287 relations: A (Cyrillic), Abstand and ausbau languages, Acronym, Affricate consonant, Albania, Albanian language, Alexander, Alveolar consonant, Analytic language, Antoine Meillet, Aorist, Apostrophe, Approximant consonant, Archaism, Article (grammar), Attributive verb, Australia, Autonomy and heteronomy, Auxiliary verb, Štip-Kočani dialect, Back vowel, Balkan Mountains, Balkan sprachbund, Balkans, Balto-Slavic languages, Be (Cyrillic), Blaže Koneski, Boris I of Bulgaria, Bulgaria, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgarian alphabet, Bulgarian dialects, Bulgarian Exarchate, Bulgarian language, Bulgarian National Revival, Byzantine Greeks, Calque, Canada, Central Balkan dialect, Central Macedonia, Central vowel, Che (Cyrillic), Clement of Ohrid, Close vowel, Codification (linguistics), Croatia, Cultural assimilation, Cyrillic script, Daniel Moscopolites, De (Cyrillic), ..., Debar dialect, Definiteness, Dental consonant, Dialect continuum, Dialects of Macedonian, Duke University, Dze, Dzhe, Early Cyrillic alphabet, Eastern Macedonia and Thrace, Edessa, Greece, Ef (Cyrillic), El (Cyrillic), Eleftherotypia, Em (Cyrillic), En (Cyrillic), English language, Er (Cyrillic), Es (Cyrillic), Euphemism, Final-obstruent devoicing, First language, Florina, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Future tense, Galičnik dialect, Ge (Cyrillic), Giannitsa, Gje, Glagolitic script, Gora dialect, Gostivar dialect, Grammatical case, Grammatical gender, Grammatical number, Grapheme, Great Soviet Encyclopedia, Greece, Greek Civil War, Greek language, Hellenic Army, I (Cyrillic), Imperative mood, Imperfect, Indo-European languages, Inferential mood, Infinitive, Inflection, Institute for Macedonian language "Krste Misirkov", Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization, International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights, International Phonetic Alphabet, Italy, Jabuka, Je (Cyrillic), Johann Christoph Adelung, Ka (Cyrillic), Kastoria, Kha (Cyrillic), Kičevo-Poreče dialect, Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Kiril Peychinovich, Kje, Koiné language, Kostur dialect, Kriva Palanka dialect, Krste Misirkov, Kumanovo dialect, Labial consonant, Labiodental nasal, Language contact, Lexicon, Linguasphere Observatory, Linguistic frame of reference, Linguistic purism, Linguistic typology, Liquid consonant, Literature, Liturgy, Lje, Loanword, Lord's Prayer, Lower Prespa dialect, Macedonia (Greece), Macedonia (region), Macedonia (terminology), Macedonian alphabet, Macedonian Bulgarians, Macedonian diaspora, Macedonian language, Macedonian language naming dispute, Macedonian nationalism, Macedonian Orthodox Church – Ohrid Archbishopric, Macedonian Patriotic Organization, Macedonian studies, Macedonians (ethnic group), Maleševo-Pirin dialect, Medieval Latin, Michael Clyne, Mid vowel, Mieczysław Małecki, Miladinov brothers, Minority language, Morpheme, Mutual intelligibility, Naousa, Imathia, Nasal consonant, Nations and Nationalism (journal), Neologism, Nestram-Kostenar dialect, Newton (unit), Nje, Northern Bulgaria, Northern Greece, Northern Thrace, Noun, Nova Makedonija, O (Cyrillic), Official language, Ohrid dialect, Ohrid Literary School, Old Church Slavonic, Open vowel, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Turkish language, Palatal consonant, Participle, Past tense, Pe (Cyrillic), Pejorative, Pella, Perfect (grammar), Petar Draganov, Phoneme, Phonemic orthography, Phonology, Plandište, Pluperfect, Pluricentric language, Poland, Popocatépetl, Preposition and postposition, Present tense, Preslav Literary School, Prilep-Bitola dialect, Productivity (linguistics), Proto-Slavic, Ptolemaida, Pustec, Register (sociolinguistics), Reka dialect, Republic of Macedonia, Rhodope Mountains, Rise of nationalism in the Ottoman Empire, Romance languages, Romania, Romanian language, Romanization of Macedonian, Rum Millet, Russia, Russian language, Russianism, Saints Cyril and Methodius, Samuil Bernstein, Schwa, Semivowel, Ser-Drama-Lagadin-Nevrokop dialect, Serbia, Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, Serbo-Croatian, Serge Aleksandrovich Zenkovsky, Sha (Cyrillic), Skopje, Skopje-Veles dialect, Skopska Crna Gora, Skopska Crna Gora dialect, Slavic languages, Slavic speakers of Greek Macedonia, Slavs, Slovene language, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Socialist Republic of Macedonia, Socialist state, Sofia, Solun-Voden dialect, South Slavic languages, Soviet Union, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje, Standard language, Standard Macedonian, Stop consonant, Stress (linguistics), Struga dialect, Strumica dialect, Syllabic consonant, Syllable, Synonym, Te (Cyrillic), Tetovo dialect, Thessaloniki, Torlakian dialect, Tram, Trill consonant, Tse (Cyrillic), U (Cyrillic), United Kingdom, United Nations Human Rights Council, United States, Upper Prespa dialect, Vardar, Vardar Banovina, Vardar Macedonia, Variety (linguistics), Ve (Cyrillic), Velar consonant, Velar nasal, Veles, Macedonia, Verbal noun, Vernacular, Vevčani-Radožda dialect, Victor Grigorovich, Vocative case, Voice (phonetics), Voicelessness, Vowel, Vowel length, Vuk Karadžić, Western Macedonia, World War II, Ye (Cyrillic), Yer, Yoakim Karchovski, Young Macedonian Literary Association, Yugoslav Braille, Ze (Cyrillic), Zhe (Cyrillic). Expand index (237 more) » « Shrink index
A (А а; italics: А а) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
In sociolinguistics, an abstand language is a language variety or cluster of varieties with significant linguistic distance from all others, while an ausbau language is a standard variety, possibly with related dependent varieties.
An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.
Alexander is a common male given name, and a less common surname.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
In linguistic typology, an analytic language is a language that primarily conveys relationships between words in sentences by way of helper words (particles, prepositions, etc.) and word order, as opposed to utilizing inflections (changing the form of a word to convey its role in the sentence).
Paul Jules Antoine Meillet (11 November 1866, Moulins, France – 21 September 1936, Châteaumeillant, France) was one of the most important French linguists of the early 20th century.
Aorist (abbreviated) verb forms usually express perfective aspect and refer to past events, similar to a preterite.
The apostrophe ( ' or) character is a punctuation mark, and sometimes a diacritical mark, in languages that use the Latin alphabet and some other alphabets.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
In language, an archaism (from the ἀρχαϊκός, archaïkós, 'old-fashioned, antiquated', ultimately ἀρχαῖος, archaîos, 'from the beginning, ancient') is the use of a form of speech or writing that is no longer current or that is current only within a few special contexts.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
An attributive verb is a verb that modifies (expresses an attribute of) a noun in the manner of an attributive adjective, rather than express an independent idea as a predicate.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Autonomy and heteronomy are complementary attributes of a language variety describing its functional relationship with related varieties.
An auxiliary verb (abbreviated) is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc.
The Štip-Kočani (Штипско - Кочански дијалект, Štipsko - Kočanski dijalekt) is a dialect of the Macedonian language.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
The Balkan mountain range (Bulgarian and Стара планина, Latin Serbian Stara planina, "Old Mountain") is a mountain range in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula.
The Balkan sprachbund or Balkan language area is the ensemble of areal features—similarities in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology—among the languages of the Balkans.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
The Balto-Slavic languages are a branch of the Indo-European family of languages.
Be (Б б italics: Б б б) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Blaže Koneski (Блаже Конески) (December 19, 1921 – December 7, 1993) (born in Nebregovo, Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, now Republic of Macedonia) was one of the most distinguished Macedonian poets, writers, literary translators, and linguistic scholars.
Boris I, also known as Boris-Mikhail (Michael) and Bogoris (Борис I / Борис-Михаил; died 2 May 907), was the ruler of the First Bulgarian Empire in 852–889.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
The Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (abbreviated BAS, in Bulgarian: Българска академия на науките, Balgarska akademiya na naukite, abbreviated БАН) is the National Academy of Bulgaria, established in 1869.
The Bulgarian alphabet is used to write the Bulgarian language.
Bulgarian dialects (български диалекти, balgarski dialekti, also български говори, balgarski govori or български наречия, balgarski narechiya) are the regional spoken varieties of the Bulgarian language, a South Slavic language.
The Bulgarian Exarchate (Българска екзархия Bǎlgarska ekzarhiya, Bulgar Eksarhlığı) was the official name of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church before its autocephaly was recognized by the Ecumenical See in 1945 and the Bulgarian Patriarchate was restored in 1953.
The Bulgarian National Revival (Българско национално възраждане, Balgarsko natsionalno vazrazhdane or simply: Възраждане, Vazrazhdane), sometimes called the Bulgarian Renaissance, was a period of socio-economic development and national integration among Bulgarian people under Ottoman rule.
The Byzantine Greeks (or Byzantines) were the Greek or Hellenized people of the Byzantine Empire (or Eastern Roman Empire) during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages who spoke medieval Greek and were Orthodox Christians.
In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Central Balkan dialect is a Bulgarian dialect that is part of the Balkan group of the Eastern Bulgarian dialects.
Central Macedonia (Κεντρική Μακεδονία, Kentrikí Makedonía) is one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece, consisting of the central part of the geographical and historical region of Macedonia.
A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Che or Cha (Ч ч; italics: Ч ч) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Saint Clement of Ohrid (Bulgarian, Macedonian: Свети Климент Охридски,, Άγιος Κλήμης της Αχρίδας, Slovak: svätý Kliment Ochridský / Sloviensky) (ca. 840 – 916) was a medieval Bulgarian saint, scholar, writer and enlightener of the Slavs.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
In linguistics, codification is the process of standardizing and developing a norm for a language.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble those of a dominant group.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Daniel of Moscopole or Daniil of Moscopole (1754–1825) (Δανιήλ Μοσχοπολίτης, Daniil Moschopolitis; Daniil Moscopoleanu) (1754–1825) or Mihali Adami Hagi (Mihali Adami Hagi) was an Aromanian scholar from Moscopole, student of Theodoros Kavalliotis, 18th/19th-century professor and director of New Academy of Moscopole.
De (Д д; italics: Д д) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The Debar dialect (Дебарски дијалект, Debarski dijalekt) is a member of the subgroup of the western and north-western dialects of the western group of dialects of the Macedonian language.
In linguistics, definiteness is a semantic feature of noun phrases (NPs), distinguishing between referents/entities that are identifiable in a given context (definite noun phrases) and entities which are not (indefinite noun phrases).
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.
The dialects of Macedonian comprise the Slavic dialects spoken in the Republic of Macedonia as well as some varieties spoken in the wider geographic region of Macedonia.
Duke University is a private, non-profit, research university located in Durham, North Carolina.
Dze (Ѕ ѕ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script, used in the Macedonian language to represent the voiced alveolar affricate, pronounced like ⟨ds⟩ in "pods".
Dzhe or Gea (Џ џ; italics: Џ џ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script used in Macedonian and varieties of Serbo-Croatian (Bosnian, Montenegrin, and Serbian) to represent the voiced retroflex affricate, something like the pronunciation of in “jump”.
The Early Cyrillic alphabet is a writing system that was developed during the late ninth century on the basis of the Greek alphabet for the Orthodox Slavic population in Europe.
Eastern Macedonia and Thrace (Ανατολική Μακεδονία και Θράκη) is one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece.
Edessa (Έδεσσα, Édessa,; until 1923: Vodena (Greek: Βοδενά, Vodená); known as "city of waters"), is a city in northern Greece and the capital of the Pella regional unit, in the Central Macedonia region of Greece.
Ef (Ф ф; italics: Ф ф) is a Cyrillic letter, commonly representing the voiceless labiodental fricative, like the pronunciation of in "fill".
El (Л л; italics: Л л) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Eleftherotypia (lit) was a daily national newspaper published in Athens, Greece.
Em (М м; italics: М м) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
En (Н н; italics: Н н) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Er (Р р; italics: Р р) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Es (С с; italics: С с) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
A euphemism is a generally innocuous word or expression used in place of one that may be found offensive or suggest something unpleasant.
Final-obstruent devoicing or terminal devoicing is a systematic phonological process occurring in languages such as Catalan, German, Dutch, Breton, Russian, Turkish, and Wolof.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
Florina (Φλώρινα, known also by some alternative names) is a town and municipality in the mountainous northwestern Macedonia, Greece.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
In grammar, a future tense (abbreviated) is a verb form that generally marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet, but expected to happen in the future.
The Galičnik dialect (Галички дијалект, Galički dijalekt) or Mala Reka dialect (Малорекански дијалект, Malorekanski dijalekt) is a member of the subgroup of western and north western dialects of the western group of dialects of the Macedonian language.
Ghe or Ge (Г г; italics: Г г) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Giannitsa (Γιαννιτσά, in English also Yannitsa, Yenitsa) is the largest city in the regional unit of Pella and the capital of the Pella municipality, in the region of Central Macedonia in northern Greece.
Gje (Ѓ ѓ; italics: Ѓ ѓ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The Glagolitic script (Ⰳⰾⰰⰳⱁⰾⰹⱌⰰ Glagolitsa) is the oldest known Slavic alphabet.
The Gorani (also Goranski) or Našinski (literally meaning "our language") language is the variety of South Slavic spoken by the Gorani people in the border area between Kosovo, Albania, and Macedonia.
The Gostivar dialect (Macedonian: гостиварски дијалект, gostivarski dijalekt) is a member of the western and north western subgroup of the western group of dialects of the Macedonian language.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
In linguistics, a grapheme is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (GSE; Большая советская энциклопедия, БСЭ, Bolshaya sovetskaya entsiklopediya) is one of the largest Russian-language encyclopedias, published by the Soviet state from 1926 to 1990, and again since 2002 by Russia (under the name Bolshaya Rossiyskaya entsiklopediya or Great Russian Encyclopedia).
Τhe Greek Civil War (ο Eμφύλιος, o Emfýlios, "the Civil War") was fought in Greece from 1946 to 1949 between the Greek government army—backed by the United Kingdom and the United States—and the Democratic Army of Greece (DSE)—the military branch of the Greek Communist Party (KKE).
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Hellenic Army (Ελληνικός Στρατός, Ellinikós Stratós, sometimes abbreviated as ΕΣ), formed in 1828, is the land force of Greece (with Hellenic being a synonym for Greek).
I (И и; italics: И и) is a letter used in almost all Cyrillic alphabets.
The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.
The imperfect (abbreviated) is a verb form, found in various languages, which combines past tense (reference to a past time) and imperfective aspect (reference to a continuing or repeated event or state).
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The inferential mood (abbreviated or) is used to report a nonwitnessed event without confirming it, but the same forms also function as admiratives in the Balkan languages in which they occur.
Infinitive (abbreviated) is a grammatical term referring to certain verb forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
The Institute for Macedonian language "Krste Misirkov" (Институт за македонски јазик „Крсте Мисирков“, Institut za makedonski jazik „Krste Misirkov“) is the regulatory body of the Macedonian language and is a part of Ss. Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje, Macedonia.
The Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO; Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация (ВМРО), Vatreshna Makedonska Revolyutsionna Organizatsiya (VMRO); Внатрешна Македонска Револуционерна Организација, Vnatrešna Makedonska Revolucionerna Organizacija) was a revolutionary national liberation movement in the Ottoman territories in Europe, that operated in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights (IHF) was a self-governing group of non-governmental organizations that act to protect human rights throughout Europe, North America and Central Asia.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jabuka (Cyrillic: Јабука) is a village situated in the Pančevo municipality, in the South Banat District, Vojvodina province, Serbia.
Je (Ј ј; italics: Ј ј) is a letter of the Cyrillic script, taken over from the Latin letter J.Maretić, Tomislav.
Johann Christoph Adelung (8 August 173210 September 1806) was a German grammarian and philologist.
Ka (К к; italics: К к) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Kastoria (Καστοριά, Kastoriá) is a city in northern Greece in the region of West Macedonia.
Kha or Ha (Х х; italics: Х х) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The Kičevo-Poreče dialect (Кичевско-поречки дијалект, Kičevsko-porečki dijalekt) is a member of the central subgroup of the western group of dialects of the Macedonian language.
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija, Краљевина Југославија; Кралство Југославија) was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe, that existed from 1918 until 1941, during the interwar period and beginning of World War II.
Kiril Peychinovich or Kiril Pejčinoviḱ (Кирил Пейчинович, Кирил Пејчиновиќ, Church Slavonic: Күриллъ Пейчиновићь, Serbian: Кирил Пејчиновић) (c. 1770 – 7 March 1865) was a Bulgarian cleric, writer and enlightener, one of the first supporters of the use of modern Bulgarian in literature (as opposed to Church Slavonic), and one of the early figures of the Bulgarian National Revival.
Kje (Ќ ќ; italics: Ќ ќ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script, used only in the Macedonian alphabet, where it represents the voiceless palatal plosive, or the voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate.
In linguistics, a koiné language, koiné dialect, or simply koiné (Ancient Greek κοινή, "common ") is a standard language or dialect that has arisen as a result of contact between two or more mutually intelligible varieties (dialects) of the same language.
The Kostur dialect (Костурски дијалект, Kosturski dijalekt), is a member of the Southwestern subgroup of the Southern group of dialects of the Macedonian language.
The Kriva Palanka dialect (Кривопаланечки дијалект, Krivopalanečki dijalekt) is a member of the eastern subgroup of the northern group of dialects of the Macedonian language.
Krste Petkov Misirkov (Кръстьо Петков Мисирков; Крсте Петков Мисирков) (18 November 1874, Postol, Ottoman Empire – 26 July 1926, Sofia, Kingdom of Bulgaria) was a philologist, slavist, historian and ethnographer.
The Kumanovo dialect (Кумановски дијалект, Kumanovski dijalekt) is a member of the eastern subgroup of the Northern group of dialects of the Macedonian language.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
The labiodental nasal is a type of consonantal sound.
Language contact occurs when speakers of two or more languages or varieties interact and influence each other.
A lexicon, word-hoard, wordbook, or word-stock is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical).
The Linguasphere Observatory (or "Observatoire", based upon its original French and legal title: Observatoire Linguistique) is a transnational linguistic research network.
Linguistic frame of reference is a frame of reference as it is expressed in a language.
Linguistic purism or linguistic protectionism is the practice of defining or recognizing one variety of a language as being purer or of intrinsically higher quality than other varieties.
Linguistic typology is a field of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural and functional features.
In phonetics, liquids or liquid consonants are a class of consonants consisting of lateral consonants like 'l' together with rhotics like 'r'.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and traditions.
Lje (Љ љ; italics: Љ љ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
The Lord's Prayer (also called the Our Father, Pater Noster, or the Model Prayer) is a venerated Christian prayer which, according to the New Testament, Jesus taught as the way to pray: Two versions of this prayer are recorded in the gospels: a longer form within the Sermon on the Mount in the Gospel of Matthew, and a shorter form in the Gospel of Luke when "one of his disciples said to him, 'Lord, teach us to pray, as John taught his disciples.'" Lutheran theologian Harold Buls suggested that both were original, the Matthaen version spoken by Jesus early in his ministry in Galilee, and the Lucan version one year later, "very likely in Judea".
The Lower Prespa dialect (Долнoпреспански дијалект, Dolnoprespanski dijalekt), is a member of the western subgroup of the western group of dialects of the Macedonian language.
Macedonia (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) is a geographic and historical region of Greece in the southern Balkans.
Macedonia is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in southeastern Europe.
The name "Macedonia" is used in a number of competing or overlapping meanings to describe geographical, political and historical areas, languages and peoples in a part of south-eastern Europe.
The orthography of Macedonian includes an alphabet (Македонска азбука, Makedonska azbuka), which is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script, as well as language-specific conventions of spelling and punctuation.
Macedonians or Macedonian Bulgarians (Македонски българи or Mакедонци), sometimes also referred to as Macedono-Bulgarians or Macedo-Bulgarians is a regional, ethnographic group of ethnic Bulgarians, inhabiting or originating from the region of Macedonia.
The Macedonian diaspora (Македонска дијаспора, Makedonska dijaspora) consists of ethnic Macedonian emigrants and their descendants in countries such as Australia, Italy, Germany, Canada, the United States and others.
Macedonian (македонски, tr. makedonski) is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.
The name of the Macedonian language, as used by the people and defined in the constitution of the Republic of Macedonia, is "Macedonian" (македонски, makedonski).
Macedonian nationalism is a general grouping of nationalist ideas and concepts among ethnic Macedonians that were first formed in the late 19th century among separatists seeking the autonomy of the region of Macedonia from the Ottoman Empire.
The Macedonian Orthodox Church – Ohrid Archbishopric (MOC-OA; Македонска православна црква – Охридска архиепископија (МПЦ-ОА), tr. Makedonska pravoslavna crkva – Ohridska arhiepiskopija (MPC-OA)), or simply the Macedonian Orthodox Church (MOC; Македонска православна црква (МПЦ), tr. Makedonska pravoslavna crkva (MPC)), is the largest body of Christians in the Republic of Macedonia who are united under the Archbishop of Ohrid and Macedonia.
Macedonian Patriotic Organization (MPO) is the oldest organization of Americans and Canadians of Macedonian descent in North America.
Macedonian studies (Македонистика Makedonistika) is a science that studies the Macedonian language.
The Macedonians (Македонци; transliterated: Makedonci), also known as Macedonian Slavs or Slavic Macedonians, are a South Slavic ethnic group native to the region of Macedonia.
The term Maleševo-Pirin dialect (also spelt Maleshevo) is used in South Slavic linguistics to refer to a group of related varieties that are spoken on both sides of the border of Bulgaria and the Republic of Macedonia.
Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.
Michael George Clyne, AM, FAHA, FASSA (12 October 1939 – 29 October 2010) was an Australian linguist, academic and intellectual.
A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.
Mieczysław Małecki (14 July 1903 – 3 September 1946) was a Polish linguist.
. The Miladinov brothers (Братя Миладинови, Bratya Miladinovi, Браќа Миладиновци, Brakja Miladinovci), Dimitar Miladinov (1810–1862) and Konstantin Miladinov (1830–1862), were Bulgarian poets and folklorists from the region of Macedonia, authors of an important collection of folk songs, Bulgarian Folk Songs.
A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a territory.
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
Naousa (Νάουσα, historically Νάουσσα - Naoussa), officially The Heroic City of Naousa is a city in the Imathia regional unit of Macedonia, Greece with a population of 21,139 (2016).
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
Nations and Nationalism is a peer-reviewed academic journal that covers research on nationalism and related issues.
A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.
The Nestram-Kostenar dialect (Нестрамско-Костенарски дијалект, Nestramsko-Kostenarski dijalekt) is a Macedonian Slavic dialect spoken in parts of northwestern Greece, in the area around the village of Nestorio (Nestram) and the area known as Kostenarija, which encompasses most of the Nestorio municipality as well as in the Akrites region.
The newton (symbol: N) is the International System of Units (SI) derived unit of force.
Nje (Њ њ; italics: Њ њ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Northern Bulgaria (Северна България, Severna Balgariya), also called Moesia (Мизия, Miziya) is the northern half of the territory of Bulgaria, located to the north of the main ridge of the Balkan Mountains which conventionally separates the country into a northern and a southern part.
Northern Greece (Βόρεια Ελλάδα, Voreia Ellada) is used to refer to the northern parts of Greece, and can have various definitions.
North Thrace or Northern Thrace (Северна Тракия, Severna Trakiya) (as opposed to Western Thrace and Eastern Thrace to the south) constitutes the northern and the largest part of the historical region of Thrace.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
Nova Makedonija (Нова Македонија, "New Macedonia") is the oldest daily newspaper in the Republic of Macedonia.
O (О о; italics: О о) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
The Ohrid dialect (Охридски дијалект, Ohridski dijalekt) is a member of the western and north western subgroup of the western group of dialects of the Macedonian language.
The Ohrid Literary School was one of the two major cultural centres of the First Bulgarian Empire, along with the Preslav Literary School (Pliska Literary School).
Old Church Slavonic, also known as Old Church Slavic (or Ancient/Old Slavonic often abbreviated to OCS; (autonym словѣ́ньскъ ѩꙁꙑ́къ, slověnĭskŭ językŭ), not to be confused with the Proto-Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. The 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius are credited with standardizing the language and using it in translating the Bible and other Ancient Greek ecclesiastical texts as part of the Christianization of the Slavs. It is thought to have been based primarily on the dialect of the 9th century Byzantine Slavs living in the Province of Thessalonica (now in Greece). It played an important role in the history of the Slavic languages and served as a basis and model for later Church Slavonic traditions, and some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches use this later Church Slavonic as a liturgical language to this day. As the oldest attested Slavic language, OCS provides important evidence for the features of Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed common ancestor of all Slavic languages.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Ottoman Turkish (Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish:, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as, Türkçe or, Türkî, "Turkish"; Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.
The past tense (abbreviated) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to place an action or situation in past time.
Pe (П п; italics: П п) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
A pejorative (also called a derogatory term, a slur, a term of abuse, or a term of disparagement) is a word or grammatical form expressing a negative connotation or a low opinion of someone or something, showing a lack of respect for someone or something.
Pella (Πέλλα, Pélla) is an ancient city located in Central Macedonia, Greece, best known as the historical capital of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and birthplace of Alexander the Great.
The perfect tense or aspect (abbreviated or) is a verb form that indicates that an action or circumstance occurred earlier than the time under consideration, often focusing attention on the resulting state rather than on the occurrence itself.
Petar Draganov (Russian: Петар Драганов, 1857 - 1928) was a Russian philologist and slavist.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
In linguistics, a phonemic orthography is an orthography (system for writing a language) in which the graphemes (written symbols) correspond to the phonemes (significant spoken sounds) of the language.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Plandište is a village and municipality located in the South Banat District of the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia.
The pluperfect is a type of verb form, generally treated as one of the tenses in certain languages, used to refer to an action at a time earlier than a time in the past already referred to.
A pluricentric language or polycentric language is a language with several interacting codified standard versions, often corresponding to different countries.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Popocatépetl (Nahuatl: Popōcatepētl) is an active stratovolcano, located in the states of Puebla, Mexico, and Morelos, in Central Mexico, and lies in the eastern half of the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt.
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
The present tense (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in present time.
The Preslav Literary School (Преславска книжовна школа), also known as the Pliska Literary School, was the first literary school in the medieval Bulgarian Empire.
The Prilep-Bitola dialect (Прилепско-битолски дијалект, Prilepsko-bitolski dijalekt) is a member of the central subgroup of the western group of dialects of the Macedonian language.
In linguistics, productivity is the degree to which native speakers use a particular grammatical process, especially in word formation.
Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed proto-language of all the Slavic languages.
Ptolemaida (Ptolemaïda, Katharevousa: Πτολεμαΐς, Ptolemaïs, before 1927: Καϊλάρια - Kailaria) is a town and a former municipality in Kozani regional unit, West Macedonia, Greece.
Pustec (Macedonian/Bulgarian: Пустец, Pustets), formerly known as Liqenas (1973-2013), is a municipality in Korçë County, eastern Albania.
In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.
The Reka dialect (italic, Rekanski dijalekt) is a member of the west and north-west subgroup of the western group of dialects of the Macedonian language.
Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Rhodopes (Родопи, Rodopi; Ροδόπη, Rodopi; Rodoplar) are a mountain range in Southeastern Europe, with over 83% of its area in southern Bulgaria and the remainder in Greece.
The rise of the Western notion of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire eventually caused the breakdown of the Ottoman millet concept.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
The Romanization of Macedonian is the transliteration of text in the Macedonian language from the Macedonian Cyrillic alphabet into the Latin alphabet.
Rūm millet (millet-i Rûm), or "Roman nation", was the name of the Eastern Orthodox Christian community in the Ottoman Empire.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Russianism, Russism, or Russicism is an influence of Russian language on other languages.
Saints Cyril and Methodius (826–869, 815–885; Κύριλλος καὶ Μεθόδιος; Old Church Slavonic) were two brothers who were Byzantine Christian theologians and Christian missionaries.
Samuil Borisovich Bernstein (Самуил Борисович Бернштейн; surname also transcribed as Bernshteyn;, Barguzin – October 6, 1997, Moscow) was a Soviet linguist, known for his work on Slavic languages, in particular Bulgarian.
In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.
In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic vocoid, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.
The Ser-Drama-Lagadin-Nevrokop dialect is a dialect currently treated both in the contexts of the southeastern group of Bulgarian dialects and the southeastern subgroup of dialects of the Macedonian language.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet (српска ћирилица/srpska ćirilica, pronounced) is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for the Serbian language, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
Serge Aleksandrovich Zenkovsky (* 16. June 1907 in Kiev, Russian Empire; † 31. March 1990)Ralph T. Fisher: Obituary.
Sha (Ш ш; italics: Ш ш) is a letter of the Glagolitic and Cyrillic script.
Skopje (Скопје) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Macedonia.
The Skopje-Veles dialect (Скопско-велешки дијалект, Skopsko-veleški dijalekt) is a member of the central subgroup of the Western group of dialects of the Macedonian language.
Skopska Crna Gora (Macedonian and Скопска Црна Гора,, Mali i Zi i Shkupit; meaning "Black Mountain of Skopje"), often called and only as Crna Gora (Macedonian and Serbian Cyrillic: Црна Гора, Albanian: Mali i Zi; meaning "Black Mountain"), also historically known as Karadağ (Turkish for "Black Mountain", Macedonian and Карадаг, Karadag, Albanian: Malet e Karadakut), is a mountain range largely in the Republic of Macedonia, with smaller part in Kosovo.
The Skopska Crna Gora dialect (Скопскоцрногорски дијалект, Skopskocrnogorski dijalekt) is a member of the western subgroup of the northern group of dialects of the Macedonian language.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
Slavic-speakers are a linguistic minority population in the northern Greek region of Macedonia, who are mostly concentrated in certain parts of the peripheries of West and Central Macedonia, adjacent to the territory of the Republic of Macedonia.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
The Socialist Republic of Macedonia (Macedonian: Социјалистичка Република Македонија, Socijalistička Republika Makedonija) was one of the six constituent countries of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and a socialist nation state of the Macedonians.
A socialist state, socialist republic or socialist country (sometimes workers' state or workers' republic) is a sovereign state constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism.
Sofia (Со́фия, tr.) is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria.
The Solun-Voden dialect, Lower Vardar dialect, or Kukush-Voden dialect is a South Slavic dialect spoken in parts of the Greek periphery of Central Macedonia, and the vicinity of Gevgelija and Dojran in the Republic of Macedonia.
The South Slavic languages are one of three branches of the Slavic languages.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Saints Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje (Универзитет „Св.) is the largest university in the Republic of Macedonia.
A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.
Standard Macedonian or Literary Macedonian (Книжевен македонски јазик or Македонски литературен јазик) is the standard variety of the Macedonian language and official language of the Republic of Macedonia used as a written language, in formal contexts, and for communication between different dialect areas.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
The Struga Dialect (Струшки дијалект, Struški dijalekt) is a member of the western and north western subgroup of the western group of dialects of the Macedonian language.
The Strumica (Струмички дијалект, Strumicki dijalekt) is a dialect of the Macedonian language.
A syllabic consonant or vocalic consonant is a consonant that forms a syllable on its own, like the m, n and l in the English words rhythm, button and bottle, or is the nucleus of a syllable, like the r sound in the American pronunciation of work.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
A synonym is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language.
Te (Т т; italics: Т т) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The Tetovo dialect (Тетовски дијалект, Tetovski dijalekt) is a member of the western subgroup of the northern group of dialects of the Macedonian language.
Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη, Thessaloníki), also familiarly known as Thessalonica, Salonica, or Salonika is the second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of Greek Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.
Torlakian, or Torlak (Torlački/Торлачки,; Торлашки, Torlashki), is a group of South Slavic dialects of southeastern Serbia, southern Kosovo (Prizren), northeastern Republic of Macedonia (Kumanovo, Kratovo and Kriva Palanka dialects), western Bulgaria (Belogradchik–Godech–Tran-Breznik), which is intermediate between Serbian, Bulgarian and Macedonian.
A tram (also tramcar; and in North America streetcar, trolley or trolley car) is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets, and also sometimes on a segregated right of way.
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
Tse (Ц ц; italics: Ц ц) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
U (У у; italics: У у) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Upper Prespa dialect (Горнопреспански дијалект, Gornoprespanski dijalekt) is a member of the western subgroup of the western group of dialects of the Macedonian language.
The Vardar (Вардар) or Axios is the longest and major river in the Republic of Macedonia and also a major river of Greece.
The Vardar Banovina or Vardar Banate or Banate of Vardar (Вардарската бановина; Вардарска бановина, Vardarska banovina) was a province (banate) of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1941.
Vardar Macedonia (Macedonian and Вардарска Македонија, Vardarska Makedonija) was the name given to the territory of Kingdom of Serbia and Kingdom of Yugoslavia roughly corresponding to today's Republic of Macedonia.
In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.
Ve (В в; italics: В в) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
The velar nasal, also known as agma, from the Greek word for fragment, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Veles (Велес) is a city in the central part of the Republic of Macedonia on the Vardar river.
A verbal noun is a noun formed from or otherwise corresponding to a verb.
A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the language or variety of a language used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population.
The Vevčani-Radožda dialect (Вевчанско-радошки дијалект, Vevčansko-radoški dijalekt) is a member of the western and north western subgroup of the western group of dialects of the Macedonian language.
Victor Ivanovich Grigorovich, (Виктор Иванович Григорович) was a Russian Slavist, folklorist, literary critic, historian and journalist, one of the originators of Slavic studies in the Russian empire.
The vocative case (abbreviated) is the case used for a noun that identifies a person (animal, object etc.) being addressed or occasionally the determiners of that noun.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
Vuk Stefanović Karadžić (Вук Стефановић Караџић; 7 November 1787 – 7 February 1864) was a Serbian philologist and linguist who was the major reformer of the Serbian language.
Western Macedonia (Δυτική Μακεδονία, Dytiki Makedonía) is one of the thirteen regions of Greece, consisting of the western part of Greek Macedonia.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Ye (Е е; italics: Е е) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
A yer is one of two letters in Cyrillic alphabets: ъ (ѥръ, jerŭ) and ь (ѥрь, jerĭ).
Yoakim Karchovski (Йоаким Кърчовски, Јоаким Крчовски c. 1750 - c. 1820), was a Bulgarian priest, teacher, writer and an important figure of the Bulgarian National Revival.
The Young Macedonian Literary Society was founded in 1891, in Sofia, together with its magazine Loza.
Yugoslav Braille is a family of closely related braille alphabets used for the Bosnian, Serbian, Croatian, Slovene, and Macedonian languages.
Ze (З з; italics: З з) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Zhe (Ж ж; italics: Ж ж) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Diferences between the bulgarian and the macedonian language, Differences between the bulgarian and the macedonian language, History of the Macedonian (Slavic) language, History of the Macedonian language, History of the macedonian language, ISO 639:mac, ISO 639:mk, ISO 639:mkd, Macedonian (Slavic) language, Macedonian (Slavonic), Macedonian (Slavonic) language, Macedonian (language), Macedonian Language, Macedonian Slav language, Macedonian Slavic, Macedonian language (slav), Makedonski, Makedonski jazik, Modern Macedonian language, Slav-Macedonian language, Slavic Macedonian Language, Slavic Macedonian language, Vardarian language, Vardaskan language, Македонски, Македонски јазик.