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Rao Bahadur Sir Annepu Parasuramdas Patro KCIE (ଅନ୍ନେପୁ ପର୍ଶୁରାମଦାସ ପାତ୍ର) (1875 or 1876–1946) was an Odia politician, zamindar and education minister in the erstwhile Madras Presidency.
Diwan Bahadur Agaram Subbarayalu Reddiar (b. 15 October 1855 – d. November 1921) was a landlord, Justice Party leader and Chief Minister or Premier of Madras Presidency from 17 December 1920 to 11 July 1921.
Aaron Eli Baker (1610–1683) of Bowhay in the parish of Exminster, near Exeter, Devon, was an English colonial agent of the Honourable East India Company, who served as the first President of the Madras Presidency (1652-1655).
An advocate general is a senior officer of the law.
The Advocate-General of Madras was charged with advising the Government of the British administered Madras Presidency on legal matters.
Adyar or Adayar is a large neighbourhood in south Chennai (formerly Madras), Tamil Nadu, India.
An aerodrome (Commonwealth English) or airdrome (American English) is a location from which aircraft flight operations take place, regardless of whether they involve air cargo, passengers, or neither.
An agency of British India was an internally autonomous or semi-autonomous unit of British India whose external affairs were governed by an agent designated by the Viceroy of India.
An Agraharam or Agrahara was a grant of land and royal income from it, typically by a king or a noble family, to religious purposes, particularly to Brahmins to maintain temples in that land or a pilgrimage site and to sustain their families.
Ahobilam is a holy site in the Allagadda mandal of Kurnool district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
Air India is the flag carrier airline of India.
Alappuzha, also known as Alleppey, is the administrative headquarters of Alappuzha District of Kerala state of southern India.
Sir Alexander John Arbuthnot (11 October 1822 – 10 June 1907) was a British official and writer.
Alizarin or 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone (also known as Mordant Red 11 and Turkey Red) is an organic compound with formula that has been used throughout history as a prominent red dye, principally for dyeing textile fabrics.
All India Radio (AIR), officially known since 1956 as Ākāshvāṇī ("Voice from the Sky") is the national public radio broadcaster of India and a division of Prasar Bharati.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
Andhra Bank is a medium-sized public sector bank (PSB) of India, with a network of 2803 branches, 4 extension counters, 38 satellite offices and 3636 automated teller machines (ATMs) as of 31 Mar 2016.
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India.
The Andhra University (IAST: Āndhra Vișvakalāpariṣhat) is a public university located in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh.
Andrew Cogan was the first agent of the English East India Company to rule Madras.
The term Anglo-Indians can refer to at least two groups of people: those with mixed Indian and British ancestry, and people of British descent born or living in the Indian subcontinent.
The Anglo–Mysore Wars were a series of wars fought in over the last three decades of the 18th century between the Kingdom of Mysore on the one hand, and the British East India Company (represented chiefly by the Madras Presidency), and Maratha Confederacy and the Nizam of Hyderabad on the other.
Aniline is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2.
Annamalai University is a state university located in Annamalai Nagar, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India.
Annie Besant, née Wood (1 October 1847 – 20 September 1933) was a British socialist, theosophist, women's rights activist, writer and orator and supporter of Irish and Indian self-rule.
Anti-Brahminism or Anti-Manuvaad is the ideology of being opposed or expressing hostility towards the Brahmins, who are the priestly caste in Hinduism and traditionally the highest ranked social caste.
The Anti-Hindi imposition agitations of Tamil Nadu were a series of agitations that happened in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu (formerly Madras State and part of Madras Presidency) during both pre- and post-Independence periods.
Arbuthnot & Co was a mercantile bank, based in Madras, India.
Armagaon or Armagon was the second colony of the English East India Company in Southern India.
Arthur Oswald James Hope, 2nd Baron Rankeillour (7 May 1897 – 26 May 1958) was a British politician, soldier and administrator.
Arunthathiyar is a Scheduled Caste community found in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Bollina Munuswamy Naidu (1885 – 1935) was the Chief Minister of Madras Presidency from 27 October 1930 to 4 November 1932.
Bahman Pestonji Wadia or Bomanji Pestonji Wadia (BP Wadia, B.P. Wadia or BPW) (* 8 October 1881 in Mumbai, India; † 20 August 1958 in Bangalore, India) was an Indian theosophist and labour activist.
The Badugas are the peoples living in the Nilgiri district in Tamil Nadu, India.
Bank of Chettinad is a defunct bank that originated in the Nattukottai Chettiar community.
Bank of Madurai was established in 1943 by Karumuttu Thiagarajan Chettiar.
Bantam Presidency was a presidency established by the British East India Company and based at the Company factory at Bantam in Java.
The Battle of Manila (Filipino: Labanan sa Maynila Batalla de Manila) was fought during the Seven Years' War, from 24 September 1762 to 6 October 1762, between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Spain in and around Manila, the capital of the Philippines, a Spanish colony at that time.
Bellary, officially Ballari, in the eponymous Bellary district, is a major city in the state of Karnataka, India.
Bhadradri Kothagudem district is a district in the eastern region of the Indian state of Telangana.
Bharatanatyam (Tamil: "பரதநாட்டியம்"), is a major genre of Indian classical dance that originated in Tamil Nadu.
Binny and Co is a shipping, textile, banking and insurance firm based in the city of Chennai, India.
Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning, known as a peppercorn.
The Bombay Presidency, also known as Bombay and Sind from 1843 to 1936 and the Bombay Province, was an administrative subdivision (presidency) of British India.
In Hinduism, Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.P. T. Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge,, page 426 and Conclusion chapter part XII In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists.For dualism school of Hinduism, see: Francis X. Clooney (2010), Hindu God, Christian God: How Reason Helps Break Down the Boundaries between Religions, Oxford University Press,, pages 51–58, 111–115;For monist school of Hinduism, see: B. Martinez-Bedard (2006), Types of Causes in Aristotle and Sankara, Thesis – Department of Religious Studies (Advisors: Kathryn McClymond and Sandra Dwyer), Georgia State University, pages 18–35 It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe. Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world". Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads.Stephen Philips (1998), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Brahman to Derrida (Editor; Edward Craig), Routledge,, pages 1–4 The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality. Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Soul, Self), personal, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school. In dualistic schools of Hinduism such as the theistic Dvaita Vedanta, Brahman is different from Atman (soul) in each being.Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge,, pages 124–127 In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is identical to the Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.Arvind Sharma (2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass,, pages 19–40, 53–58, 79–86.
Brahmin (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मण) is a varna (class) in Hinduism specialising as priests, teachers (acharya) and protectors of sacred learning across generations.
Brihadishvara Temple, also called Rajarajesvaram or Peruvudaiyar Kovil, is a Hindu temple dedicated to Shiva located in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India.
Buckingham and Carnatic Mills, popularly known as B & C Mills, were textile mills run by Binny and Co. in the city of Chennai, India.
The Buckingham Canal is a long fresh water navigation canal, running parallel to the Coromandel Coast of South India from Kakinada in the East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh to Villupuram District in Tamil Nadu.
Sachivottama Sir Chetpat Pattabhiraman Ramaswami Iyer, KCSI, KCIE (12 November 1879 – 26 September 1966), also called "C.
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari (10 December 1878 – 25 December 1972) informally called Rajaji or C.R., was an Indian politician, independence activist, lawyer, writer and statesman.
Sir Chettur Sankaran Nair, CIE (11 July 1857 – 24 April 1934) was the President of the Indian National Congress in 1897 held at Amravati.
Cirupitty Wyravanathar Thamotharampillai (ி.; 12 September 1832 - 1 January 1901)), sometimes referred to by the initials as C. Y., devoted his energies to the work of editing and publishing some of the oldest works of classical Tamil poetry and grammar. Pillai, along with his contemporaries such as U. V. Swaminatha Iyer, was responsible for collecting and cataloguing numerous old Sangam manuscripts and preparing them into compilations and modern form. Both Iyer and Pillai printed and published Tholkappiyam, Nachinarkiniyar urai (1895), Tholkappiyam Senavariyar urai, (1868), Manimekalai (1898), Cilappatikaram (1889), Pattupattu (1889), and Purananuru (1894), all with scholarly commentaries. Between them, they published more 100 works in all, including minor poems.
Canara Bank is one of the largest public sector banks owned by the Government of India.
Carnatic music, Karnāṭaka saṃgīta or Karnāṭaka saṅgītam is a system of music commonly associated with southern India, including the modern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu, as well as Sri Lanka.
The Carnatic region is the region of peninsular South India lying between the Eastern Ghats and the Western Ghats, in the modern Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and southern Andhra Pradesh.
The Carnatic Wars (also spelled Karnatic Wars) were a series of military conflicts in the middle of the 18th century in India.
Maharaja Chamarajendra Wadiyar X (Chamaraja Wadiyar X; 22 February 1863 – 28 December 1894) was the twenty-third maharaja of the Kingdom of Mysore, between 1868 and 1894.
Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis KG, PC (31 December 1738 – 5 October 1805), styled Viscount Brome between 1753 and 1762 and known as The Earl Cornwallis between 1762 and 1792, was a British Army general and official.
Chennai (formerly known as Madras or) is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Chennai Central, erstwhile Madras Central, is the main railway terminus in the city of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.It is one of the most important hubs in the South.
Chennai Egmore (formerly known as Madras Egmore) is a railway station in Chennai, India.
The cheroot is a cylindrical cigar with both ends clipped during manufacture.
Chettinad is a region located mainly in the Sivaganga district of Pandya Nadu and has a small portion extending into the Pudukottai District of Chola Nadu in Tamil Nadu, India.
The Chief Justice is the presiding member of a supreme court in any of many countries with a justice system based on English common law, such as the Supreme Court of Bangladesh, the Supreme Court of Canada, the Supreme Court of Singapore, the Court of Final Appeal of Hong Kong, the Supreme Court of Japan, the Supreme Court of India, the Supreme Court of Pakistan, the Supreme Court of Nigeria, the Supreme Court of Nepal, the Constitutional Court of South Africa, the Supreme Court of Ireland, the Supreme Court of New Zealand, the High Court of Australia, the Supreme Court of the United States, and provincial or state supreme courts.
The chili pepper (also chile pepper, chilli pepper, or simply chilli) from Nahuatl chīlli) is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. They are widely used in many cuisines to add spiciness to dishes. The substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and related compounds known as capsaicinoids. Chili peppers originated in Mexico. After the Columbian Exchange, many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, used for both food and traditional medicine. Worldwide in 2014, 32.3 million tonnes of green chili peppers and 3.8 million tonnes of dried chili peppers were produced. China is the world's largest producer of green chillies, providing half of the global total.
Chingleput district was a district in the Madras Presidency of British India.
The Chingleput Ryots' Case was a prominent trial which took place in the then Chingleput District of the Madras Presidency in India between 1881 and 1883.
Sree Padmanbhadasa Sree Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma (7 November 1912 – 20 July 1991), popularly known as Sree Chithira Thirunal, was the last ruling Maharaja of the Princely State of Travancore, in southern India until 1949 and later the Titular Maharajah of Travancore until 1991.
The City Union Bank Limited is an Indian bank.
Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works such as roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewerage systems, pipelines, and railways.
Clan Arbuthnott is a Lowland Scottish clan.
Coastal Andhra (Telugu: తీర ఆంధ్ర), is a region in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India.
A cockfight is a blood sport between two cocks, or gamecocks, held in a ring called a cockpit.
Coimbatore (Tamil: கோயம்புத்தூர்), also known as Kovai, is a major city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Coimbatore district was one of the districts of the erstwhile Madras Presidency of British India.
The College of Engineering, Guindy (CEG) is a public engineering college in Chennai, India and is India's oldest technical institution, founded in 1794.
Colombo (translit,; translit) is the commercial capital and largest city of Sri Lanka.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
The Coromandel Coast is the southeastern coast region of the Indian subcontinent, bounded by the Utkal Plains to the north, the Bay of Bengal to the east, the Kaveri delta to the south, and the Eastern Ghats to the west, extending over an area of about 22,800 square kilometres.
Corporation Bank is a public-sector banking company headquartered in Mangalore, India.
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit).
Crown colony, dependent territory and royal colony are terms used to describe the administration of United Kingdom overseas territories that are controlled by the British Government.
Custard apple is a common name for a fruit, and the tree which bears it, Annona reticulata. Custard apple may also refer to similar fruits produced by related trees: रामफल Ramphal Custard-apple - India.
Cuttack is the former capital and the second largest city in the eastern Indian state of Odisha.
Dakshina Kannada is a district in the state of Karnataka in India.
Dalit, meaning "broken/scattered" in Sanskrit and Hindi, is a term mostly used for the castes in India that have been subjected to untouchability.
In South and parts of Western India, a devadasi (deva (god)) or jogini is a girl "dedicated" to worship and service of a deity or a temple for the rest of her life.
A diarchy (from Greek δι-, di-, "double", and -αρχία, -arkhía, "ruled").
A District Collector, often abbreviated to Collector, is an Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer in charge of revenue collection and administration of a district in India.
A dolmen is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of two or more vertical megaliths supporting a large flat horizontal capstone or "table".
Dravidar Kazhagam or Dravida Kazhagam (திராவிடர் கழகம்.) is one of the first Dravidian parties in India.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
Edward Harrison (3 December 1674 – 28 November 1732) was a British official who served as the President of Madras from 11 July 1711 to 8 January 1717.
Edward Law, 1st Earl of Ellenborough, (8 September 1790 – 22 December 1871) was a British Tory politician.
Eggplant (Solanum melongena) or aubergine is a species of nightshade grown for its edible fruit.
East India Distilleries (EID) Parry Limited is a public company headquartered in Chennai, South India that has been in business for more than 225 years.
Eleusine coracana, or finger millet, is an annual herbaceous plant widely grown as a cereal crop in the arid and semiarid areas in Africa and Asia.
Elihu Yale (5 April 1649 – 8 July 1721) was a British merchant, slave trader, President of the East India Company settlement in Fort St. George, at Madras, and a benefactor of the Collegiate School in the Colony of Connecticut, which in 1718 was renamed Yale College in his honor.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.
The Ezhavas are a community with origins in the region of India presently known as Kerala.
"Factory" (from Latin facere, meaning "to do"; feitoria, factorij, factorerie, comptoir) was the common name during the medieval and early modern eras for an entrepôt – which was essentially an early form of free-trade zone or transshipment point.
Fort St David, now in ruins, was a British fort near the town of Cuddalore, a hundred miles south of Chennai on the Coromandel Coast of India.
Fort St George (or historically, White Town) is the first English (later British) fortress in India, founded in 1644 at the coastal city of Madras, the modern city of Chennai.
The Fourth Anglo–Mysore War was a conflict in South India between the Kingdom of Mysore against the British East India Company and the Hyderabad Deccan in 1798–99.
Francis Day (1605–1673) was an English colonial administrator, associated with the East India Company.
French India, formally the Établissements français dans l'Inde ("French establishments in India"), was a French colony comprising geographically separate enclaves on the Indian subcontinent.
Ganapathy Dikshitar Subramania Iyer (கணபதி தீக்ஷிதர் சுப்பிரமணிய ஐயர்) (19 January 1855 – 18 April 1916) was a leading Indian journalist, social reformer and freedom fighter who founded 'The Hindu' newspaper on 20 September 1878.
Gajapati is a district of Odisha, India.
Ganjam is a town and a notified area council in Ganjam district in the state of Odisha, India.
Ganjam district is a district in the Indian state of Odisha.
Ganjam Hill Tracts Agency was an agency in the Ganjam district of the erstwhile Madras Presidency, British India.
Gazulu Lakshminarasu Chetty CSI (1806–1868) was an Indian merchant, Indian independence activist and political activist who founded the Madras Native Association and the first Indian-owned newspaper in Madras, The Crescent.
George Joachim Goschen, 2nd Viscount Goschen (15 October 1866 – 24 July 1952) was a British politician who served as Member of Parliament for East Grinstead from 1895 to 1906 and as Governor of Madras from 1924 to 1929.
George Francis Robert Harris, 3rd Baron Harris (14 August 1810 – 23 November 1872), was a British peer, Liberal politician and colonial administrator.
George Town is a neighbourhood in Chennai city (formerly Madras), Tamil Nadu, India.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a flowering plant whose rhizome, ginger root or simply ginger, is widely used as a spice or a folk medicine.
Golkonda, also known as Golconda, Gol konda ("Round shaped hill"), or Golla konda, (Shepherd's Hill) is a citadel and fort in Southern India and was the capital of the medieval sultanate of the Qutb Shahi dynasty (c.1518–1687), is situated west of Hyderabad.
The Government of India Act 1919 (9 & 10 Geo. 5 c. 101) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Government of India Act,1935 was originally passed in August 1935 (25 & 26 Geo. 5 c. 42), and is said to be the longest Act (British) of Parliament ever enacted by that time.
The Governor-General of India (or, from 1858 to 1947, officially the Viceroy and Governor-General of India, commonly shortened to Viceroy of India) was originally the head of the British administration in India and, later, after Indian independence in 1947, the representative of the Indian head of state.
The Great Famine of 1876–78 (also the Southern India famine of 1876–78 or the Madras famine of 1877) was a famine in India under the British Raj.
Guizotia abyssinica is an erect, stout, branched annual herb, grown for its edible oil and seed.
Guntur; is a city within the Andhra Pradesh Capital Region.
Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (Еле́на Петро́вна Блава́тская, Yelena Petrovna Blavatskaya; 8 May 1891) was a Russian occultist, philosopher, and author who co-founded the Theosophical Society in 1875.
Colonel Henry Steel Olcott (2 August 1832 – 17 February 1907) was an American military officer, journalist, lawyer and the co-founder and first President of the Theosophical Society.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
A Hindu temple is a symbolic house, seat and body of god.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
The region of Tamil Nadu or Tamilakam, in the southeast of modern India, shows evidence of having had continuous human habitation from 15,000 BCE to 10,000 BCE.
Hockey is a sport in which two teams play against each other by trying to maneuver a ball or a puck into the opponent's goal using a hockey stick.
Hogenakkal is a waterfall in South India on the Kaveri river in the Dharmapuri district of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Holeya are a scheduled caste of India, mainly belonging to present day Karnataka State, By Subodh Kapoor, Page 5504.
The Home Rule League (1873–1882), sometimes called the Home Rule Party or the Home Rule Confederation, was a political party which campaigned for home rule for Ireland within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, until it was replaced by the Irish Parliamentary Party.
Hyderabad State was an Indian princely state located in the south-central region of India with its capital at the city of Hyderabad.
Indian Bank is an Indian state-owned financial services company established in 1907 and headquartered in Chennai, India.
The Indian Councils Act 1861 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that transformed the Viceroy of India's executive council into a cabinet run on the portfolio system.
The Indian Councils Act 1892 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that authorized an increase in the size of the various legislative councils in British India.
The (9 Edw. 7 c. 4), commonly known as the Morley-Minto Reforms (or as the Minto-Morley Reforms), was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that brought about a limited increase in the involvement of Indians in the governance of British India.
The Indian famine of 1896–1897 was a famine that began in Bundelkhand, India, early in 1896 and spread to many parts of the country, including the United Provinces, the Central Provinces and Berar, Bihar, parts of the Bombay and Madras presidencies, and the Hissar district of the Punjab; in addition, the princely states of Rajputana, Central India Agency, and Hyderabad were affected by the famine.
The Indian independence movement encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule (1757–1857) and the British Indian Empire (1857–1947) in the Indian subcontinent.
The Indian National Congress (INC, often called Congress Party) is a broadly based political party in India.
Indian Overseas Bank (IOB) is a major public sector bank based in Chennai (Madras), with about 3400 domestic branches, including 1150 branches in Tamil Nadu, 3 extension counters, and eight branches and offices overseas as of 31 October 2017.
The Indian Penal Code (IPC) is the main criminal code of India.
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major uprising in India between 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.
ING Vysya Bank (Kannada: ಐ.ಎನ್.ಜಿ ವೈಶ್ಯ ಬ್ಯಾಂಕ್ ಲಿಮಿಟೆಡ್) was a privately owned Indian multinational bank based in Bangalore, with retail, wholesale, and private banking platforms formed from the 2002 purchase of an equity stake in Vysya Bank by the Dutch ING Group.
The invasion of Java in 1811 was a successful British amphibious operation against the Dutch East Indian island of Java that took place between August and September 1811 during the Napoleonic Wars.
An irrigation tank or tank is an artificial reservoir of any size.
Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhoy Tata (29 July 1904 – 29 November 1993) was a French-born Indian aviator, entrepreneur, chairman of Tata Group and the shareholder of Tata Sons.
The jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), also known as jack tree, fenne, jakfruit, or sometimes simply jack or jak, is a species of tree in the fig, mulberry, and breadfruit family (Moraceae) native to southwest India.
Mirza Nur-ud-din Beig Mohammad Khan Salim مرزا نور الدین محمد خان سلیم, known by his imperial name (جہانگیر) Jahangir (31 August 1569 – 28 October 1627), was the fourth Mughal Emperor who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627.
Jallikattu (or sallikkattu), also known as eru thazhuvuthal and manju virattu, is a traditional spectacle in which a Bos indicus bull, such as the Pulikulam or Kangayam breeds, is released into a crowd of people, and multiple human participants attempt to grab the large hump on the bull's back with both arms and hang on to it while the bull attempts to escape.
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.
Jayashankar Bhupalapally district is a district in the Indian state of Telangana.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
A joint-stock company is a business entity in which shares of the company's stock can be bought and sold by shareholders.
Joseph Marquis Dupleix (23 January 1697 – 10 November 1763) was Governor-General of French India and rival of Robert Clive.
The Justice Party, officially the South Indian Liberal Federation, was a political party in the Madras Presidency of British India.
Kumaraswami Kamaraj (15 July 1903, The Hindu, 8 July 2009 –2 October 1975, hinduonnet.com. 15–28 September 2001), was a leader of the Indian National Congress (INC), widely acknowledged as the "Kingmaker" in Indian politics during the 1960s.
Diwan Bahadur Kadambi Rangachari (1868–1934) was an Indian ethnologist who served as Assistant Superintendent of the Madras museum.
The Kalabhra dynasty (களப்பிரர் Kalappirar) ruled over the entire ancient Tamil country between the 3rd and the 7th century in an era of South Indian history called the Kalabhra interregnum.
Kalki is a Tamil magazine published from Chennai, Tamil Nadu.
The Kanara (also known as Canara, Karavali and Coastal Karnataka) region of Karnataka, comprises three coastal districts, namely Dakshina Kannada and Udupi district (South Canara) and Uttara Kannada (North Canara).
Kanchipuram also known as Kānchi is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu in Tondaimandalam region, from Chennaithe capital of Tamil Nadu.
Rao Bahadur Kandukuri Veeresalingam Pantulu (Telugu: కందుకూరి వీరేశలింగం పంతులు) (16 April 1848 27 May 1919) was a social reformer, writer of Andhra Pradesh.
Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India, mainly in the state of Karnataka, and by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Kerala, Goa and abroad.
Kapu refers to a social grouping of agriculturists found primarily in the southern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana (the Telugu-speaking states).
Karaikudi is a Greater municipality in Sivaganga district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.It was the 20th largest urban agglomeration of Tamilnadu.It is part of the area commonly referred to as "Chettinad" and has been declared a heritage town by the Government of Tamil Nadu, on account of the palatial houses built with limestone called karai veedu.
Karnataka also known Kannada Nadu is a state in the south western region of India.
The Karnataka Bank Limited is a scheduled commercial banking institution based in Mangaluru in Karnataka, India.
Karur Vysya Bank (Tamil) is an Indian old private-sector bank, headquartered in Karur in Tamil Nadu.
Kerala is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast.
Khonds (also spelled Kondha, Kandha, Khondho etc.) are a Dravidian-speaking tribal people of India.
Kingdom of Cochin (also known as Perumpadappu Swaroopam, Mada-rajyam, or Kuru Swaroopam; Kocci or Perumpaṭappu) was a late medieval Hindu kingdom and later princely state on the Malabar Coast, South India.
The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom in southern India, traditionally believed to have been founded in 1399 in the vicinity of the modern city of Mysore.
Kodagu is an administrative district in Karnataka, India.
Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
Kollam or Quilon (Coulão), formerly Desinganadu, is an old seaport and city on the Laccadive Sea coast of the Indian state of Kerala.
Koraput is a district of Odisha, India, and known for rich and diverse types of mineral deposits.
Kotas, also Kothar or Kov by self-designation, are an ethnic group who are indigenous to the Nilgiris mountain range in Tamil Nadu, India.
Kozhikode, or Calicut, is a city in Kerala, India on the Malabar Coast.
Maharaja Krishnaraja Wadiyar III (Sriman Rajadhiraja Raja Parameshvara Praudha-pratapa Apratima-vira Narapati Birud-antembara-ganda Maharaja Sir Krishnaraja Wadiyar III Bahadur; ಮುಮ್ಮಡಿ ಕೃಷ್ಣರಾಜ ಒಡೆಯರ್; 14 July 1794 – 27 March 1868) was the twenty-second maharaja of the Kingdom of Mysore.
Kumbakonam, also spelt as Coombaconum or Combaconum in the records of British India, is a town and a special grade municipality in the Thanjavur district in the southeast Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
A lakh (abbreviated L; sometimes written Lac or Lacs) is a unit in the Indian numbering system equal to one hundred thousand (100,000; scientific notation: 105).
Lakshadweep (Lakshadīb), formerly known as the Laccadive, Minicoy, and Aminidivi Islands, is a group of islands in the Laccadive Sea, off the southwestern coast of India.
A lascar was a sailor or militiaman from the Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, the Arab world, and other territories located to the east of the Cape of Good Hope, who were employed on European ships from the 16th century until the middle of the 20th century.
A lime (from French lime, from Arabic līma, from Persian līmū, "lemon") is a hybrid citrus fruit, which is typically round, lime green, in diameter, and contains acidic juice vesicles.
Lingayatism is a Shaivite religious tradition in India.
This is a list of the Governors, Agents, and Presidents of colonial Madras, initially of the English East India Company, up to the end of British colonial rule in 1947.
The litter is a class of wheelless vehicles, a type of human-powered transport, for the transport of persons.
Loyola College, Chennai is an autonomous Jesuit college of the University of Madras.
Mayavaram Krishnamurthy Thyagaraja Bhagavathar (1 March 1910 – 1 November 1959), also called M.K.T., was an Indian actor, producer and Carnatic music singer.
Machilipatnam, also known as Masulipatnam and Bandar, is a city in Krishna district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
Madiga (also known as Maadiga, Maadara, Adi Jambava, Maatangi, Makkalu, Madiga and Madigaru) are a Dalit artisan group.
The Madras Army was the army of the Presidency of Madras, one of the three presidencies of British India within the British Empire.
The Madras Christian College (MCC) is a liberal arts and sciences college based in Madras (Chennai), India.
The Madras High Court is the high court of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
The Madras Institute of Technology (MIT) is an engineering institute located in Chromepet, Chennai (Madras), India.
Madras Mahajana Sabha was an Indian nationalist organisation based in the Madras Presidency.
The Madras Medical College is an educational institution located in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
The First legislative assembly election for the Madras Presidency was held in February 1937, as part of the nationwide provincial elections in British India.
The second legislative assembly election for the Madras Presidency after the establishment of a bicameral legislature by the Government of India Act of 1935 was held in 1946.
The Madras Presidency Matches were annual first-class cricket matches played in Madras (now Chennai) from the 1915–16 season to 1951–52 between the cricket teams of Indians and the Europeans (i.e., Europeans who were living in India).
Madras State was a state in the Republic of India.
The Madras States Agency was a colonial agency for the indirect rule of princely states associated with British India.
The Madras Stock Exchange (MSE) is a stock exchange in Chennai, India.
Madurai is one of the major cities in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Malabar District was an administrative district of Madras Presidency in British India and independent India's Madras State.
In 1896, the government of Madras passed the Malabar Marriage Act in response to the recommendations of the Malabar Marriage Commission of 1891.
Malabar region refers to the historic and geographic area of southwest India covering the state of Kerala's present day Kasaragod, Kannur, Kozhikode, Wayanad, Malappuram and Palakkad Districts.
Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken across the Indian state of Kerala by the Malayali people and it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India.
Malik Kafur (died 1316), also known as Taj al-Din Izz al-Dawla, was a prominent eunuch slave-general of the Delhi Sultanate ruler Alauddin Khalji.
Malkangiri is a town and a Municipality in Malkangiri district in the Indian state of Odisha.
Mandapam is a panchayat town in Ramanathapuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Mangalore, officially known as Mangaluru, is the chief port city of the Indian state of Karnataka.
Mangalorean Catholics (Konkani: Kodialchein Katholik) are an ethno-religious community of Catholics following the Latin Rite from the Mangalore Diocese (erstwhile South Canara district) on the southwestern coast of Karnataka, India.
The Maratha (IAST:Marāṭhā; archaically transliterated as Marhatta or Mahratta) is a group of castes in India found predominantly in the state of Maharashtra.
Marumakkathayam was a system of matrilineal inheritance prevalent in what is now Kerala, India.
A matha (मठ, IAST) or mutt is a Sanskrit word that means "cloister, institute or college", and it also refers to a monastery in Hinduism.
Mathrubhumi is a Malayalam newspaper that is published from Kerala, India.
Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
Meenakshi Temple, also referred to as Meenakshi Amman or Minakshi-Sundareshwara Temple, is a historic Hindu temple located on the southern bank of the Vaigai River in the temple city of Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.
Mettupalayam is a taluk of Coimbatore Rural district, located to the north of the city of Coimbatore on the way to Ooty.
The Mettur Dam is one of the largest dams in India and the largest in Tamilnadu located across the river Cauvery where it enters the plains.
Millets (/ˈmɪlɪts/) are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food.
The Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms or more briefly known as Mont-Ford Reforms were reforms introduced by the British colonial government in India to introduce self-governing institutions gradually to India.
A motion of no confidence (alternatively vote of no confidence, no-confidence motion, or (unsuccessful) confidence motion) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental.
The Mughal emperors, from the early 16th century to the early 18th century, built and ruled the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent, mainly corresponding to the modern countries of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh.
Mysore, officially Mysuru, is the third most populous city in the state of Karnataka, India.
Nabarangpur District, also known as Nabarangapur District and Nawarangpur District, is a district of Odisha, India.
The Nagarathar (also known as Nattukkottai Chettiar) is a Tamil community that follows the belief system of Shaivism.
Nagore is a town in the Nagapattinam District, Tamil Nadu, India.
The Nair, also known as Nayar, are a group of Indian castes, described by anthropologist Kathleen Gough as "not a unitary group but a named category of castes".
The Nambudiri, also transliterated Nambūdiri, Namboodiri, Namboothiri, and Nampūtiri, are a Malayali Brahmin caste, native to Kerala.
Nawab (Eastern Nagari: নবাব/নওয়াব, Devanagari: नवाब/नबाब, Perso-Arab: نواب) also spelt Nawaab, Navaab, Navab, Nowab The title nawab was also awarded as a personal distinction by the paramount power, similarly to a British peerage, to persons and families who never ruled a princely state.
Nevill Vintcent, O.B.E., D.F.C. (1902–1942) was a South African aviator and airline founder.
The Nilgiri Mountain Railway (NMR) is a railway in Tamil Nadu, India, built by the British in 1908.
The Nizam of Hyderabad (Nizam-ul-Mulk, also known as Asaf Jah) was a monarch of the Hyderabad State, now divided into Telangana state, Hyderabad-Karnataka region of Karnataka and Marathwada region of Maharashtra.
Omandur Ramasamy Reddy (1895 – 1970) was an Indian freedom-fighter and politician of the Indian National Congress.
Odia (ଓଡ଼ିଆ) (formerly romanized as Oriya) is a language spoken by 4.2% of India's population.
Odisha (formerly Orissa) is one of the 29 states of India, located in eastern India.
Okra or okro, known in many English-speaking countries as ladies' fingers or ochro, is a flowering plant in the mallow family.
Udagamandalam (also known as Ootacamund), and abbreviated as Udhagai or Ooty, (is a town and municipality in Tamil Nadu, India. It is located 86 km north of Coimbatore and 128 km south of Mysore and is the capital of the Nilgiris district. It is a popular hill station located in the Nilgiri Hills. Originally occupied by the Toda people, the area came under the rule of the East India Company at the end of the 18th century. The economy is based on tourism and agriculture, along with the manufacture of medicines and photographic film. The town is connected by the Nilgiri ghat roads and Nilgiri Mountain Railway. Its natural environment attracts tourists and it is a popular summer destination. In 2011, the town had a population of 88,430.
Otteri, is a developed residential area in Central Chennai, a metropolitan city in Tamil Nadu, India.
Paramasivan Subbarayan (11 September 1889 – 6 October 1962) was an Indian politician, freedom fighter and diplomat and was the Chief Minister of Madras Presidency, India's ambassador to Indonesia and Union Minister of Transport and Communications in Jawaharlal Nehru's government.
Pachaiyappa's College also fondly known as Greendad's college among students is one of the oldest educational institutions in Chennai, in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Padmanabhaswamy Temple is located in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.
Paliath Achan or Paliyath Achan is the name given to the oldest male member of the Paliam family, a Nair Menon chieftain family from the Indian state of Kerala that figured prominently in the history of the region.
The Pallar (also known as Mallar, Pallan and Devendrakula Vellalar) is a caste from the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka.
The Pallava dynasty was a South Indian dynasty that existed from 275 CE to 897 CE, ruling a portion of southern India.
Pamban Bridge is a railway bridge which connects the town of Rameswaram on Pamban Island to mainland India.
Pamban Island (பாம்பன் தீவு Pāmpan Island), also known as Rameswaram Island, is an island located between peninsular India and Sri Lanka.
Raja Sir Panaganti Ramarayaningar KCIE (9 July 1866 – 16 December 1928), also known as the Raja of Panagal, was a zamindar of Kalahasti, a Justice Party leader and the Chief Minister or Premier of Madras Presidency from 11 July 1921 to 3 December 1926.
The Pandyan dynasty was an ancient Tamil dynasty, one of the three Tamil dynasties, the other two being the Chola and the Chera.
The papaya (from Carib via Spanish), papaw, or pawpaw is the plant Carica papaya, one of the 22 accepted species in the genus Carica of the family Caricaceae.
Paraiyar or Parayar (formerly anglicised as Pariah and Paree) is a caste group found in Sri Lanka and the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Parava or Paravar, also known as Parathavar, Paradavar, Bharathar, Bharathakula PandyarIyengar p. 139 or Bharathakula KshathriyarSubrahmanian p. 151 is a community in southern India that in ancient times were coastal inhabitants, seafarers, maritime traders and subordinate rulers to Pandyas, as well as according to at least one modern writer, described as "ferocious soldiers".
The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of Union by both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland.
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.
Erode Venkatappa Ramasamy (17 September 1879 – 24 December 1973), was commonly known as Periyar also referred to as Thanthai Periyar, was an Indian social activist, and politician who started the Self-Respect Movement and Dravidar Kazhagam.
The East India Company Act 1784, also known as Pitt's India Act, was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain intended to address the shortcomings of the Regulating Act of 1773 by bringing the East India Company's rule in India under the control of the British Government.
Polygar (also spelled as Palegara, Palaiyakkarar, Poligar, Palegaadu, Palegar, or Polegar) was the feudal title for a class of territorial administrative and military governors appointed by the Nayaka rulers of South India (notably Vijayanagara Empire, Madurai Nayakas and the Kakatiya dynasty) during 16th – 18th centuries.
The Polygar Wars or Palaiyakkarar Wars were wars fought between the Polygars (Palaiyakkarars) of the former Tirunelveli Kingdom in Tamil Nadu, India and the British East India Company forces between March 1799 to May 1802 or July 1805.
The pomelo, Citrus maxima or Citrus grandis, is a natural (non-hybrid) citrus fruit, similar in appearance to a large grapefruit, native to South and Southeast Asia.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
Presidency College is an arts, law and science college in the city of Chennai in Tamil Nadu, India.
A princely state, also called native state (legally, under the British) or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a vassal state under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj.
The Pulayar (also Pulaya, Pulayas, Cherumar, Cheramar and Cheraman) are an untouchable caste in Hinduism, forming one of the main social groups in modern-day Kerala and Karnataka as well as in historical Tamil Nadu or Tamilakam.
Pardah or pardah is the term used primarily in South Asia, (from پرده, meaning "curtain") to describe in the South Asian context, the global religious and social practice of female seclusion that is associated with Muslim communities.
The Quit India Movement or the India August Movement, was a movement launched at the Bombay session of the All-India Congress Committee by Mahatma Gandhi on 8 August 1942, during World War II, demanding an end to British Rule of India.
Rangaswamy Nataraja Mudaliar (1885–1972), popularly known as the father of Tamil cinema, was a pioneer in the production of silent films.
Raja Sri Ravu Svetachalapati Sir Ramakrishna Ranga Rao KCIE (20 February 1901 – 10 March 1978) was an Indian politician and zamindar who served as the Chief Minister of Madras Presidency from 5 November 1932 to 4 April 1936 and 24 August 1936 to 1 April 1937.
The Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple or Thiruvarangam is a Hindu temple dedicated to Ranganatha, a reclining form of the Hindu deity Vishnu, located in Srirangam, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu, India.
Rayagada is a mineral-rich district in the southern part of the state of Odisha, in India.
Rayalaseema is a geographic region in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It comprises four southern districts of the state namely, Anantapur, Chittoor, Kadapa and Kurnool. census of India, the region with four districts had a population of 15,184,908 and covers an area of.
Richard Colley Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley (20 June 1760 – 26 September 1842) was an Irish and British politician and colonial administrator.
Ricinus communis, the castor bean or castor oil plant, is a species of perennial flowering plant in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.
The Roman Catholic Brahmin, also referred to as Bamonn (Devanagari: बामण, Kannada: ಬಾಮಣು; IAST: Bāmaṇ; pronounced) in Konkani, is a caste among the Goan and Mangalorean Catholics, of modern-day descendants of Konkani Brahmin, predominantly Goud Saraswat Brahmin converts to Roman Catholicism.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
Royapuram is a locality in the northern part of Chennai City, Tamil Nadu, India, most known for the Royapuram Railway Station, the first railway station of south India opened in 1856, and is today the oldest surviving railway station of the Indian subcontinent The St. Peter's Church, Royapuram is one of the most prominent and oldest churches and landmark in the region.
Ryot (alternatives: raiyat, rait or ravat) was a general economic term used throughout India for peasant cultivators but with variations in different provinces.
Satappa Ramanatha Muttaiya Annamalai Chettiar KCSI (30 September 1881 – 15 June 1948) was an Indian industrialist, banker, educationist and philanthropist from Tamil Nadu.
Sir Subbier Subramania Iyer KCIE (சுப்பையர் சுப்பிரமணிய ஐயர்) (1 October 1842 – 5 December 1924) was an Indian lawyer, jurist and freedom fighter who, along with Annie Besant, founded the Home Rule Movement.
Saidapet is a neighbourhood in Chennai (Madras), India.
The Salem riots of 1882 is a term used to refer to serious Hindu-Muslim disturbances which took place in the city of Salem, Tamil Nadu in the then Madras Presidency in August 1882.
Salem is a city in Salem district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Sambandham (literally "relationship") was a marital system primarily followed by the Nairs and Ambalavasi in what is the present-day Indian state of Kerala.
The Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803–1805) was the second conflict between the British East India Company and the Maratha Empire in India.
The Self-Respect Movement is a movement with the aim of achieving a society where backward castes have equal human rights, and encouraging backward castes to have self-respect in the context of a caste-based society that considered them to be a lower end of the hierarchy.
Shaivism (Śaivam) (Devanagari: शैव संप्रदाय) (Bengali: শৈব) (Tamil: சைவம்) (Telugu: శైవ సాంప్రదాయం) (Kannada:ಶೈವ ಸಂಪ್ರದಾಯ) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism that reveres Shiva as the Supreme Being.
Raja Shivaji (Marathi: तंजावरचे शिवाजी) (fl. 17 March 1832 – 29 October 1855) of the Bhonsle dynasty of Thanjavur in India, was the son of Raja Serfoji II and ruled the fortress of Thanjavur and its surroundings from 1832 to 1855.
The Siege of Lucknow (Hindi: लखनऊ की घेराबंदी) was the prolonged defence of the Residency within the city of Lucknow during the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
General Sir Archibald Campbell, 1st Baronet (12 March 1769 – 6 October 1843) was a Scottish soldier who served as an officer in the British Army.
Major-general Sir Thomas Munro, 1st Baronet KCB (27 May 1761 – 6 July 1827) was a Scottish soldier and colonial administrator.
William Hawkins (fl. c. 1600) was a representative of the English East India Company notable for being the commander of Hector, the first company ship to anchor at Surat in India on 24 August 1608.
Slavery in the Madras Presidency during the British Raj affected close to 20% of the population.
Smarta tradition is a movement in Hinduism that developed during its classical period around the beginning of the Common Era.
Sorghum bicolor, commonly called sorghum and also known as great millet, durra, jowari, or milo, is a grass species cultivated for its grain, which is used for food for humans, animal feed, and ethanol production.
South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Sringeri also called Sri Kshetra Shringeri is a hill town and Taluk headquarters located in Chikkamagaluru district in the state of Karnataka, It is the site of the first maṭha (Sringeri Sharada Peetham) established by Adi Shankara, Hindu theologian and exponent of the Advaita Vedanta philosophy, in the 8th century CE It is located on the banks of the river Tungā.
St Aloysius College (also known as Aloysius) is a private, coeducational, Jesuit college located about a mile east of central Mangaluru, Karnataka, India.
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities.
The States Reorganisation Act, 1956 was a major reform of the boundaries of India's states and territories, organising them along linguistic lines.
The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.
A subsidiary alliance, in South Asian history, describes a tributary alliance between a Native state and either French India, or later the British East India Company.
Surat is a city in the Indian state of Gujarat.
Swadesamitran was a Tamil language newspaper that was published from the then Madras city from 1882 to 1985.
The Swaraj Party, Swarajaya Party or Swarajya Party or Swarajist Party, established as the Congress-Khilafat Swarajaya Party, was a political party formed in India in January 1923 after the Gaya annual conference in December 1922 of the National Congress, that sought greater self-government and political freedom for the Indian people from the British Raj.
The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a dicotyledonous plant that belongs to the bindweed or morning glory family, Convolvulaceae.
Sir Thiruvarur Muthuswamy Iyer KCIE (28 January 1832 – 25 January 1895) was an Indian lawyer who, in 1877, became the first native Indian to be appointed as judge of the Madras High Court.
Talaimannar (தலைமன்னார்; තලෙයිමන්නාරම) is a settlement in Sri Lanka located on the northwestern coast of Mannar Island.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.
Tamilnad Mercantile Bank Limited (TMB) is a bank headquartered at Thoothukudi, Tamil Nadu, India.
* Tanguturi Prakasam Pantulu (23 August 1872 – 20 May 1957) was an Indian politician and freedom fighter, chief minister of the Madras Presidency, and subsequently became the first chief minister of the new Andhra state, created by the partition of Madras State along linguistic lines.
Telangana is a state in the south of India.
Telugu (తెలుగు) is a South-central Dravidian language native to India.
The Telugu people or Telugu Praajalu are the people who speak Telugu as a first language.
The Temple Entry Proclamation was issued by Maharaja Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma in 1936 and abolished the ban on the so called 'low caste people' or avarnas from entering Hindu temples in the Princely State of Travancore, now part of Kerala, India.
Thai Pongal (தைப்பொங்கல்)is a harvest festival dedicated to the Sun God.
Thanjavur, formerly Tanjore,Pletcher 2010, p. 195 is a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Thanjavur District is one of the 32 districts of the state of Tamil Nadu, in southeastern India.
The Thanjavur Maratha kingdom of the Bhonsle dynasty was a principality of Tamil Nadu between the 17th and 19th centuries.
The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered at Chennai.
The Mail, known as The Madras Mail till 1928, was an English-language daily evening newspaper published in the Madras Presidency (later Madras State, and then, Tamil Nadu) from 1868 to 1981.It is the first evening newspaper in India.
The Theosophical Society was an organization formed in 1875 by Helena Blavatsky to advance Theosophy.
The Third Anglo-Burmese War, also known as the Third Burma War, was a conflict that took place during 7–29 November 1885, with sporadic resistance and insurgency continuing into 1887.
Thiruvarur Viruttachala Kalyanasundaram (August 26, 1883 – September 17, 1953), better known by his Tamil initials Thiru.
Tirupparaṅkuṉṟam is a suburb in Madurai district in Tamil Nadu, India.
Thomas Greenhill (1611/12 – 4 January 1658) was an English colonial administrator, one of the early pioneers of the East India Company and the Agent of Madras for two terms from 1648 to 1652 and 1655 to 1658.
Thomas Ivie was an English colonial administrator, the third agent of Madras after Andrew Cogan and Francis Day.
Sir Thomas Roe (c. 1581 – 6 November 1644) was an English diplomat of the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods.
Thomas the Apostle (תומאס הקדוש; ⲑⲱⲙⲁⲥ; ܬܐܘܡܐ ܫܠܝܚܐ Thoma Shliha; also called Didymus which means "the twin") was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus, according to the New Testament.
Thoothukudi, also known by its British name Tuticorin, is a port city and a municipal corporation and an industrial city in Thoothukudi district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Tipu Sultan (born Sultan Fateh Ali Sahab Tipu, 20 November 1750 – 4 May 1799), also known as the Tipu Sahib, was a ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore.
Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams, abbreviated as TTD, is an independent trust which manages the Tirumala Venkateswara Temple at Tirumala, Andhra Pradesh.
Tirunelveli, also known as Nellai and historically (during British rule) as Tinnevelly, is a major city in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Toda people are a Dravidian ethnic group who live in the Nilgiri Mountains of Tamil Nadu.
The Kingdom of Travancore was an Indian kingdom from 1729 until 1949.
The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle of 1748, sometimes called the Treaty of Aachen, ended the War of the Austrian Succession following a congress assembled on 24 April 1748 at the Free Imperial City of Aachen, called Aix-la-Chapelle in French and then also in English, in the west of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Treaty of Sri ranga pattanam (also called Srirangapatinam), signed 18 March 1792, ended the Third Anglo-Mysore War.
Triplicane, also known as Thiruvallikeni, is one of the oldest neighbourhoods of Chennai, India.
Tulu (Tulu: ತುಳು ಭಾಷೆ Tulu bāse) is a Dravidian language spoken by around 2.5 million native speakers mainly in the south west part of the Indian state of Karnataka and in the Kasaragod district of Kerala which is collectively known as Tulu Nadu.
Udupi (alternatively spelled as Udipi), also known as Odipu in Tulu, is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka.
Udupi Sri Krishna Matha (Tulu:ಉಡುಪಿ ಶ್ರೀ ಕೃಷ್ಣ ಮಠ) is a famous Hindu temple dedicated to god Krishna and Dvaita Matha located in the city of Udupi in Karnataka, India.
The University of London (abbreviated as Lond. or more rarely Londin. in post-nominals) is a collegiate and a federal research university located in London, England.
University of Madras is a public state university in Chennai (formerly Madras), Tamil Nadu, India.
Vaikom Satyagraha (1924–25) was a satyagraha (movement) in Travancore, India (now part of Kerala) against untouchability in Hindu society.
Vaishnavism (Vaishnava dharma) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism along with Shaivism, Shaktism, and Smartism.
Vellalars (also, Velalars, Vellalas) is a Tamil caste found mainly in the Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and in northeastern parts of Sri Lanka.
The Vellore mutiny on 10 July 1806 was the first instance of a large-scale and violent mutiny by Indian sepoys against the East India Company, predating the Indian Rebellion of 1857 by half a century.
Vembaukum Sadagopacharlu (died 1863) was an Indian lawyer and politician who served as a member of the Madras Legislative Council from 1861 to 1863.
Venkateswara Temple is a landmark Vaishnavite temple situated in the hill town of Tirumala at Tirupati in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh, India.
Vijaya Bank is a public sector bank with its corporate office in Bangalore, Karnataka, India.
The Vijayanagara Empire (also called Karnata Empire, and the Kingdom of Bisnegar by the Portuguese) was based in the Deccan Plateau region in South India.
Visakhapatnam (also known as Vizag and Waltair is the largest city and the financial capital of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The city is the administrative headquarters of Visakhapatnam district and the Eastern Naval Command of the Indian Navy. Its geographical location is amidst the Eastern Ghats and the coast of the Bay of Bengal. It is the most populous city in the state with a population of 2,035,922 as of 2011, making it the 14th largest city in the country. It is also the 9th most populous metropolitan area in India with a population of 5,340,000. With an output of $43.5 billion, Visakhapatnam is the ninth-largest contributor to India's overall gross domestic product as of 2016. Visakhapatnam's history stretches back to the 6th century BCE, when it was considered a part of the Kalinga Kingdom, and later ruled by the Vengi, the Pallava and Eastern Ganga dynasties. Archaeological records suggest that the present city was built around the 11th and 12th centuries with control over the city fluctuating between the Chola Dynasty and the Gajapati Kingdom, until its conquest by the Vijayanagara Empire in the 15th century. Conquered by the Mughals in the 16th century, European powers eventually set up trading interests in the city, and by the end of the 18th century it had come under French rule. Control passed to the British in 1804 and it remained under British colonial rule until India's independence in 1947. The city is home to the oldest shipyard and the only natural harbour on the east coast of India. Visakhapatnam Port is the fifth-busiest cargo port in India, and the city is home to the headquarters of the Indian Navy's Eastern Command. Visakhapatnam is a major tourist destination and is particularly known for its beaches. It is referred to by many nicknames such asThe City of Destiny and The Jewel of the East Coast. It has been selected as one of the Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under the Smart Cities Mission. As per the Swachhta Sarvekshan rankings of 2017, it is the third cleanest city in India.
The Vizagapatam Hill Tracts Agency was an agency in the Madras Presidency of British India.
Wayanad is a district in the north-east of Kerala state, India with headquarters at the town of Kalpetta.
William Gyfford was an English factor and Agent of Madras from 3 July 1681 to 8 August 1684 and the President of Madras from 26 January 1685 to 25 July 1687.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yerukala or Erukala or Erukula is a caste or social group primarily found in Southern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, and Telangana.
A zamindar in the Indian subcontinent was an aristocrat.
Madras Province, Madras presidency, Madras province, Presidency of Fort St. George, Presidency of Madras, President of Madras, ମଦ୍ରାସ୍ ପ୍ରେସୋଦେନ୍ଚ୍ଯ, சென்னை மாகாணம், చెన్నపురి సంస్థానము, ಮದ್ರಾಸ್ ಪ್ರೆಸಿದೆನ್ಚ್ಯ್, മദ്രാസ് പ്രസിഡന്സി.