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Macrolide

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The macrolides are a class of natural products that consist of a large macrocyclic lactone ring to which one or more deoxy sugars, usually cladinose and desosamine, may be attached. [1]

91 relations: Amphotericin B, Antibiotic, Antifungal, Azithromycin, Bacteriostatic agent, Bordetella pertussis, Carbomycin, Cephalosporin, Cethromycin, Chlamydia (genus), Chloramphenicol, Cholestasis, Ciclosporin, Cladinose, Clarithromycin, Colchicine, Cruentaren, CYP3A4, Cytochrome P450, Deoxy sugar, Desosamine, Diffuse panbronchiolitis, Dosing, Duodenum, Enterococcus, Enterohepatic circulation, Enzyme inhibitor, Erythromycin, Ester, Fidaxomicin, Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, Group A streptococcal infection, Haemophilus influenzae, Idiopathic disease, Immunosuppressive drug, Immunotherapy, Josamycin, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Ketolide, Kitasamycin, Lactone, Legionella pneumophila, Lincosamides, Long QT syndrome, Lymphocyte, Macrocycle, Mechanism of action, Medication, Midecamycin, ..., Mycobacterium, Mycolactone, Mycoplasma, Myopathy, Natural product, Neutrophil, Nystatin, Oleandomycin, Penicillin, Peptidyl transferase, Pimecrolimus, Plasmid, Polyene antimycotic, Polyketide, Prokaryotic large ribosomal subunit, Prokaryotic translation, Protein biosynthesis, Protein synthesis inhibitor, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Ribosome, Rickettsia, Roxithromycin, Secretion, Sirolimus, Solithromycin, Spiramycin, Staphylococcus, Statin, Streptococcus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptogramin, Tacrolimus, Telithromycin, The BMJ, Torsades de pointes, Transfer RNA, Troleandomycin, Tylosin, White blood cell, 23S ribosomal RNA. Expand index (41 more) »

Amphotericin B

Amphotericin B is an antifungal medication used for serious fungal infections and leishmaniasis.

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Antibiotic

An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.

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Antifungal

An antifungal medication, also known as an antimycotic medication, is a pharmaceutical fungicide or fungistatic used to treat and prevent mycosis such as athlete's foot, ringworm, candidiasis (thrush), serious systemic infections such as cryptococcal meningitis, and others.

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Azithromycin

Azithromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.

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Bacteriostatic agent

A bacteriostatic agent or bacteriostat, abbreviated Bstatic, is a biological or chemical agent that stops bacteria from reproducing, while not necessarily killing them otherwise.

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Bordetella pertussis

Bordetella pertussis is a Gram-negative, aerobic, pathogenic, encapsulated coccobacillus of the genus Bordetella, and the causative agent of pertussis or whooping cough.

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Carbomycin

Carbomycin, also known as magnamycin, is a colorless, optically active crystalline macrolide antibiotic with the molecular formula C42H67NO16.

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Cephalosporin

The cephalosporins (sg.) are a class of β-lactam antibiotics originally derived from the fungus Acremonium, which was previously known as "Cephalosporium".

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Cethromycin

Cethromycin, trade name Restanza (initially known as ABT-773) is a ketolide antibiotic undergoing research for the treatment of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and for the prevention of post-exposure inhalational anthrax, and was given an "orphan drug" status for this indication.

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Chlamydia (genus)

Chlamydia is a genus of pathogenic bacteria that are obligate intracellular parasites.

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Chloramphenicol

Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.

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Cholestasis

Cholestasis is a condition where bile cannot flow from the liver to the duodenum.

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Ciclosporin

Ciclosporin, also spelled cyclosporine and cyclosporin, is an immunosuppressant medication and natural product.

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Cladinose

Cladinose is a hexose deoxy sugar that in several antibiotics (such as erythromycin) is attached to the macrolide ring.

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Clarithromycin

Clarithromycin, sold under the brand name Biaxin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat various bacterial infections.

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Colchicine

Colchicine is a medication most commonly used to treat gout.

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Cruentaren

Cruentaren is a macrolide secreted by the myxobacteria Byssovorax cruenta.

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CYP3A4

Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.

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Cytochrome P450

Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.

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Deoxy sugar

Deoxy sugars are sugars that have had a hydroxyl group replaced with a hydrogen atom.

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Desosamine

Desosamine is a 3-(dimethylamino)-3,4,6-trideoxyhexose found in certain macrolide antibiotics such as the commonly prescribed erythromycin.

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Diffuse panbronchiolitis

Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) is an inflammatory lung disease of unknown cause.

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Dosing

Dosing generally applies to feeding chemicals or medicines when used in small quantities.

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Duodenum

The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.

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Enterococcus

Enterococcus is a large genus of lactic acid bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes.

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Enterohepatic circulation

Enterohepatic circulation refers to the circulation of biliary acids, bilirubin, drugs or other substances from the liver to the bile, followed by entry into the small intestine, absorption by the enterocyte and transport back to the liver.

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Enzyme inhibitor

4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.

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Erythromycin

Erythromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.

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Ester

In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.

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Fidaxomicin

Fidaxomicin (trade names Dificid, Dificlir, and previously OPT-80 and PAR-101) is the first in a new class of narrow spectrum macrocyclic antibiotic drugs. It is a fermentation product obtained from the actinomycete Dactylosporangium aurantiacum subspecies hamdenesis. Fidaxomicin is non-systemic, meaning it is minimally absorbed into the bloodstream, it is bactericidal, and it has demonstrated selective eradication of pathogenic Clostridium difficile with minimal disruption to the multiple species of bacteria that make up the normal, healthy intestinal flora. The maintenance of normal physiological conditions in the colon can reduce the probability of Clostridium difficile infection recurrence. It is marketed by Cubist Pharmaceuticals after acquisition of its originating company Optimer Pharmaceuticals. The target use is for treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. Fidaxomicin is available in a 200 mg tablet that is administered every 12 hours for a recommended duration of 10 days. Total duration of therapy should be determined by the patient's clinical status. It is currently one of the most expensive antibiotics approved for use. A standard course costs upwards of £1350.

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Gram-negative bacteria

Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation.

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Gram-positive bacteria

Gram-positive bacteria are bacteria that give a positive result in the Gram stain test, which is traditionally used to quickly classify bacteria into two broad categories according to their cell wall.

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Group A streptococcal infection

A group A streptococcal infection is an infection with group A streptococcus (GAS).

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Haemophilus influenzae

Haemophilus influenzae (formerly called Pfeiffer's bacillus or Bacillus influenzae) is a Gram-negative, coccobacillary, facultatively anaerobic pathogenic bacterium belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family.

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Idiopathic disease

An idiopathic disease is any disease with an unknown cause or mechanism of apparently spontaneous origin.

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Immunosuppressive drug

Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system.

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Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy is the "treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response".

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Josamycin

Josamycin is a macrolide antibiotic.

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Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy is a peer-reviewed medical journal which covers antimicrobial chemotherapy, including laboratory aspects and clinical use of antimicrobial agents.

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Ketolide

Ketolides are antibiotics belonging to the macrolide group.

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Kitasamycin

Kitasamycin (INN) is a macrolide antibiotic.

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Lactone

Lactones are cyclic esters of hydroxycarboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure, or analogues having unsaturation or heteroatoms replacing one or more carbon atoms of the ring.

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Legionella pneumophila

Legionella pneumophila is a thin, aerobic, pleomorphic, flagellated, nonspore-forming, Gram-negative bacterium of the genus Legionella.

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Lincosamides

Lincosamides are a class of antibiotics which include lincomycin, clindamycin, and pirlimycin.

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Long QT syndrome

Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a condition which affects repolarization of the heart after a heartbeat.

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Lymphocyte

A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.

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Macrocycle

Macrocycles are often described as a molecule containing twelve or more atoms with at least one large ring.

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Mechanism of action

In pharmacology, the term mechanism of action (MOA) refers to the specific biochemical interaction through which a drug substance produces its pharmacological effect.

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Medication

A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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Midecamycin

Midecamycin is a macrolide antibiotic.

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Mycobacterium

Mycobacterium is a genus of Actinobacteria, given its own family, the Mycobacteriaceae.

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Mycolactone

Mycolactone is a polyketide-derived macrolide produced and secreted by a group of very closely related pathogenic Mycobacteria species that have been assigned a variety of names including, M. ulcerans, M. liflandii (an unofficial designation), M. pseudoshottsii, and some strains of M. marinum.

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Mycoplasma

Mycoplasma is a genus of bacteria that lack a cell wall around their cell membrane.

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Myopathy

Myopathy is a disease of the muscle in which the muscle fibers do not function properly.

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Natural product

A natural product is a chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism—that is, found in nature.

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Neutrophil

Neutrophils (also known as neutrocytes) are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40% to 70%) type of white blood cells in most mammals.

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Nystatin

Nystatin, sold under the brandname Mycostatin among others, is an antifungal medication.

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Oleandomycin

Oleandomycin is a macrolide antibiotic.

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Penicillin

Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use).

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Peptidyl transferase

The peptidyl transferase is an aminoacyltransferase as well as the primary enzymatic function of the ribosome, which forms peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids using tRNAs during the translation process of protein biosynthesis.

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Pimecrolimus

Pimecrolimus is an immunomodulating agent of the calcineurin inhibitor class used in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (eczema).

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Plasmid

A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.

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Polyene antimycotic

Polyene antimycotics, sometimes referred to as polyene antibiotics, are a class of antimicrobial polyene compounds that target fungi.

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Polyketide

Polyketides are a class of secondary metabolites produced by certain living organisms in order to impart to them some survival advantage.

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Prokaryotic large ribosomal subunit

50S is the larger subunit of the 70S ribosome of prokaryotes.

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Prokaryotic translation

Prokaryotic translation is the process by which messenger RNA is translated into proteins in prokaryotes.

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Protein biosynthesis

Protein synthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export.

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Protein synthesis inhibitor

A protein synthesis inhibitor is a substance that stops or slows the growth or proliferation of cells by disrupting the processes that lead directly to the generation of new proteins.

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Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that can cause disease in plants and animals, including humans.

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Ribosome

The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).

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Rickettsia

Rickettsia is a genus of nonmotile, Gram-negative, nonspore-forming, highly pleomorphic bacteria that can be present as cocci (0.1 μm in diameter), rods (1–4 μm long), or thread-like (10 μm long).

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Roxithromycin

Roxithromycin is a semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic.

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Secretion

Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.

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Sirolimus

Sirolimus, also known as rapamycin, is a macrolide compound that is used to coat coronary stents, prevent organ transplant rejection and to treat a rare lung disease called lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

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Solithromycin

Solithromycin (trade name Solithera) is a ketolide antibiotic undergoing clinical development for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and other infections.

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Spiramycin

Spiramycin is a macrolide antibiotic and antiparasitic It is used to treat toxoplasmosis and various other infections of soft tissues.

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Staphylococcus

Staphylococcus (from the σταφυλή, staphylē, "grape" and κόκκος, kókkos, "granule") is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria.

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Statin

Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications.

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Streptococcus

Streptococcus (term coined by Viennese surgeon Albert Theodor Billroth (1829-1894) from strepto- "twisted" + Modern Latin coccus "spherical bacterium," from Greek kokkos meaning "berry") is a genus of coccus (spherical) Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and the order Lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria).

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Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic (under aerobic conditions) or beta-hemolytic (under anaerobic conditions), facultative anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus.

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Streptococcus pyogenes

Streptococcus pyogenes is a species of Gram-positive bacteria.

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Streptogramin

Streptogramins are a class of antibiotics.

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Tacrolimus

No description.

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Telithromycin

Telithromycin is the first ketolide antibiotic to enter clinical use and is sold under the brand name of Ketek.

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The BMJ

The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.

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Torsades de pointes

Torsades de pointes or torsade depointes (TdP or simply torsade(s)) (translated as "twisting of the points"), is a specific type of abnormal heart rhythm that can lead to sudden cardiac death.

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Transfer RNA

A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins.

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Troleandomycin

Troleandomycin (TAO for short) is a macrolide antibiotic.

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Tylosin

Tylosin is an antibiotic and a bacteriostatic feed additive used in veterinary medicine.

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White blood cell

White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.

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23S ribosomal RNA

The 23S rRNA is a 2904 nt long (in E. coli) component of the large subunit (50S) of the bacterial/archean ribosome.

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Macrolide antibiotic, Macrolide antibiotics, Macrolide lactone, Macrolides.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macrolide

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