89 relations: Acetylene, Amino acid, Atom, Base pair, Benzene, Binding site, Biochemistry, Biological pigment, Biology, Biomolecular structure, Biopolymer, British English, Carbohydrate, Carbon nanotube, Cell (biology), Cell signaling, Cellulose, Central dogma of molecular biology, Chemical substance, Chemistry, Chitin, Chromatin, Chromosome, Cofactor (biochemistry), Colloid, Covalent bond, Denaturation (biochemistry), DNA, DNA repair, Enzyme, Enzyme catalysis, Equilibrium constant, Eukaryote, Excluded volume, Functional group, Garland Science, Genome, Geopolymer, Glycogen, Graphene, Hermann Staudinger, Inorganic polymer, Intermolecular force, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Ion, Isomer, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, John Wiley & Sons, Lignin, Linus Pauling, ..., Lipid, List of biophysically important macromolecular crystal structures, Macrocycle, Macromolecular crowding, Metabolism, Molecular mass, Molecule, Monomer, Monosaccharide, New York City, No Starch Press, Nobel Prize, Nucleic acid, Nucleic acid double helix, Nucleic acid sequence, Nucleotide, Organism, Plastic, Polymerization, Polyphenol, Polysaccharide, Protein, Pure and Applied Chemistry, Reaction rate, Ribozyme, RNA, Salt (chemistry), Secondary metabolite, Shearing (physics), Smart inorganic polymers, Solvent, Starch, Stoichiometry, Synthetic fiber, Synthetic rubber, Thermodynamic activity, Toxin, Translation (biology), W. H. Freeman and Company. Expand index (39 more) » « Shrink index
Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H2.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
In biochemistry, a binding site is a region on a protein or piece of DNA or RNA to which ligands (specific molecules and/or ions) may form a chemical bond.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Biological pigments, also known simply as pigments or biochromes, are substances produced by living organisms that have a color resulting from selective color absorption.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function.
Biopolymers are polymers produced by living organisms; in other words, they are polymeric biomolecules.
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
The central dogma of molecular biology is an explanation of the flow of genetic information within a biological system.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Chitin (C8H13O5N)n, a long-chain polymer of ''N''-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose.
Chromatin is a complex of macromolecules found in cells, consisting of DNA, protein, and RNA.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure, and secondary structure which is present in their native state, by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), radiation or heat.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Enzyme catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction by the active site of a protein.
The equilibrium constant of a chemical reaction is the value of its reaction quotient at chemical equilibrium, a state approached by a dynamic chemical system after sufficient time has elapsed at which its composition has no measurable tendency towards further change.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
The concept of excluded volume was introduced by Werner Kuhn in 1934 and applied to polymer molecules shortly thereafter by Paul Flory.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
Garland Science is a publishing group that specializes in developing textbooks in a wide range of life sciences subjects, including cell and molecular biology, immunology, protein chemistry, genetics, and bioinformatics.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Geopolymers are inorganic, typically ceramic, materials that form long-range, covalently bonded, non-crystalline (amorphous) networks.
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.
Graphene is a semi-metal with a small overlap between the valence and the conduction bands (zero bandgap material).
Hermann Staudinger (23 March 1881 – 8 September 1965) was a German organic chemist who demonstrated the existence of macromolecules, which he characterized as polymers.
Inorganic polymers are polymers with a skeletal structure that does not include carbon atoms in the backbone.
Intermolecular forces (IMF) are the forces which mediate interaction between molecules, including forces of attraction or repulsion which act between molecules and other types of neighboring particles, e.g., atoms or ions.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.
Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), named by himself and contemporary society as Jacob Berzelius, was a Swedish chemist.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
Lignin is a class of complex organic polymers that form important structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and some algae. Lignins are particularly important in the formation of cell walls, especially in wood and bark, because they lend rigidity and do not rot easily. Chemically, lignins are cross-linked phenolic polymers.
Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, educator, and husband of American human rights activist Ava Helen Pauling.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
Crystal structures of protein and nucleic acid molecules and their complexes are central to the practice of most parts of biophysics, and have shaped much of what we understand scientifically at the atomic-detail level of biology.
Macrocycles are often described as a molecule containing twelve or more atoms with at least one large ring.
The phenomenon of macromolecular crowding alters the properties of molecules in a solution when high concentrations of macromolecules such as proteins are present.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".
Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
No Starch Press is an American publishing company, specializing in technical literature often geared towards the geek, hacker, and DIY subcultures.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
In molecular biology, the term double helix refers to the structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acids such as DNA.
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
Polyphenols (also known as polyhydroxyphenols) are a structural class of mainly natural, but also synthetic or semisynthetic, organic chemicals characterized by the presence of large multiples of phenol structural units.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Pure and Applied Chemistry (abbreviated Pure Appl. Chem.) is the official journal for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
The reaction rate or rate of reaction is the speed at which reactants are converted into products.
Ribozymes (ribonucleic acid enzymes) are RNA molecules that are capable of catalyzing specific biochemical reactions, similar to the action of protein enzymes.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
Secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism.
Shearing in continuum mechanics refers to the occurrence of a shear strain, which is a deformation of a material substance in which parallel internal surfaces slide past one another.
Smart Inorganic Polymers (SIPs) are inorganic polymers with tunable (smart) properties such as stimuli responsive physical properties (shape, conductivity, rheology).
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
Stoichiometry is the calculation of reactants and products in chemical reactions.
Synthetic fibers (British English: synthetic fibres) are fibers made by humans with chemical synthesis, as opposed to natural fibers that humans get from living organisms with little or no chemical changes.
A synthetic rubber is any artificial elastomer.
In chemical thermodynamics, activity (symbol) is a measure of the "effective concentration" of a species in a mixture, in the sense that the species' chemical potential depends on the activity of a real solution in the same way that it would depend on concentration for an ideal solution.
A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
Biological macromolecule, DNA, RNA and proteins: The three essential macromolecules of life, Large molecule, Large molecules, Macro Molecule, Macromolecular, Macromolecular Chemistry, Macromolecular chemistry, Macromolecular hypothesis, Macromolecular substances, Macromolecules, Macromolocule.