408 relations: Accounts of Chemical Research, Adansonia, African Union, AfroBasket 2011, Agriculture, Air Madagascar, Alaotra-Mangoro, Albert Zafy, Algeria, Ambohimanga, American Cancer Society, Amoron'i Mania, Analamanga, Analanjirofo, Andohahela National Park, Andriamanelo, Andriamasinavalona, Andriana, Andrianampoinimerina, Andrianjaka, Andringitra Massif, Andringitra National Park, Androy, Andry Rajoelina, Anglicanism, Animism, Ankaratra, Anosy Region, Antaifasy, Antaisaka people, Antambahoaka, Antananarivo, Antananarivo Province, Antandroy, Antankarana, Antanosy people, Antemoro people, Antsirabe, Antsiranana, Antsiranana Province, Arabic script, Arabs, Archaeology, Architecture of Madagascar, Atlantic slave trade, Atsimo-Andrefana, Atsimo-Atsinanana, Atsinanana, Austronesian peoples, Autonomous administrative division, ..., Avenue of the Baobabs, Île Sainte-Marie, Bamboo, Bantu languages, Bantu peoples, Bara people, Battle of Madagascar, BBC News, Bemolanga, Betsiboka, Betsileo people, Betsimisaraka people, Bezanozano, Biodiversity hotspot, Boeny, Boina Kingdom, Bongolava, Borneo, Bowls, Bronx Zoo, Brookesia micra, Bubonic plague, Canal des Pangalanes, Cananga odorata, Cassava, Catharanthus, Catholic Church, Catholic Church in Madagascar, Cattle raiding, Central Highlands (Madagascar), Chameleon, Chinese cuisine, Chinese people in Madagascar, Chocolaterie Robert, Christian Ntsay, Christianity in Madagascar, Church of Jesus Christ in Madagascar, Civil law (legal system), Colin Groves, Common law, Comoros, Conservation International, Constitution of Madagascar, Constitutional republic, Convention on the Rights of the Child, Corvée, CRC Press, Cryptoprocta spelea, Curd, Current Medicinal Chemistry, Curry powder, Cyclone, Cyclone Gafilo, David Griffiths (missionary), David Jones (missionary), Democratic Republic of Madagascar, Demographics of India, Demographics of Madagascar, Demographics of Pakistan, Deserts and xeric shrublands, Diana Region, Didier Ratsiraka, Didiereaceae, Diogo Dias, Diphtheria, Diversity (politics), Drawn thread work, East Africa, East Africa Time, Eastern Bloc, Elephant bird, Elie Rajaonarison, Embroidery, Endemism, Erosion, Escarpment, Fady (taboo), Famadihana, Fanorona, Fianarantsoa Province, Firaisan'ny Skotisma eto Madagasikara, Flora of Madagascar, Flying column, Football in Madagascar, Forestry, Fossa (animal), France, Franco-Hova Wars, French colonial empire, French Community, French language, French people, Fritter, Gabriel Ramanantsoa, Gene (journal), Geographic coordinate system, Geography of Madagascar, Gilles Andriamahazo, Gondwana, Gujarati language, Gujarati people, Hainteny, Hasina (Madagascar), Haute Matsiatra, Heavy crude oil, Hepatitis B, Herbal tea, Hery Rajaonarimampianina, High Transitional Authority, Hindi, Hinduism, Hiragasy, Hodgkin's lymphoma, Honoré Rakotomanana, Hova (Madagascar), Ibonia, Ihorombe, Ilakaka, Ilmenite, Independence, Index of Madagascar-related articles, India, Indian Ocean, Indian subcontinent, Indians in Madagascar, International Criminal Court, International Futures, International Institute for Strategic Studies, Islam, Islam in Madagascar, Island country, Itasy Region, James Cameron (missionary), Jean Laborde, Jean-Joseph Rabearivelo, Jirama, John Wiley & Sons, Joseph-François Lambert, Lamba (garment), Latin alphabet, Left- and right-hand traffic, Lemur, Leukemia, Libertatia, List of countries and dependencies by area, List of diplomatic missions of Madagascar, List of Imerina monarchs, List of island countries, List of islands by area, List of lemur species, List of national parks of Madagascar, List of Presidents of Madagascar, List of Presidents of the National Assembly of Madagascar, List of Presidents of the Senate of Madagascar, List of World Heritage Sites in Madagascar, Literature of Madagascar, Loi-cadre Defferre, London Missionary Society, Lychee, Madagascar dry deciduous forests, Madagascar lowland forests, Madagascar mangroves, Madagascar Oil, Madagascar Plan, Madagascar spiny forests, Madagascar subhumid forests, Mahafaly, Mahajanga, Mahajanga Province, Malagasy ariary, Malagasy constitutional referendum, 2010, Malagasy cuisine, Malagasy general election, 2013, Malagasy hippopotamus, Malagasy language, Malagasy Lutheran Church, Malagasy mythology, Malagasy people, Malagasy presidential election, 2001, Malagasy Republic, Malagasy Uprising, Malaria, Malayo-Polynesian languages, Marc Ravalomanana, Marco Polo, Marojejy National Park, Maromokotro, Masoala National Park, Massif, Mauritius, Mayotte, Measles, Melaky, Menabe, Menalamba rebellion, Merina Kingdom, Merina people, Middle Ages, Millennium Challenge Corporation, Mining, Minister (Christianity), Mogadishu, Molecules (journal), Monkey, Monsoon, Moraingy, Moramanga, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel, Music of Indonesia, Music of Madagascar, Music of the Philippines, Muslim, National Assembly (Madagascar), Natural gas, Nazi Germany, Neuroptera, Norbert Ratsirahonana, Official language, Orchidaceae, Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Organisation of African Unity, Outline of Madagascar, Outrigger canoe, Pachypodium, Parliament of Madagascar, Pastoralism, Pétanque, Petroleum, Pew Research Center, Philibert Tsiranana, Plateau, Polygamy, Portugal, Prehistory, Primate, Prime Minister of Madagascar, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Protectorate, Protestantism, Radama I, Radama II, Raffia palm, Rain shadow, Rainforest, Rainforests of the Atsinanana, Rainilaiarivony, Rainivoninahitriniony, Ralambo, Ranavalona I, Ranavalona II, Ranavalona III, Ranomafana National Park, Rasoherina, Ratite, Ravenala, Réunion, Recorded history, Renaissance, Representative democracy, Reptile, Richard Ratsimandrava, Rio Tinto Group, Robert Drury (sailor), Rotaka, Rova of Antananarivo, Rugby union in Madagascar, Rum, Russell Mittermeier, Ry Tanindrazanay malala ô!, Saint Lawrence, Sakalava people, Salegy, Sampy, Saurashtra (region), Sava Region, Scarabaeidae, Schistosomiasis, Scouting, Seal of Madagascar, Sediment, Semi-arid climate, Semi-presidential system, Senate (Madagascar), Sherritt International, Sihanaka, Slash-and-burn, Slavery, Sodium chloride, Sofia Region, Somalia, Somalis, Sorabe alphabet, South Kalimantan, Southeast Asia, Southern African Development Community, Strepsirrhini, Sub-Saharan Africa, Subfossil lemur, Sunni Islam, Supercontinent, Tanala, Tangena, Tôlanaro, Tea, Telephone numbers in Madagascar, The World Factbook, Third Republic of Madagascar, Three Horses Beer, Toamasina, Toamasina Province, Toliara Province, Tourism, Trade winds, Transliteration, Tropical cyclone, Tsimihety people, Tsimiroro, UNESCO, UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists, Unitary state, United Nations, United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti, United States Agency for International Development, United States Armed Forces, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Vakinankaratra, Valiha, Vanilla, Vatovavy-Fitovinany, Vazimba, Vegetarian cuisine, Veneration of the dead, Vezo people, Vichy France, Vinblastine, Vinca alkaloid, Vincristine, Wildlife Conservation Society, Wildlife of Madagascar, World War I, World War II, Zafimaniry, Zahamena National Park, Zebu, Zither, .mg, 12th parallel south, 1973 oil crisis, 2009 FIBA Africa Championship for Women, 2009 Malagasy political crisis, 2013 FIBA Africa Under-16 Championship, 2014 FIBA Africa Under-18 Championship, 2015 FIBA Africa Under-16 Championship for Women, 2017 Madagascar plague outbreak, 26th parallel south, 43rd meridian east, 51st meridian east. 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Accounts of Chemical Research is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Chemical Society containing overviews of basic research and applications in chemistry and biochemistry.
Adansonia is a genus of deciduous trees known as baobabs.
The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, extending slightly into Asia via the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.
AfroBasket 2011 was the 26th FIBA Africa Championship, played under the auspices of the Fédération Internationale de Basketball, the basketball sport governing body, and the African zone thereof.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Société Nationale Malgache de Transports Aériens, Société Anonyme,"." Air Madagascar.
Alaotra-Mangoro is a region in eastern Madagascar.
Albert Zafy (1 May 1927 – 13 October 2017) was a Malagasy politician and educator who served as President of Madagascar from 27 March 1993 to 5 September 1996.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Ambohimanga is a hill and traditional fortified royal settlement (rova) in Madagascar, located approximately northeast of the capital city of Antananarivo.
The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a nationwide voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer.
Amoron'i Mania is a region in central Madagascar bordering Vakinankaratra Region in north, Atsinanana in northeast, Vatovavy-Fitovinany in southeast, Haute Matsiatra in south, Atsimo-Andrefana in southwest and Menabe in west.
Analamanga is a region in central Madagascar, containing the capital Antananarivo and its surrounding metropolitan area.
Analanjirofo is a region in northeastern Madagascar.
Andohahela National Park, in south-east Madagascar, is remarkable for the extremes of habitats that are represented within it.
Andriamanelo (''fl.'' 1540–1575) was King of Alasora in the central highlands region of Madagascar.
King Andriamasinavalona (1675–1710), also known as Andrianjakanavalondambo, was a King of Imerina in the central highlands of Madagascar.
Andriana refers to both the noble class and a title of nobility in Madagascar.
Andrianampoinimerina (1745–1810) ruled the Kingdom of Imerina from 1787 until his death.
Andrianjaka reigned over the Kingdom of Imerina in the central highlands region of Madagascar from around 1612 to 1630.
The Andringitra Massif ("desert of rocks") is a granite massif located within Andringitra National Park in Madagascar.
Andringitra National Park is a national park in the Haute Matsiatra region of Madagascar, south of Ambalavao.
Androy is the most southerly region of Madagascar.
Andry Nirina Rajoelina (Malagasy) (born 30 May 1974) was the President of the High Transitional Authority of Madagascar.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.
Ankaratra is an extinct/dormant volcano range located about 50 kilometers southwest of Antananarivo, the capital city of Madagascar.
Anosy is one of the 22 regions of Madagascar in the southeast of the country.
The Antaifasy are an ethnic group of Madagascar inhabiting the southeast coastal region around Farafangana.
The Antesaka, also known as Tesaka, or Tesaki, are an ethnic group of Madagascar traditionally concentrated south of Farafangana along the south-eastern coast.
The Antambahoaka are the least numerous ethnic group in Madagascar, numbering around 50,000 in 2013.
Antananarivo (French: Tananarive), also known by its colonial shorthand form Tana, is the capital and largest city of Madagascar.
Antananarivo Province is a former province of Madagascar with an area of.
The Tandroy may also be called the "'Antandroy'", but "'Tandroy'" is preferable.
The Antankarana (or Antakarana) are an ethnic group of Madagascar inhabiting the northern tip of Madagascar, around Antsiranana.
The Antanosy are a Malagasy ethnic group who primarily live in the Anosy region of southeastern Madagascar, though there are also Antanosy living near Bezaha, where some of the Antanosy moved after the Merina people conquered Anosy.
The Antemoro (or Antaimoro) are an ethnic group of Madagascar living on the southeastern coast, mostly between Manakara and Farafangana.
Antsirabe is the second largest city in Madagascar and the capital of the Vakinankaratra region, with a population of 238,478 in 2013.
Antsiranana (Antsiran̈ana), named Diego-Suarez prior to 1975, is a city in the far north of Madagascar.
Antsiranana is a former province of Madagascar with an area of 43,406 km2.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
The architecture of Madagascar is unique in Africa, bearing strong resemblance to the construction norms and methods of Southern Borneo from which the earliest inhabitants of Madagascar are believed to have immigrated.
The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas.
Atsimo-Andrefana is a region of Madagascar.
Atsimo-Atsinanana (South East) is a region in Madagascar.
Atsinanana is a region in eastern Madagascar.
The Austronesian peoples are various groups in Southeast Asia, Oceania and East Africa that speak languages that are under the Austronesian language super-family.
An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance, or autonomy, from an external authority.
The Avenue of the Baobabs or Alley of the Baobabs is a prominent group of baobab (Adansonia grandidieri) trees lining the dirt road between Morondava and Belon'i Tsiribihina in the Menabe region of western Madagascar.
Nosy Boraha, previously known as Île Sainte-Marie (and still popularly known by travellers as such), is an island off the east coast of Madagascar, to which it belongs.
The bamboos are evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae.
The Bantu languages (English:, Proto-Bantu: */baⁿtʊ̀/) technically the Narrow Bantu languages, as opposed to "Wide Bantu", a loosely defined categorization which includes other "Bantoid" languages are a large family of languages spoken by the Bantu peoples throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.
The Bantu peoples are the speakers of Bantu languages, comprising several hundred ethnic groups in sub-Saharan Africa, spread over a vast area from Central Africa across the African Great Lakes to Southern Africa.
The Bara people are a Malagasy ethnic group living in the southern part of the central plateaus of Madagascar, in the Toliara Province, concentrated around their historic capital at Ihosy.
The Battle of Madagascar was the British campaign to capture Vichy French-controlled Madagascar during World War II.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Bemolanga is a large oil sands deposit in the onshore Morondava Basin of Madagascar.
Betsiboka is a region of Madagascar.
The Betsileo are a highland ethnic group of Madagascar, the third largest in terms of population, numbering around 1.5 million and making up about 12.1 percent of the population.
The Betsimisaraka ("the many inseparables") are the second largest ethnic group in Madagascar after the Merina and make up approximately fifteen percent of the Malagasy people.
The Bezanozano are believed to be one of the earliest Malagasy ethnic groups to establish themselves in Madagascar, where they inhabit an inland area between the Betsimisaraka lowlands and the Merina highlands.
A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region with significant levels of biodiversity that is threatened with destruction.
Boeny is a region in northwestern Madagascar.
The Kingdom of Boina (sometimes known as Iboina) was a traditional state situated in what is now Madagascar.
Bongolava is a region in central-western Madagascar.
Borneo (Pulau Borneo) is the third largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.
Bowls or lawn bowls is a sport in which the objective is to roll biased balls called woods so that they stop close to a smaller ball called a "jack" or "kitty".
The Bronx Zoo is a zoo located within Bronx Park in the Bronx, a borough of New York City.
Brookesia micra is a species of chameleons from the island of Nosy Hara in Antsiranana, Madagascar.
Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by bacterium Yersinia pestis.
The Canal des Pangalanes is a canal that consists of a series of natural rivers, waterways and man-made lakes that extends for over and runs down the east coast of Madagascar from Mahavelona to Farafangana.
Cananga odorata, known as the cananga tree, is a tropical tree that is native to Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines.
Manihot esculenta, commonly called cassava, manioc, yuca, mandioca and Brazilian arrowroot, is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.
Catharanthus is a genus of flowering plants in the dogbane family, Apocynaceae.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Church in Madagascar is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome.
Cattle raiding is the act of stealing cattle.
The Central Highlands, Central High Plateau, or Hauts-Plateaux are a mountainous biogeographical region in central Madagascar.
Chameleons or chamaeleons (family Chamaeleonidae) are a distinctive and highly specialized clade of Old World lizards with 202 species described as of June 2015.
Chinese cuisine is an important part of Chinese culture, which includes cuisine originating from the diverse regions of China, as well as from Chinese people in other parts of the world.
Chinese people in Madagascar are a minority ethnic group of Madagascar and form Africa's third largest overseas Chinese population with a population in 2011 estimated at between 70,000-100,000.
Chocolaterie Robert is the first commercial producer of locally produced chocolate in Madagascar.
Christian Louis Ntsay (born 27 March 1961 in Antsiranana) is a Malagasy politician who is currently Prime Minister of Madagascar.
Christianity in Madagascar is practiced by 41% of Madagascans, according to the US Department of State in 2011, or by 85% of them according to the Pew Research Center in 2010, often in syncretic form with traditional religious practices.
The Church of Jesus Christ in Madagascar (Fiangonan'i Jesoa Kristy eto Madagasikara) (FJKM) is the second-largest Christian denomination in Madagascar.
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
Colin Peter Groves (24 June 1942 – 30 November 2017) was Professor of Biological Anthropology at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
The Comoros (جزر القمر), officially the Union of the Comoros (Comorian: Udzima wa Komori, Union des Comores, الاتحاد القمري), is a sovereign archipelago island nation in the Indian Ocean located at the northern end of the Mozambique Channel off the eastern coast of Africa between northeastern Mozambique and northwestern Madagascar.
Conservation International (CI) is an American nonprofit environmental organization headquartered in Arlington, Virginia.
The current Constitution of Madagascar was, according to the national electoral commission, endorsed by a majority of voters in the constitutional referendum held on 14 November 2010.
A Constitutional republic is a republic that operates under a system of separation of powers, where both the chief executive and members of the legislature are elected by the citizens and must govern within an existing written constitution.
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (commonly abbreviated as the CRC or UNCRC) is a human rights treaty which sets out the civil, political, economic, social, health and cultural rights of children.
Corvée is a form of unpaid, unfree labour, which is intermittent in nature and which lasts limited periods of time: typically only a certain number of days' work each year.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
Cryptoprocta spelea, also known as the giant fossa, is an extinct species of carnivore from Madagascar in the family Eupleridae, which is most closely related to the mongooses and includes all Malagasy carnivorans.
Curds are a dairy product obtained by coagulating milk in a process called curdling.
Current Medicinal Chemistry is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by Bentham Science Publishers.
Curry powder is a spice mix originating from the Indian subcontinent.
In meteorology, a cyclone is a large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure.
Very Intense Tropical Cyclone Gafilo (also known as Cyclone Gafilo) was the most intense tropical cyclone ever recorded in the South-West Indian Ocean and the most intense tropical cyclone worldwide in 2004.
David Griffiths (20 December 1792 – 21 March 1863), was a Welsh Christian missionary and translator in Madagascar.
David Jones (July 1796 – 1 May 1841) was a pioneering Welsh Christian missionary to Madagascar.
The Democratic Republic of Madagascar (Repoblika Demokratika Malagasy, République démocratique de Madagascar) was a socialist state that existed on the island of Madagascar from 1975 until 1992.
India is the second most populated country in the world with nearly a fifth of the world's population.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Madagascar, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
Pakistan's latest estimated population is 207,774,520 (excluding the autonomous regions of Azad Jammu and Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan).
Deserts and xeric shrublands are a biome characterized by receiving only a small amount of moisture, usually defined as less than 250 mm of annual precipitation.
Diana is a region in Madagascar at the most northerly part of the island.
Vice Admiral Didier Ratsiraka (born 4 November 1936) is a Malagasy politician who was President of Madagascar from 1975 to 1993 and from 1997 to 2002.
Didiereaceae is a family of flowering plants found in continental Africa and Madagascar.
Diogo Dias, also known as Diogo Gomes, was a 15th-century Portuguese explorer.
Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
In sociology and political studies, diversity is the degree of differences in identifying features among the members of a purposefully defined group, such as any group differences in racial or ethnic classifications, age, gender, religion, philosophy, physical abilities, socioeconomic background, sexual orientation, gender identity, intelligence, mental health, physical health, genetic attributes, personality, behavior or attractiveness.
Drawn thread work is a form of counted-thread embroidery based on removing threads from the warp and/or the weft of a piece of even-weave fabric.
East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography.
East Africa Time, or EAT, is a time zone used in eastern Africa.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Elephant birds are members of the extinct family Aepyornithidae.
Elie Rajaonarison (November 15, 1951 - November 27, 2010) was a poet, artist, professor and civil servant from Madagascar.
Embroidery is the craft of decorating fabric or other materials using a needle to apply thread or yarn.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
An escarpment is a steep slope or long cliff that forms as an effect of faulting or erosion and separates two relatively leveled areas having differing elevations.
Fady, in Malagasy culture, refers to a wide range of cultural prohibitions or taboos.
Famadihana is a funerary tradition of the Malagasy people in Madagascar.
Fanorona is a strategy board game for two players.
Fianarantsoa Province is a former province of Madagascar.
The Firaisan'ny Skotisma eto Madagasikara, the national federation of three Scouting organizations of Madagascar.
The flora of Madagascar consists of more than 12,000 species of vascular and non-vascular plants and a lesser known number of fungi.
A flying column is a small, independent, military land unit capable of rapid mobility and usually composed of all arms.
Football is, followed by the second sport rugby union, the most popular sport in the African island nation of Madagascar.
Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests, woodlands, and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human and environment benefits.
The fossa (or; Malagasy; Cryptoprocta ferox) is a cat-like, carnivorous mammal endemic to Madagascar.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Franco-Hova Wars or Franco-Malagasy Wars comprised two French military interventions in Madagascar between 1883 and 1896 that overthrew the ruling monarchy of the Merina Kingdom, and resulted in Madagascar becoming a French colony.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
The French Community (Communauté française) was an association of former French colonies, mostly from Africa.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The French (Français) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France.
A fritter is a fried food usually consisting of a portion of batter or breading which has been filled with bits of meat, seafood, fruit, vegetables or other ingredients.
Gabriel Ramanantsoa (13 April 1906 Antananarivo – 9 May 1979 Paris) was the President and Prime Minister of Madagascar from 1972 to 1975.
Gene is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in genetics, focusing on the cloning, structure, and function of genes.
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.
Madagascar is a large island in the Indian Ocean off the eastern coast of southern Africa, east of Mozambique.
General Gilles Andriamahazo (5 May 1919 – 13 September 1989) was a Malagasy general and political figure.
Gondwana, or Gondwanaland, was a supercontinent that existed from the Neoproterozoic (about 550 million years ago) until the Carboniferous (about 320 million years ago).
Gujarati (ગુજરાતી) is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat.
Gujarati people or Gujaratis (ગુજરાતી) are an ethnic group traditionally from Gujarat that speak Gujarati, an Indo-Aryan language.
Hainteny (pronounced, Malagasy for "knowledge of words") is a traditional form of Malagasy oral literature and poetry, involving heavy use of metaphor.
Hasina is the concept of sanctity and imbued authority in the traditional culture of Madagascar.
Haute Matsiatra is a region in Madagascar.
Heavy crude oil (or extra heavy crude oil) is highly-viscous oil that cannot easily flow to production wells under normal reservoir conditions.
Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver.
Herbal teas — less commonly called tisanes (UK and US, US also) — are beverages made from the infusion or decoction of herbs, spices, or other plant material in hot water.
Hery Martial Rajaonarimampianina Rakotoarimanana (born November 6, 1958) is a Malagasy politician who has been President of Madagascar since January 2014.
The High Transitional Authority (Malagasy: Fitondrana Avon'ny Tetezamita (FAT); French: Haute Autorité de Transition or HAT) was a provisional executive body that came to power in Madagascar following the coup that forced Marc Ravalomanana to leave the country on March 17, 2009 as a result of the 2009 Malagasy protests.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
The hiragasy (hira: song; gasy: Malagasy) is a musical tradition in Madagascar and particularly among the Merina ethnic group of the Highland regions around the capital of Antananarivo.
Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is a type of lymphoma which is generally believed to result from white blood cells of the lymphocyte kind.
Honoré Rakotomanana (born 26 October 1933) is a Malagasy politician and judge.
The Hova, or free commoners, were one of the three principal historical castes in the Merina Kingdom of Madagascar, alongside the Andriana (nobles) and Andevo (slaves).
The Ibonia is an epic poem that has been told in various forms across the island of Madagascar for at least several hundred years.
Ihorombe is a region in Madagascar.
Ilakaka is a small town in Ihorombe Region in the south western part of Madagascar.
Ilmenite, also known as Manaccanite, is a titanium-iron oxide mineral with the idealized formula.
Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory.
Articles (arranged alphabetically) related to Madagascar include.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
Indians in Madagascar form a community of roughly 25,000 individuals according to the statistics of India's Ministry of External Affairs; other estimates of their population range from 15,000 to 30,000.
The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) is a British research institute (or think tank) in the area of international affairs.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam has been well established in what is now known as Madagascar for centuries and today Muslims represent 7% of the population.
An island country is a country whose primary territory consists of one or more islands or parts of islands.
Itasy is a region in central Madagascar.
James Cameron (1799–1875) was a 19th-century Scottish artisan missionary with a background in carpentry who, over the course of twenty-three years of service in Madagascar with the London Missionary Society (1826–1835; 1861–1875), played a major role in the Christianization and industrialization of that island state, then under the rule of the Merina monarchy.
Jean Laborde (16 October 1805 in Auch - 27 December 1878 in Madagascar) was an adventurer and early industrialist in Madagascar.
Jean-Joseph Rabearivelo (4 March 1901 or 1903 – 22 June 1937), born Joseph-Casimir Rabearivelo, is widely considered to be Africa's first modern poet and the greatest literary artist of Madagascar.
Jirama (Jiro sy rano malagasy) is a state-owned electric utility and water services company in Madagascar.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
Joseph-François Lambert, the "Duke of Imerina" (1824–1873) was a French adventurer, businessman, and diplomat who fathered the Lambert Charter.
A lamba is the traditional garment worn by men and women that live in Madagascar.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
The terms right-hand traffic (RHT) and left-hand traffic (LHT) refer to the practice, in bidirectional traffic situations, to keep to the right side or to the left side of the road, respectively.
Lemurs are a clade of strepsirrhine primates endemic to the island of Madagascar.
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.
Libertatia (also known as Libertalia) was a purported anarchist colony founded in the late 17th century in Madagascar by pirates under the leadership of Captain James Misson (last name occasionally spelled "Mission", first name occasionally "Olivier").
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of diplomatic missions of Madagascar, excluding honorary consulates.
Below is a list of Imerina monarchs.
This is a list of island countries.
This list of islands by area includes all islands in the world greater than and several other islands over, sorted in descending order by area.
Lemurs are strepsirrhine primates, all species of which are endemic to Madagascar.
This list of national parks of Madagascar includes all officially recognized protected areas as of 2015.
This is a list of Presidents of Madagascar, since the establishment of the office of President in 1959, during the Malagasy Republic.
List of Presidents of the National Assembly of Madagascar.
The Presidents of the Senate of Madagascar.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Sites are places of importance to cultural or natural heritage as described in the 1972 UNESCO World Heritage Convention.
The literature of Madagascar encompasses the oral and written literary arts of the Malagasy people.
The loi-cadre (Reform Act) was a French legal reform passed by the French National Assembly on 23 June 1956.
The London Missionary Society was a missionary society formed in England in 1795 by evangelical Anglicans and various nonconformists.
Lychee (variously spelled litchi, liechee, liche, lizhi or li zhi, or lichee) (Litchi chinensis) is the sole member of the genus Litchi in the soapberry family, Sapindaceae.
The Madagascar dry deciduous forests represent a tropical dry forest ecoregion situated in the western and northern part of Madagascar.
The Madagascar lowland forests or Madagascar humid forests are a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion found on the eastern coast of the island of Madagascar, home to a plant and animal mix that is 80 to 90% endemic, with the forests of the eastern plain being a particularly important location of this endemism.
Madagascar mangroves are a coastal ecoregion in the mangrove forest biome found on the west coast of Madagascar.
Madagascar Oil SA is an oil company operating in Madagascar.
The Madagascar Plan was a proposal by the Nazi German government to relocate the Jewish population of Europe to the island of Madagascar.
The Madagascar spiny forests (also known as the Madagascar spiny thickets) is an ecoregion in the southwest of Madagascar.
The Madagascar subhumid forests are a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion that covers most of the Central Highlands of the island of Madagascar.
The Mahafaly are an ethnic group of Madagascar that inhabit the plains of the Betioky-Ampanihy area.
Mahajanga (French: Majunga) is a city and an administrative district on the northwest coast of Madagascar.
Mahajanga is a former province of Madagascar with an area of 150,023 km².
The ariary (sign: Ar; ISO 4217 code MGA) is the currency of Madagascar.
A constitutional referendum was held in Madagascar on 17 November 2010, in which voters approved a proposal for the state's fourth Constitution.
Malagasy cuisine encompasses the many diverse culinary traditions of the Indian Ocean island of Madagascar.
Presidential and parliamentary elections were held in Madagascar on 20 December 2013, following a first round of presidential elections on 25 October.
Several species of Malagasy hippopotamus (also known as Malagasy dwarf hippopotamus or Malagasy pygmy hippopotamus or Madagascan instead of Malagasy) lived on the island of Madagascar but are now believed to be extinct.
Malagasy is an Austronesian language and the national language of Madagascar.
The Malagasy Lutheran Church (in Malagasy it is known as FLM: Fiangonana Loterana Malagasy) is one of the most important Christian churches in Madagascar, established in 1950 by the unification of 1,800 Lutheran congregations in central and southern Madagascar.
Malagasy mythology is rooted in oral history and has been transmitted by storytelling (angano "story"), notably the Andriambahoaka epic, including the Ibonia cycle.
The Malagasy (Malgache) are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the island and country of Madagascar.
Presidential elections were held in Madagascar on 16 December 2001.
The Malagasy Republic (Repoblika Malagasy, République malgache) was a state situated in Southeast Africa.
The Malagasy Uprising (Insurrection malgache) was a Malagasy nationalist rebellion against French colonial rule in Madagascar, lasting from March 1947 to December 1948.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages, with approximately 385.5 million speakers.
Marc Ravalomanana, GCSK (born 12 December 1949) is a Malagasy politician who was the President of Madagascar from 2002 to 2009.
Marco Polo (1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer, born in the Republic of Venice.
Marojejy National Park is a national park in the Sava Region of northeastern Madagascar.
Maromokotro or Maromokotra is the highest mountain on Madagascar at high.
Masoala National Park, in northeast Madagascar, is the largest of the island's protected areas.
In geology, a massif is a section of a planet's crust that is demarcated by faults or flexures.
Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
Mayotte (Mayotte,; Shimaore: Maore,; Mahori) is an insular department and region of France officially named the Department of Mayotte (French: Département de Mayotte).
Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.
Melaky is a region in northwestern Madagascar.
Menabe is a region in western Madagascar, with its capital at Morondava.
The Menalamba rebellion was a rebellion that emerged in central Madagascar in response to the French capture of the royal palace in the capital city of Antananarivo in September 1895.
The Merina Kingdom, or Kingdom of Madagascar, officially the Kingdom of Imerina (1540–1897) was a pre-colonial state off the coast of Southeast Africa that, by the 19th century, dominated most of what is now Madagascar.
The Merina people, also known as the Imerina, Antimerina or Hova, are the largest ethnic group in Madagascar.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) is a bilateral United States foreign aid agency established by the U.S. Congress in 2004, applying a new philosophy toward foreign aid.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
In Christianity, a minister is a person authorized by a church, or other religious organization, to perform functions such as teaching of beliefs; leading services such as weddings, baptisms or funerals; or otherwise providing spiritual guidance to the community.
Mogadishu (Muqdisho), known locally as Xamar or Hamar, is the capital and most populous city of Somalia.
Molecules is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal that focuses on all aspects of synthetic organic chemistry and natural product chemistry.
Monkeys are non-hominoid simians, generally possessing tails and consisting of about 260 known living species.
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
Moraingy (Malagasy) or Moringue (French) is a weaponless, bare-fisted striking style of traditional martial art that originated during the Maroseranana dynasty (1675–1896) of the Sakalava Kingdom of western coastal Madagascar.
Moramanga is a city (commune urbaine) in Madagascar.
Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.
The Mozambique Channel (Canal du Mozambique, Lakandranon'i Mozambika, Canal de Moçambique) is an arm of the Indian Ocean located between the Southeast African countries of Madagascar and Mozambique.
The music of Indonesia demonstrates its cultural diversity, the local musical creativity, as well as subsequent foreign musical influences that shaped contemporary music scenes of Indonesia.
The highly diverse and distinctive music of Madagascar has been shaped by the musical traditions of Southeast Asia, Africa, Arabia, England, France and the United States as successive waves of settlers have made the island their home.
Music of the Philippines (Musika ng Pilipinas; Música de Filipinas) include musical performance arts in the Philippines or by Filipinos composed in various genres and styles.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Parliament has two chambers.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The insect order Neuroptera, or net-winged insects, includes the lacewings, mantidflies, antlions, and their relatives.
Norbert Lala Ratsirahonana (born November 18, 1938) is a Malagasy politician.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
The Orchidaceae are a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants, with blooms that are often colourful and fragrant, commonly known as the orchid family.
Flag of the Francophonie The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), generally known as the Francophonie (La Francophonie), but also called International Organisation of La Francophonie in English language context, is an international organization representing countries and regions where French is a lingua franca or customary language, where a significant proportion of the population are francophones (French speakers), or where there is a notable affiliation with French culture.
The Organisation of African Unity (OAU; Organisation de l'unité africaine (OUA)) was established on 25 May 1963 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia with 32 signatory governments.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Madagascar: Madagascar – sovereign island nation located in the Indian Ocean off the southeastern coast of Africa.
The outrigger canoe (Ketagalan: bangka; Filipino: bangka; Indonesian: bangka; New Zealand Māori: waka ama; Cook Islands Māori: vaka; Hawaiian: waa; Tahitian and Samoan: vaokinaa; Malagasy: lakana, Proto-Austronesian *waŋkaŋ) is a type of canoe featuring one or more lateral support floats known as outriggers, which are fastened to one or both sides of the main hull.
Pachypodium is a genus of succulent spine-bearing trees and shrubs, native to Madagascar and Africa.
The Parliament of Madagascar has two chambers.
Pastoralism is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock.
Pétanque (petanca) is a sport that falls into the category of boules sports, along with Raffa, bocce, boule lyonnaise, lawn bowls and crown green bowling.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
Philibert Tsiranana (18 October 1912 – 16 April 1978) was a Malagasy politician and leader, who served as the first President of Madagascar from 1959 to 1972.
In geology and physical geography a plateau (or; plural plateaus or plateaux),is also called a high plain or a tableland, it is an area of a highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain that is raised significantly above the surrounding area, often with one or more sides with steep slopes.
Polygamy (from Late Greek πολυγαμία, polygamía, "state of marriage to many spouses") is the practice of marrying multiple spouses.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
This is a list of Prime Ministers of Madagascar, since the establishment of the office of Chief Minister in 1828, during the Merina Kingdom.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Radama I "the Great" (1793–1828) was the first Malagasy sovereign to be recognized as King of Madagascar (1810-1828) by a European state.
Radama II (September 23, 1829 – May 12, 1863) was the son and heir of Queen Ranavalona I and ruled from 1861 to 1863 over the Kingdom of Madagascar, which controlled virtually the entire island.
Raffia palms (Raphia) are a genus of about twenty species of palms native to tropical regions of Africa, and especially Madagascar, with one species (R. taedigera) also occurring in Central and South America.
A rain shadow is a dry area on the leeward side of a mountainous area (away from the wind).
Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between, and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests.
The Rainforests of the Atsinanana is a World Heritage Site that was inscribed in 2007 and consists of 13 specific areas in six national parks in the eastern part of Madagascar.
Rainilaiarivony (30 January 1828 – 17 July 1896) was a Malagasy politician who served as the Prime Minister of Madagascar from 1864 to 1895, succeeding his older brother Rainivoninahitriniony, who had held the post for thirteen years.
Rainivoninahitriniony (1824–1868), also called Raharo, was Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Madagascar between 1852 and 1864.
Ralambo was the ruler of the Kingdom of Imerina in the central Highlands region of Madagascar from 1575 to 1612.
Ranavalona I (born Rabodoandrianampoinimerina; 1778 – August 16, 1861), also known as Ramavo and Ranavalo-Manjaka I, was sovereign of the Kingdom of Madagascar from 1828 to 1861.
Ranavalona II (1829 – 13 July 1883) was Queen of Madagascar from 1868 to 1883, succeeding Queen Rasoherina, her first cousin.
Ranavalona III (November 22, 1861 – May 23, 1917) was the last sovereign of the Kingdom of Madagascar.
Ranomafana National Park is in the southeastern part of Madagascar in Haute Matsiatra and Vatovavy-Fitovinany.
Rasoherina (1814 – 1 April 1868) (also Rasoherina-Manjaka) was Queen of Madagascar from 1863 to 1868, succeeding her husband Radama II following his presumed assassination.
A ratite is any of a diverse group of flightless and mostly large and long-legged birds of the infraclass Palaeognathae.
Ravenala is a genus of flowering plants with a single species, Ravenala madagascariensis, commonly known as traveller's tree or traveller's palm, from Madagascar.
Réunion (La Réunion,; previously Île Bourbon) is an island and region of France in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and southwest of Mauritius.
Recorded history or written history is a historical narrative based on a written record or other documented communication.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
Colonel Richard Ratsimandrava (March 21, 1931 Antananarivo – February 11, 1975 Antananarivo) was President of Madagascar for six days in February 1975.
Rio Tinto Group is an Australian-British multinational and one of the world's largest metals and mining corporations.
Robert Drury (born 1687; died between 1743 and 1750) was an English sailor on the Degrave who was shipwrecked at the age of 17 on the island of Madagascar.
The rotaka was a series of farmer and student protests in Madagascar between April 1971 and May 1972 that led to the collapse of the First Republic of Madagascar under President Philibert Tsiranana.
The Rova of Antananarivo (Rovan'i Manjakamiadana) is a royal palace complex (rova) in Madagascar that served as the home of the sovereigns of the Kingdom of Imerina in the 17th and 18th centuries, as well as of the rulers of the Kingdom of Madagascar in the 19th century.
Rugby union in Madagascar is a popular team sport.
Rum is a distilled alcoholic beverage made from sugarcane byproducts, such as molasses or honeys, or directly from sugarcane juice, by a process of fermentation and distillation.
Russell Alan Mittermeier (born November 8, 1949) is a primatologist and herpetologist.
Ry Tanindrazanay malala ô! is the national anthem of Madagascar.
Saint Lawrence or Laurence (Laurentius, lit. "laurelled"; 31 December AD 225Citing St. Donato as the original source. Janice Bennett. St. Laurence and the Holy Grail: The Story of the Holy Chalice of Valencia. Littleton, Colorado: Libri de Hispania, 2002. Page 61. – 10 August 258) was one of the seven deacons of the city of Rome, Italy, under Pope Sixtus II who were martyred in the persecution of the Christians that the Roman Emperor Valerian ordered in 258.
The Sakalava are an ethnic group of Madagascar.
Salegy is a popular music genre from Madagascar.
A sampy is an amulet or idol of spiritual and political importance among numerous ethnic groups in Madagascar.
Saurashtra, also known as Sorath or Kathiawar, is a peninsular region of Gujarat, India, located on the Arabian Sea coast.
Sava is a region of northern Madagascar.
The family Scarabaeidae as currently defined consists of over 30,000 species of beetles worldwide, often called scarabs or scarab beetles.
Schistosomiasis, also known as snail fever and bilharzia, is a disease caused by parasitic flatworms called schistosomes.
Scouting or the Scout Movement is a movement that aims to support young people in their physical, mental and spiritual development, that they may play constructive roles in society, with a strong focus on the outdoors and survival skills.
The seal of Madagascar (French: Sceau de Madagascar) includes an outline map of the island at the center (together with two smaller islands nearby-the Glorioso Islands and Tromelin Island), and below it the head of a Zebu.
Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.
The Senate (Sénat) is the upper chamber of the bicameral Parliament of Madagascar.
Sherritt International is a Canadian resource company, based in Toronto, Ontario.
The Sihanaka are a Malagasy ethnic group concentrated around Lake Alaotra and the town of Ambatondrazaka in central northeastern Madagascar.
Slash-and-burn agriculture, or fire–fallow cultivation, is a farming method that involves the cutting and burning of plants in a forest or woodland to create a field called a swidden.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Sofia is a region in northern Madagascar.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
Somalis (Soomaali, صوماليون) are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa (Somali Peninsula).
Sorabe, or Sora-be, is an alphabet based on Arabic formerly used to transcribe the Malagasy language (belonging to the Malayo-Polynesian language family) and the Antemoro Malagasy dialect in particular dating from the 15th century.
South Kalimantan (Kalimantan Selatan) is a province of Indonesia.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The Southern African Development Community (SADC) is an inter-governmental organization headquartered in Gaborone, Botswana.
Strepsirrhini or Strepsirhini is a suborder of primates that includes the lemuriform primates, which consist of the lemurs of Madagascar, galagos, ("bushbabies") and pottos from Africa, and the lorises from India and southeast Asia.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
Subfossil lemurs are lemurs from Madagascar that are represented by recent (subfossil) remains dating from nearly 26,000 years ago to approximately 560 years ago (from the late Pleistocene until the Holocene).
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
In geology, a supercontinent is the assembly of most or all of Earth's continental blocks or cratons to form a single large landmass.
The Tanala are a Malagasy ethnic group that inhabit a forested inland region of south-east Madagascar near Manakara.
Tangena is a tree (Cerbera manghas), indigenous to Madagascar, that produces highly toxic nuts, which were historically used on the island of Madagascar for trials by ordeal to determine the guilt or innocence of an accused party.
Tôlanaro or Tolagnaro (Tôlan̈aro) is a city (commune urbaine) on the southeast coast of Madagascar.
Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to Asia.
Telephone numbers in Madagascar are seven digits long, the first two digits being an area code.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
The Third Republic of Madagascar (officially called the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikaray, République de Madagascar)) refers to the 18-year-long period in Malagasy history after the dissolution of the socialist regime in 1992.
Three Horses Beer (better known locally as THB) is a pale lager that has been brewed by Star Breweries of Madagascar since 1958.
Toamasina, meaning "like salt" or "salty", unofficially and in French also Tamatave, is the capital of the Atsinanana region on the east coast of Madagascar on the Indian Ocean.
The Toamasina Province is a former province of Madagascar with an area of 71,911 km².
The Toliara Province (formerly Toliary or Tuléar) is a former province of Madagascar with an area of.
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.
The trade winds are the prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds found in the tropics, within the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, in the lower section of the troposphere near the Earth's equator.
Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.
The Tsimihety are a Malagasy ethnic group who are found in the north-central region of Madagascar.
Tsimiroro is a large oil field in the onshore Morondava Basin of Madagascar found south of the Bemolanga ultra heavy oil field and south of the town of Morafenobe.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
UNESCO established its Lists of Intangible Cultural Heritage with the aim of ensuring better protection of important intangible cultural heritages worldwide and the awareness of their significance.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Stabilization Mission In Haiti (UNSTAMIH) (Mission des Nations Unies pour la stabilisation en Haïti), also known as MINUSTAH, an acronym of the French name, was a United Nations peacekeeping mission in Haiti that was in operation from 2004 to 2017.
The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is an independent agency of the United States federal government that is primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid and development assistance.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
Vakinankaratra is a region in central Madagascar.
The valiha is a tube zither from Madagascar made from a species of local bamboo; it is considered the "national instrument" of Madagascar.
Vanilla is a flavoring derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla, primarily from the Mexican species, flat-leaved vanilla (V. planifolia).
Vatovavy-Fitovinany is a region located in southeast Madagascar.
The Vazimba (Malagasy), according to popular belief, were the first inhabitants of Madagascar.
Vegetarian cuisine is based on food that meets vegetarian standards by not including meat and animal tissue products (such as gelatin or animal-derived rennet).
The veneration of the dead, including one's ancestors, is based on love and respect for the deceased.
The Vezo is the term the semi-nomadic coastal people of southern Madagascar use to refer to people that have become accustomed to live from sea fishing.
Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.
Vinblastine is a chemotherapy medication, typically used with other medications, to treat a number of types of cancer.
Vinca alkaloids are a set of anti-mitotic and anti-microtubule alkaloid agents originally derived from the periwinkle plant Catharanthus roseus (basionym Vinca rosea) and other vinca plants.
Vincristine, also known as leurocristine and marketed under the brandname Oncovin among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer. This includes acute lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, neuroblastoma, and small cell lung cancer among others. It is given intravenously. Most people experience some side effects from vincristine treatment. Commonly it causes a change in sensation, hair loss, constipation, difficulty walking, and headaches. Serious side effects may include neuropathic pain, lung damage, or low blood white cells. It will likely cause harm to the baby if given during pregnancy. It works by stopping cells from dividing properly. Vincristine was first isolated in 1961. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 1.80 and 42.60 USD per dose. It is a vinca alkaloid that can be obtained from the Madagascar periwinkle Catharanthus roseus.
Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) was founded in 1895 as the New York Zoological Society (NYZS) and currently works to conserve more than two million square miles of wild places around the world.
The composition of Madagascar's wildlife reflects the fact that the island has been isolated for about 88 million years.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Zafimaniry are a sub-group of the Betsileo ethnic group of Madagascar. They live in the forested mountains of the southern central highlands southeast of Ambositra, between the neighboring Betsileo and Tanala peoples.
Zahamena National Park is a national park of Madagascar.
A zebu (Bos primigenius indicus or Bos indicus or Bos taurus indicus), sometimes known as indicine cattle or humped cattle, is a species or subspecies of domestic cattle originating in the Indian Subcontinent.
Zither is a class of stringed instruments.
.mg is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Madagascar.
The 12th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 12 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.
The 2009 FIBA Africa Championship for Women is the 19th continental championships held by FIBA Africa.
The 2009 Malagasy political crisis began on 26 January 2009 with the political opposition movement led by Antananarivo mayor Andry Rajoelina, which sought to oust President Marc Ravalomanana from the presidency.
The 2013 FIBA Africa Under-16 Championship for Men (alternatively the Afrobasket U16) was the 3rd U-16 FIBA Africa championship, organized by FIBA Africa and played under the auspices of the Fédération Internationale de Basketball, the basketball sport governing body and qualified for the 2014 FIBA Under-17 World Championship.
The 2014 FIBA Africa Under-18 Championship was the 19th FIBA Africa Under-18 Championship, played under the rules of FIBA, the world governing body for basketball, and the FIBA Africa thereof.
The 2015 FIBA Africa Under-16 Championship for Women was the 4th FIBA Africa U16 Championship for Women, played under the rules of FIBA, the world governing body for basketball, and the FIBA Africa thereof.
An outbreak of plague in Madagascar began in August 2017 and expanded rapidly, with about two-thirds of cases transmitted person-to-person as pneumonic plague, the most dangerous form of the disease.
The 26th parallel south latitude is a circle of latitude that is 26 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The meridian 43° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 51° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
Administrative divisions of madagascar, Environmental issues in Madagascar, Etymology of Madagascar, First Republic of Madagascar, ISO 3166-1:MG, Island of the Moon, Island of the moon, Madagasgar, Madagaskar, Madegascar, Madegasgar, Madgascar, Madigascar, Natural resources of Madagascar, Repoblikan'i Madagasikara, Republic of Madagascar, République de Madagascar, Sport in Madagascar, The Republic of Madagascar.