65 relations: Allergy, Allergy (journal), Anticholinergic, Anticonvulsant, Biopharmaceutical, Bowel obstruction, Capsule (pharmacy), Clinical trial, Cochrane Library, Colonoscopy, Colorectal cancer, Constipation, Dehydration, Electrolyte, Electrolyte imbalance, Enhanced permeability and retention effect, Excipient, Eye drop, Fecal impaction, Film coating, Gastrointestinal perforation, Gastrointestinal tract, Gout, Hepatitis C, Human feces, Hyperkalemia, Hypokalemia, Ileus, Immunogenicity, In vitro, In vivo, Inflammatory bowel disease, International nonproprietary name, Journal of Neuroscience Research, Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, Laxative, Lubricant, Molecular mass, Monoclonal antibody, Movement Disorders (journal), Multiple myeloma, Multiple sclerosis, Neutropenia, Opioid, Paraplegia, Parkinson's disease, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Pegloticase, ..., PEGylation, Peristalsis, Polyethylene glycol, Potassium, Potassium chloride, Sodium bicarbonate, Sodium chloride, Surgery, Tablet (pharmacy), Tegaserod, Topical medication, Toxic megacolon, Toxicity, Vertebral column, Whole bowel irrigation. Expand index (15 more) » « Shrink index
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
Allergy is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering the field of allergy and immunology, that is published by John Wiley & Sons on behalf of the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology.
An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.
A biopharmaceutical, also known as a biologic(al) medical product, biological, or biologic, is any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources.
Bowel obstruction, also known as intestinal obstruction, is a mechanical or functional obstruction of the intestines which prevents the normal movement of the products of digestion.
In the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, encapsulation refers to a range of dosage forms—techniques used to enclose medicines—in a relatively stable shell known as a capsule, allowing them to, for example, be taken orally or be used as suppositories.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
The Cochrane Library (named after Archie Cochrane) is a collection of databases in medicine and other healthcare specialties provided by Cochrane and other organizations.
Colonoscopy or coloscopy is the endoscopic examination of the large bowel and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus.
Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).
Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.
In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
Electrolyte imbalance is an abnormality in the concentration of electrolytes in the body.
The enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect is a controversial concept by which molecules of certain sizes (typically liposomes, nanoparticles, and macromolecular drugs) tend to accumulate in tumor tissue much more than they do in normal tissues.
An excipient is a substance formulated alongside the active ingredient of a medication, included for the purpose of long-term stabilization, bulking up solid formulations that contain potent active ingredients in small amounts (thus often referred to as "bulking agents", "fillers", or "diluents"), or to confer a therapeutic enhancement on the active ingredient in the final dosage form, such as facilitating drug absorption, reducing viscosity, or enhancing solubility.
Eye drops are saline-containing drops used as an ocular route to administer.
A fecal impaction is a solid, immobile bulk of feces that can develop in the rectum as a result of chronic constipation.
In pharmaceutical drug delivery of solid oral dosage forms film coatings are frequently applied.
Gastrointestinal perforation, also known as ruptured bowel, is a hole in the wall of part of the gastrointestinal tract.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint.
Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that primarily affects the liver.
Human feces (or faeces in British English; fæx) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, but has been rotted down by bacteria in the large intestine.
Hyperkalemia, also spelled hyperkalaemia, is an elevated level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.
Hypokalemia, also spelled hypokalaemia, is a low level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.
Ileus is a disruption of the normal propulsive ability of the gastrointestinal tract.
Immunogenicity is the ability of a particular substance, such as an antigen or epitope, to provoke an immune response in the body of a human and other animal.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.
The International Nonproprietary Name (INN) is an official generic and non-proprietary name given to a pharmaceutical drug or an active ingredient.
The Journal of Neuroscience Research is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of neuroscience.
The Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering pediatrics.
Laxatives, purgatives, or aperients are substances that loosen stools and increase bowel movements.
A lubricant is a substance, usually organic, introduced to reduce friction between surfaces in mutual contact, which ultimately reduces the heat generated when the surfaces move.
Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell.
Movement Disorders is a peer-reviewed medical journal, first published in 1986.
Multiple myeloma, also known as plasma cell myeloma, is a cancer of plasma cells, a type of white blood cell normally responsible for producing antibodies.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
Neutropenia or neutropaenia is an abnormally low concentration of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) in the blood.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Paraplegia is an impairment in motor or sensory function of the lower extremities.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Pegfilgrastim is a PEGylated form of the recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) analog filgrastim.
Pegylated interferon alfa-2a, sold under the brand name Pegasys among others, is medication used to treat hepatitis C and hepatitis B. For hepatitis C it is typically used together with ribavirin and cure rates are between 24 and 92%.
Pegylated interferon alfa-2b, sold under the brand name PegIntron among others, is a medication used to treat hepatitis C and melanoma.
Pegloticase (trade name Krystexxa) is a medication for the treatment of severe, treatment-refractory, chronic gout.
PEGylation (often styled pegylation) is the process of both covalent and non-covalent attachment or amalgamation of polyethylene glycol (PEG, in pharmacy called macrogol) polymer chains to molecules and macrostructures, such as a drug, therapeutic protein or vesicle, which is then described as PEGylated (pegylated).
Peristalsis is a radially symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles that propagates in a wave down a tube, in an anterograde direction.
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a polyether compound with many applications from industrial manufacturing to medicine.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine.
Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
A tablet is a pharmaceutical dosage form.
Tegaserod is a 5-HT4 agonist manufactured by Novartis and sold under the names Zelnorm and Zelmac for the management of irritable bowel syndrome and constipation.
A topical medication is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body.
Toxic megacolon (megacolon toxicum) is an acute form of colonic distension.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.
Whole bowel irrigation (WBI) is a medical process involving the rapid administration of large volumes of an osmotically balanced macrogol solution (GoLYTELY, CoLyte), either orally or via a nasogastric tube, to flush out the entire gastrointestinal tract.
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