE.
Ptolemy Keraunos (Πτολεμαῖος Κεραυνός, after 321 BC – 279 BC) was the King of Macedon from 281 BC to 279 BC.
Ptolemy of Aloros (Πτολεμαῖος), was sent by King Amyntas III of Macedon as an envoy to Athens c. 375–373 BC.
Publius Sulpicius Galba Maximus (fl. late 3rd to early 2nd century BC) was a Roman military officer and Senator who was elected Roman consul twice, and appointed dictator once.
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
Pydna (in Greek: Πύδνα, older transliteration: Pýdna) was a Greek city in ancient Macedon, the most important in Pieria.
The Pyrrhic War (280–275 BC) was a war fought by Pyrrhus, the king of Epirus.
Pyrrho of Elis (Pyrron ho Eleios) was a Greek philosopher of Classical antiquity and is credited as being the first Greek skeptic philosopher.
Pyrrhonism was a school of skepticism founded by Pyrrho in the fourth century BC.
Pyrrhus (Πύρρος, Pyrrhos; 319/318–272 BC) was a Greek general and statesman of the Hellenistic period.
The Pythia (Πῡθίᾱ) was the name of the high priestess of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi who also served as the oracle, commonly known as the Oracle of Delphi.
The Pythian Games (Πύθια; also Delphic Games) were one of the four Panhellenic Games of Ancient Greece.
A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king (or an empress consort in the case of an emperor).
A queen mother is a dowager queen who is the mother of the reigning monarch (or an empress mother in the case of an empire).
Quintus Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus (c. 210 BC – 116 BC/115 BC) was a Praetor in 148 BC, Consul in 143 BC, Proconsul of Hispania Citerior in 142 BC and Censor in 131 BC.
Quintus Curtius Rufus was a Roman historian, probably of the 1st century, author of his only known and only surviving work, Historiae Alexandri Magni, "Histories of Alexander the Great", or more fully Historiarum Alexandri Magni Macedonis Libri Qui Supersunt, "All the Books That Survive of the Histories of Alexander the Great of Macedon." Much of it is missing.
Ra (rꜥ or rˤ; also transliterated rˤw; cuneiform: ri-a or ri-ia) or Re (ⲣⲏ, Rē) is the ancient Egyptian sun god.
The Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, commonly called the Pauly–Wissowa or simply RE, is a German encyclopedia of classical scholarship.
Realpolitik (from real; "realistic", "practical", or "actual"; and Politik; "politics") is politics or diplomacy based primarily on considerations of given circumstances and factors, rather than explicit ideological notions or moral and ethical premises.
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.
Religion in Ancient Rome includes the ancestral ethnic religion of the city of Rome that the Romans used to define themselves as a people, as well as the religious practices of peoples brought under Roman rule, in so far as they became widely followed in Rome and Italy.
A religious festival is a time of special importance marked by adherents to that religion.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
In accounting, revenue is the income that a business has from its normal business activities, usually from the sale of goods and services to customers.
Rhodes (Ρόδος, Ródos) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands of Greece in terms of land area and also the island group's historical capital.
The right of asylum (sometimes called right of political asylum, from the Ancient Greek word ἄσυλον) is an ancient juridical concept, under which a person persecuted by his own country may be protected by another sovereign authority, such as another country or church official, who in medieval times could offer sanctuary.
The rise of Macedon, from a small kingdom at the periphery of classical Greek affairs to one which came to dominate the entire Hellenic world (and beyond), occurred in the span of just 25 years, between 359 and 336 BC.
The rise of Rome to dominate the overt politics of Europe, North Africa and the Near East completely from the 1st century BC to the 4th century AD, is the subject of a great deal of analysis by historians, military strategists, political scientists, and increasingly also some economists.
Robert Malcolm Errington (born 5 July 1939 in Howdon-on-Tyne), also known as R. Malcolm Errington, is a retired British historian who studied ancient Greece and the Classical world.
Robert Stephen Paul Beekes (2 September 1937 – 21 September 2017) was Emeritus Professor of Comparative Indo-European Linguistics at Leiden University and the author of many monographs on the Proto-Indo-European language.
A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (509 to 27 BC), and ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum (an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired).
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Roman historiography is indebted to the Greeks, who invented the form.
The Roman navy (Classis, lit. "fleet") comprised the naval forces of the Ancient Roman state.
Roman portraiture was one of the most significant periods in the development of portrait art.
In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
The study of Roman sculpture is complicated by its relation to Greek sculpture.
The Roman Senate (Senatus Romanus; Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome.
The Roman triumph (triumphus) was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly celebrate and sanctify the success of a military commander who had led Roman forces to victory in the service of the state or, originally and traditionally, one who had successfully completed a foreign war.
The Roman–Seleucid War (192–188 BC), also known as the War of Antiochos or the Syrian War, was a military conflict between two coalitions led by the Roman Republic and the Seleucid Empire.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Roof tiles are designed mainly to keep out rain, and are traditionally made from locally available materials such as terracotta or slate.
Rotation around a fixed axis or about a fixed axis of revolution or motion with respect to a fixed axis of rotation is a special case of rotational motion.
Roxana (Ῥωξάνη; Old Iranian Raoxshna; sometimes Roxanne, Roxanna, Rukhsana, Roxandra and Roxane) was a SogdianChristopoulos, Lucas (August 2012), "Hellenes and Romans in Ancient China (240 BC – 1398 AD)," in Victor H. Mair (ed), Sino-Platonic Papers, No.
A Royal Guard describes any group of military bodyguards, soldiers or armed retainers responsible for the protection of a royal person, such as Emperor/Empress, King/Queen, or Prince/Princess.
Royal Secretary is a position at the court of a monarch generally responsible for communicating the sovereign's wishes to the other members of government.
Running is a method of terrestrial locomotion allowing humans and other animals to move rapidly on foot.
In many historical societies, the position of kingship carries a sacral meaning, that is, it is identical with that of a high priest and of judge.
Sacrifice is the offering of food, objects or the lives of animals to a higher purpose, in particular divine beings, as an act of propitiation or worship.
Salamis (Σαλαμίς) is an ancient Greek city-state on the east coast of Cyprus, at the mouth of the river Pedieos, 6 km north of modern Famagusta.
Samos (Σάμος) is a Greek island in the eastern Aegean Sea, south of Chios, north of Patmos and the Dodecanese, and off the coast of Asia Minor, from which it is separated by the -wide Mycale Strait.
Samothrace (also Samothraki, Samothracia) (Σαμοθρᾴκη, Ionic Σαμοθρηΐκη; Σαμοθράκη) is a Greek island in the northern Aegean Sea.
The Samothrace Temple Complex, known as the Sanctuary of the Great Gods (Modern Greek: Ιερό των Μεγάλων Θεών Ieró ton Megalón Theón), is one of the principal Pan-Hellenic religious sanctuaries, located on the island of Samothrace within the larger Thrace.
A sanctuary, in its original meaning, is a sacred place, such as a shrine.
A sapper, also called pioneer or combat engineer, is a combatant or soldier who performs a variety of military engineering duties such as breaching fortifications, demolitions, bridge-building, laying or clearing minefields, preparing field defenses as well as building, and working on road and airfield construction and repair.
The sarissa or sarisa (σάρισα) was a long spear or pike about in length.
Satraps were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires.
Scerdilaidas or Skerdilaid (Σκερδιλαΐδας; ruled 218–206 BC) was an Illyrian king of the Ardiaean Kingdom.
Scientific literature comprises scholarly publications that report original empirical and theoretical work in the natural and social sciences, and within an academic field, often abbreviated as the literature.
Scythia (Ancient Greek: Σκυθική, Skythikē) was a region of Central Eurasia in classical antiquity, occupied by the Eastern Iranian Scythians, encompassing Central Asia and parts of Eastern Europe east of the Vistula River, with the eastern edges of the region vaguely defined by the Greeks.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
The Second Athenian Empire or Confederacy was a maritime confederation of Aegean city-states from 378–355 BC and headed by Athens, primarily for self-defense against the growth of Sparta and secondly, the Persian Empire.
The Second Macedonian War (200–197 BC) was fought between Macedon, led by Philip V of Macedon, and Rome, allied with Pergamon and Rhodes.
The second Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC) occurred during the Greco-Persian Wars, as King Xerxes I of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece.
The Second Punic War (218 to 201 BC), also referred to as The Hannibalic War and by the Romans the War Against Hannibal, was the second major war between Carthage and the Roman Republic and its allied Italic socii, with the participation of Greek polities and Numidian and Iberian forces on both sides.
The Second War of the Diadochi is the conflict between Polyperchon and Cassander, following the death of Cassander's father, Antipater.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
Seleucus I Nicator (Σέλευκος Α΄ Νικάτωρ Séleukos Α΄ Nikátōr; "Seleucus the Victor") was one of the Diadochi.
Seleucus IV Philopator (Greek: Σέλευκος Δ΄ Φιλοπάτωρ; c. 218 – 175 BC), ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, reigned from 187 BC to 175 BC over a realm consisting of Syria (now including Cilicia and Judea), Mesopotamia, Babylonia and Nearer Iran (Media and Persia).
The Senate of the Roman Republic was a political institution in the ancient Roman Republic.
A sentence is a decree of punishment of the court in criminal procedure.
Serapis (Σέραπις, later form) or Sarapis (Σάραπις, earlier form, from Userhapi "Osiris-Apis") is a Graeco-Egyptian deity.
Severus Alexander (Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander Augustus; c.207 - 19 March 235) was Roman Emperor from 222 to 235 and the last emperor of the Severan dynasty.
A shield is a piece of personal armour held in the hand or mounted on the wrist or forearm.
Sicilia was the first province acquired by the Roman Republic.
A siege engine is a device that is designed to break or circumvent heavy castle doors, thick city walls and other fortifications in siege warfare.
The Siege of Pelium was undertaken by Alexander the Great against the Illyrian tribes of what is modern-day Albania.
The Siege of Rhodes in 305–304 BC was one of the most notable sieges of antiquity, when Demetrius Poliorcetes, son of Antigonus I, besieged Rhodes in an attempt to make it abandon its neutrality and end its close relationship with Ptolemy I.
The Siege of Syracuse in 278 BC was the last attempt of Carthage to conquer the city of Syracuse.
A siege tower or breaching tower (or in the Middle Ages, a belfryCastle: Stephen Biesty'sSections. Dorling Kindersley Pub (T); 1st American edition (September 1994). Siege towers were invented in 300 BC.) is a specialized siege engine, constructed to protect assailants and ladders while approaching the defensive walls of a fortification.
Silver coins are possibly the oldest mass-produced form of coinage.
Simon Hornblower, FBA (born 1949) is an English classicist and academic.
Sirras or Sirrhas (Σίρρας; d. 390 BC) was a prince, royal member and perhaps prince-regent of Lynkestis (Lyncestis) in Upper Macedonia for his father-in-law King Arrhabaeus (423–393 BC).
Sitalces (Sitalkes) (Ancient Greek: Σιτάλκης, reigned 431 – 424 BC) was one of the great kings of the Thracian Odrysian state.
The Siwa Oasis (واحة سيوة, Wāḥat Sīwah) is an urban oasis in Egypt between the Qattara Depression and the Great Sand Sea in the Western Desert, nearly 50 km (30 mi) east of the Libyan border, and 560 km (348 mi) from Cairo.
Slavery was a common practice in ancient Greece, as in other societies of the time.
A sling is a projectile weapon typically used to throw a blunt projectile such as a stone, clay, or lead "sling-bullet".
Social mobility is the movement of individuals, families, households, or other categories of people within or between social strata in a society.
The Social War, also War of the Allies and the Aetolian War, was fought from 220 BC to 217 BC between the Hellenic League under Philip V of Macedon and the Aetolian League, Sparta and Elis.
The Social War, also known as the War of the Allies, was fought from 357 BC to 355 BC between Athens with its Second Athenian Empire and the allied city-states of Chios, Rhodes, Cos and Byzantion.
Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.
Sogdia or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian civilization that at different times included territory located in present-day Tajikistan and Uzbekistan such as: Samarkand, Bukhara, Khujand, Panjikent and Shahrisabz.
The Solonian Constitution was created by Solon in the early 6th century BC.
Somatophylakes (Σωματοφύλακες; singular: somatophylax, σωματοφύλαξ), in its literal English translation from Greek, means "bodyguards".
Sophocles (Σοφοκλῆς, Sophoklēs,; 497/6 – winter 406/5 BC)Sommerstein (2002), p. 41.
Sosthenes (Greek Σωσθένης; died 277 BC) was a Macedonian general who may have been a king of the Antipatrid dynasty.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
Southern Italy or Mezzogiorno (literally "midday") is a macroregion of Italy traditionally encompassing the territories of the former Kingdom of the two Sicilies (all the southern section of the Italian Peninsula and Sicily), with the frequent addition of the island of Sardinia.
Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, Spártā; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, Spártē) was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece.
The Spartan Constitution, or Politeia, refers to the government and laws of the Dorian city-state of Sparta from the time of Lycurgus, the legendary law-giver, to the incorporation of Sparta into the Roman Republic: approximately the 9th century BC to the 2nd century BC.
Special forces and special operations forces are military units trained to conduct special operations.
A spoken language is a language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language.
The Stag Hunt mosaic (c. 300 BCE) is a mosaic from a wealthy home of the late 4th century BC, the so-called "House of the Abduction of Helen" (or "House of the Rape of Helen"), in Pella, the capital of the Macedonian Kingdom.
A standing army, unlike a reserve army, is a permanent, often professional, army.
In economics, a government monopoly (or public monopoly) is a form of coercive monopoly in which a government agency or government corporation is the sole provider of a particular good or service and competition is prohibited by law.
State of the art (sometimes cutting edge) refers to the highest level of general development, as of a device, technique, or scientific field achieved at a particular time.
State ownership (also called public ownership and government ownership) is the ownership of an industry, asset, or enterprise by the state or a public body representing a community as opposed to an individual or private party.
Stateira II (Στάτειρα; died 323 BC), possibly also known as Barsine, was the daughter of Stateira I and Darius III of Persia.
The stater (or; στατήρ, literally "weight") was an ancient coin used in various regions of Greece.
A statue is a sculpture, representing one or more people or animals (including abstract concepts allegorically represented as people or animals), free-standing (as opposed to a relief) and normally full-length (as opposed to a bust) and at least close to life-size, or larger.
A steleAnglicized plural steles; Greek plural stelai, from Greek στήλη, stēlē.
Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.
A storey (British English) or story (American English) is any level part of a building with a floor that could be used by people (for living, work, storage, recreation).
Strategos or Strategus, plural strategoi, (στρατηγός, pl.; Doric Greek: στραταγός, stratagos; meaning "army leader") is used in Greek to mean military general.
Stratonice (Στρατονίκη, Stratoníkē; lived in the 3rd century BC) of Macedonia was the daughter of Stratonice of Syria and of the Seleucid king Antiochus I Soter (281–261 BC).
The Struma or Strymónas (Струма; Στρυμόνας; (Struma) Karasu, 'black water') is a river in Bulgaria and Greece.
The Strymonian or Strymonic Gulf (Greek:Στρυμονικός Κόλπος, Strymonikos Kolpos), formerly known as the Gulf of Rendina, is a branch of the Thracian Sea—itself part of the Aegean Sea—lying east of the Chalcidice peninsula and south of the Serres regional unit.
Succession of states is a theory and practice in international relations regarding successor states.
The State University of New York Press (or SUNY Press), is a university press and a Center for Scholarly Communication.
The Susa weddings was a mass wedding arranged by Alexander of Macedon in 324 BC in the Persian city of Susa.
Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).
A sympoliteia or sympolity (συμπολιτεία "joint citizenship") was a type of treaty for political organization in ancient Greece.
In ancient Greece, the symposium (συμπόσιον symposion or symposio, from συμπίνειν sympinein, "to drink together") was a part of a banquet that took place after the meal, when drinking for pleasure was accompanied by music, dancing, recitals, or conversation.
The Symposium (Συμπόσιον) is a philosophical text by Plato dated c. 385–370 BC.
A synedrion or synhedrion (Greek: συνέδριον, "sitting together", hence "assembly" or "council"; סנהדרין, sanhedrin) is an assembly that holds formal sessions.
The historic region of Syria (ash-Shām, Hieroglyphic Luwian: Sura/i; Συρία; in modern literature called Greater Syria, Syria-Palestine, or the Levant) is an area located east of the Mediterranean sea.
The Syrian Wars were a series of six wars between the Seleucid Empire and the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, successor states to Alexander the Great's empire, during the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC over the region then called Coele-Syria, one of the few avenues into Egypt.
Tagus (τᾱγός, τάγης) was a Thessalian title for a leader or general, especially the military leader of the Thessalian League.
The talent (talentum, from Ancient Greek: τάλαντον, talanton 'scale, balance, sum') was one of several ancient units of mass, a commercial weight, as well as corresponding units of value equivalent to these masses of a precious metal.
Taranto (early Tarento from Tarentum; Tarantino: Tarde; translit; label) is a coastal city in Apulia, Southern Italy.
A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between sovereign states.
The Taurus Mountains (Turkish: Toros Dağları, Armenian: Թորոս լեռներ, Ancient Greek: Ὄρη Ταύρου) are a mountain complex in southern Turkey, separating the Mediterranean coastal region of southern Turkey from the central Anatolian Plateau.
Teleutias (Τελευτίας) was the brother of the Spartan king Agesilaus II, and a Spartan naval commander in the Corinthian War.
In Greek mythology, Temenus (Τήμενος, Tēmenos) was a son of Aristomachus and brother of Cresphontes and Aristodemus.
Terracotta, terra cotta or terra-cotta (Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin terra cocta), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous.
Territorial integrity is the principle under international law that prohibits states from the use of force against the "territorial integrity or political independence" of another state.
The tetradrachm (τετράδραχμον, tetrádrakhmon) was an Ancient Greek silver coin equivalent to four drachmae.
Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers, typically actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage.
The ancient Greek drama was a theatrical culture that flourished in ancient Greece from c. 700 BC.
The Theban hegemony lasted from the Theban victory over the Spartans at Leuctra in 371 BC to their defeat of a coalition of Peloponnesian armies at Mantinea in 362 BC, though Thebes sought to maintain its position until finally eclipsed by the rising power of Macedon in 346 BC.
Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai,;. Θήβα, Thíva) is a city in Boeotia, central Greece.
Theopompus (Θεόπομπος; c. 380 BC – c. 315 BC) was a Greek historian and rhetorician.
Therma or Thermē (Θέρμα, Θέρμη) was a Greek city founded by Eretrians or Corinthians in late 7th century BC in ancient Mygdonia (which was later incorporated into Macedon), situated at the northeastern extremity of a great gulf of the Aegean Sea, the Thermaic Gulf.
Thermopylae (Ancient and Katharevousa Greek: Θερμοπύλαι, Demotic: Θερμοπύλες: "hot gates") is a place in Greece where a narrow coastal passage existed in antiquity.
Theseus (Θησεύς) was the mythical king and founder-hero of Athens.
The Thessalian League was a loose confederacy of feudal-like city-states and tribes in the Thessalian plain in Northern Greece.
Thessalonike (Θεσσαλονίκη; 352 or 345 – 295 BC) was a Macedonian princess, the daughter of king Philip II of Macedon by his Thessalian wife or concubine, Nicesipolis, from Pherae.
Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη, Thessaloníki), also familiarly known as Thessalonica, Salonica, or Salonika is the second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of Greek Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.
Thessalus was an eminent tragic actor (hypocrites) in the time of Alexander the Great, whose especial favour he enjoyed, and whom he served before his accession to the throne, and afterwards accompanied on his expedition into Asia.
Thessaly (Θεσσαλία, Thessalía; ancient Thessalian: Πετθαλία, Petthalía) is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region of Greece, comprising most of the ancient region of the same name.
The Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC) was a war fought between the Roman Republic and King Perseus of Macedon.
The Third Philippic was delivered by the prominent Athenian statesman and orator, Demosthenes, in 341 BC.
The Third Sacred War (356–346 BC) was fought between the forces of the Delphic Amphictyonic League, principally represented by Thebes, and latterly by Philip II of Macedon, and the Phocians.
Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.
The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times in Southeast Europe by the Thracians, the northern neighbors of the Ancient Greeks.
The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes; Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.
A throne is the seat of state of a potentate or dignitary, especially the seat occupied by a sovereign on state occasions; or the seat occupied by a pope or bishop on ceremonial occasions.
Thucydides (Θουκυδίδης,, Ancient Attic:; BC) was an Athenian historian and general.
In Greek mythology, Thyia (Θυία Thuia derived from the verb θύω "to sacrifice") was a female figure associated with cults of several major gods.
A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, stone, metal, or even glass, generally used for covering roofs, floors, walls, showers, or other objects such as tabletops.
A timber roof truss is a structural framework of timbers designed to bridge the space above a room and to provide support for a roof.
Timotheus (Τιμόθεος; died 354 BC) was a Greek statesman and general who sought to revive Athenian imperial ambitions by making Athens dominant in a Second Athenian Empire.
Timotheus of Miletus (Τιμόθεος ὁ Μιλήσιος; c. 446 – 357 BC) was a Greek musician and dithyrambic poet, an exponent of the "new music." He added one or more strings to the lyre, whereby he incurred the displeasure of the Spartans and Athenians (E. Curtius, Hist of Greece, bk. v. ch. 2).
Titus Quinctius Flamininus (c. 229–174 BC) was a Roman politician and general instrumental in the Roman conquest of Greece.
The location of Alexander the Great's tomb is an enduring mystery.
A torsion siege engine is a type of artillery that utilizes torsion to launch projectiles.
A tower is a tall structure, taller than it is wide, often by a significant margin.
Tragedy (from the τραγῳδία, tragōidia) is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in audiences.
Transhumance is a type of nomadism or pastoralism, a seasonal movement of people with their livestock between fixed summer and winter pastures.
The genre of travel literature encompasses outdoor literature, guide books, nature writing, and travel memoirs.
In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign.
A treasury is either.
The Treaty of Apamea of 188 BC, was peace treaty between the Roman Republic and Antiochus III, ruler of the Seleucid Empire.
The Treaty of Phoenice, also known as the Peace of Phoenice, was a treaty ending the First Macedonian War.
A trencher (from Old French tranchier; "to cut") is a type of tableware, commonly used in medieval cuisine.
The Triballi (Τριβαλλοί, Triballoí) were an ancient tribe whose dominion was around the plains of modern southern SerbiaGeorge Grote: History of Greece: I. Legendary Greece.
A tribe is viewed developmentally, economically and historically as a social group existing outside of or before the development of states.
A tribunal, generally, is any person or institution with authority to judge, adjudicate on, or determine claims or disputes—whether or not it is called a tribunal in its title.
A tribute (/ˈtrɪbjuːt/) (from Latin tributum, contribution) is wealth, often in kind, that a party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance.
A trireme (derived from Latin: trirēmis "with three banks of oars"; τριήρης triērēs, literally "three-rower") was an ancient vessel and a type of galley that was used by the ancient maritime civilizations of the Mediterranean, especially the Phoenicians, ancient Greeks and Romans.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Tufts University is a private research university incorporated in the municipality of Medford, Massachusetts, United States.
Tunnel warfare is a general name for war being conducted in tunnels and other underground cavities.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
A tyrant (Greek τύραννος, tyrannos), in the modern English usage of the word, is an absolute ruler unrestrained by law or person, or one who has usurped legitimate sovereignty.
Tyre (صور, Ṣūr; Phoenician:, Ṣūr; צוֹר, Ṣōr; Tiberian Hebrew, Ṣōr; Akkadian:, Ṣurru; Greek: Τύρος, Týros; Sur; Tyrus, Տիր, Tir), sometimes romanized as Sour, is a district capital in the South Governorate of Lebanon.
An ultimatum (the last one) is a demand whose fulfillment is requested in a specified period of time and which is backed up by a threat to be followed through in case of noncompliance.
An uncodified constitution is a type of constitution where the fundamental rules often take the form of customs, usage, precedent and a variety of statutes and legal instruments.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The University of Illinois Press (UIP) is a major American university press and is part of the University of Illinois system.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
The University of Toronto Press is a Canadian scholarly publisher and book distributor founded in 1901.
Upper Macedonia (Greek: Ἄνω Μακεδονία, Ánō Makedonía) is a geographical and tribal term to describe the upper/western of the two parts in which, together with Lower Macedonia, the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon was roughly divided.
The vanguard (also called the advance guard) is the leading part of an advancing military formation.
The Vardar (Вардар) or Axios is the longest and major river in the Republic of Macedonia and also a major river of Greece.
A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.
A vassal state is any state that is subordinate to another.
The Vatican Museums (Musei Vaticani; Musea Vaticana) are Christian and art museums located within the city boundaries of the Vatican City.
Vault (French voûte, from Italian volta) is an architectural term for an arched form used to provide a space with a ceiling or roof.
Vergina (Βεργίνα) is a small town in northern Greece, part of Veroia municipality in Imathia, Central Macedonia.
Veria (Βέροια or Βέρροια), officially transliterated Veroia, historically also spelled Berea or Berœa, is a city in Macedonia, northern Greece, located north-northwest of the capital Athens and west-southwest of Thessalonica.
The Villa of the Papyri (Villa dei Papiri, also known as Villa dei Pisoni) is named after its unique library of papyri (or scrolls), but is also one of the most luxurious houses in all of Herculaneum and in the Roman world.
Volos (Βόλος) is a coastal port city in Thessaly situated midway on the Greek mainland, about north of Athens and south of Thessaloniki.
Voting is a method for a group, such as, a meeting or an electorate to make a decision or express an opinion, usually following discussions, debates or election campaigns.
A votive deposit or votive offering is one or more objects displayed or deposited, without the intention of recovery or use, in a sacred place for broadly religious purposes.
A wagon train is a group of wagons traveling together.
A war elephant is an elephant that is trained and guided by humans for combat.
War reparations are payments made after a war by the vanquished to the victors.
The wars of Alexander the Great were fought by King Alexander III of Macedon ("The Great"), first against the Achaemenid Persian Empire under Darius III, and then against local chieftains and warlords as far east as Punjab, India.
The Wars of the Delian League (477–449 BC) were a series of campaigns fought between the Delian League of Athens and her allies (and later subjects), and the Achaemenid Empire of Persia.
The Wars of the Diadochi (Πόλεμοι των Διαδόχων), or Wars of Alexander's Successors, were a series of conflicts fought between Alexander the Great's generals over the rule of his vast empire after his death.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Western Macedonia (Δυτική Μακεδονία, Dytiki Makedonía) is one of the thirteen regions of Greece, consisting of the western part of Greek Macedonia.
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
Wicker is a technique for making products woven from any one of a variety of cane-like materials, a generic name for the materials used in such manufacture, and a term for the items so produced.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
Xerxes I (𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠 x-š-y-a-r-š-a Xšayaṛša "ruling over heroes", Greek Ξέρξης; 519–465 BC), called Xerxes the Great, was the fourth king of kings of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
Zeno of Citium (Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς, Zēnōn ho Kitieus; c. 334 – c. 262 BC) was a Hellenistic thinker from Citium (Κίτιον, Kition), Cyprus, and probably of Phoenician descent.
Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.
Zeuxis (Ζεῦξις) (of Heraclea) was a painter who flourished during the 5th century BC.
Alexander's empire, Ancient Macedon, Ancient Macedonia, Ancient Macedonian religion, Ancient macedonia, Antigonid Macedonia, Empire of Alexander the Great, Government of Macedon, Greek Macedonian Empire, Kingdom of Macedon, Kingdom of Macedonia, Macedon, Macedonia (ancient), Macedonia (kingdom), Macedonia kingdom, Macedonia(kingdom history), Macedonian Empire, Macedonian Kingdom, Macedonian empire, Macetia, Makedon, Maketia, Merides.