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Madrasa

Index Madrasa

Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university. [1]

301 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi, Academic audit, Academic degree, Academic freedom, Africa, Al Jamiatul Ashrafia, Al-Andalus, Al-Azhar University, Al-Ghazali, Al-Jamiah Al-Islamiah Patiya, Al-Jamiatul Ahlia Darul Ulum Moinul Islam, Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, Al-Muqtadir, Al-Mustansir (Baghdad), Al-Mustansiriya University, Al-Nizamiyya of Baghdad, Al-Sakhawi, Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam, Aleppo, AlMaghrib Institute, Almería, Ancient Greek philosophy, André Carson, Anti-Americanism, Arabic, Arabic grammar, Arabic literature, Arabic music, Arabic poetry, Arabs, Arnold H. Green, Asia, Asian South Africans, AsiaOne, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Assassins, Astrology in medieval Islam, Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world, Australian Aid, Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, Avicenna, Avicennism, Ayyubid dynasty, Azerbaijani language, Baghdad, Balochi language, Bengali language, Beth midrash, Bimaristan, ..., Biographical dictionary, Bosnian language, Brill Publishers, Cairo, Caliphate, Caliphate of Córdoba, Cambridge University Press, Cathedral school, Catholic Church, Cádiz, Córdoba, Spain, Charitable trust, Chess, Civil law (common law), Civil law (legal system), Class (education), Classical antiquity, Classical Athens, Cognate, Colin Powell, College, Consensus decision-making, Corporation, Council of Europe, Court (royal), Damascus, Dars-i Nizami, Darul uloom, Darul Uloom Al-Madania, Darul Uloom Deoband, Darul Uloom Haqqania, Davao Region, Dawat-e-Islami, Debate, Department of Education (Philippines), Dimitri Gutas, Donald Rumsfeld, Early Islamic philosophy, Early modern period, Early social changes under Islam, Edinburgh University Press, Education in Islam, Educational institution, Emulation (observational learning), Encyclopaedia of Islam, Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., Extremism, Faculty (division), Faqīh, Fatima al-Fihri, Fatimid Caliphate, Fatwa, Fellow, Female education, Fez, Morocco, Fiqh, First aid, Foreign Affairs, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, Genealogy, Geocentric model, Geography and cartography in medieval Islam, George Makdisi, George Saliba, Globalization, Granada, Greenwood Publishing Group, Hadith, Hadith studies, Hafiz (Quran), Hanafi, Harun al-Rashid, Hawza, Hebrew language, Hijab, History of Islam, History of Islamic economics, Hoover Institution, Hossein Nasr, Ibn `Asakir, Ijazah, Ijma, Ijtihad, Imam, India, Indonesia, Indonesian language, Inquisition, International Baccalaureate, Intimate parts in Islam, Iran, Iraq, Islam, Islamic architecture, Islamic ethics, Islamic Golden Age, Islamic literature, Islamic music, Islamic philosophy, Islamic studies, Islamic university, Jamaat-e-Islami Hind, Jamia Tawakkulia Renga Madrasah, Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind, Jews, Jolo, Journal of World History, Junior college (Singapore), Jurist, Kannur University, Kerala, Kerala Nadvathul Mujahideen, Khadija (name), Kurdish languages, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Legal education, Legal opinion, Lexikon des Mittelalters, Lingua franca, List of inventions in the medieval Islamic world, List of Islamic educational institutions, List of Islamic seminaries, Literacy, Loanword, Logic in Islamic philosophy, Madhhab, Madrasa, Madrasah of Granada, Maharashtra, Maimonides, Majlis Ugama Islam Singapura, Maktab, Malay language, Malayalam, Malaysia, Maliki, Mamluk, Mappila, Marawi, Mathematics in medieval Islam, Medical school, Medicine in the medieval Islamic world, Medieval university, Medina, Metaphysics, Middle Ages, Midrash, Midrasha, Mindanao, Ministry of Education (Singapore), Mohammad Akram Nadwi, Monastic school, Morocco, Mosque, Mosul, Motilal Banarsidass, Mufti, Muhammad, Muhammad's wives, Muhtasib, Murcia, Muslim, Natural science, New Testament, Newt Gingrich, Nezamiyeh, Nizam al-Mulk, Occult, Old Testament, Opinion, Organon, Ottoman Empire, Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies, Parochial school, Pashto, Patronage, Persian language, Philippines, Plural, Post-9/11, Postgraduate education, Primary School Leaving Examination, Prophets and messengers in Islam, Qawmi Madrasas, Quran, Reading education in the United States, Regions of the Philippines, Religious law, Romanization of Arabic, Safa and Marwa, Sahabah, Saladin, Samarkand, School, Schools of Islamic theology, Science in the medieval Islamic world, Seljuq dynasty, Seminary, Semitic root, September 11 attacks, Seville, Shaikh Ibrahim Memon Madani, Sharia, Shia Islam, Sic et Non, Siege of Baghdad (1258), Sinan ibn Thabit, Singapore-Cambridge GCE Ordinary Level, Soccsksargen, Songkok, Springer Science+Business Media, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, State school, Study circle, Sultan, Sunni Islam, Sylhet, Tafsir, Tajwid, Tariqa, Taylor & Francis, Thailand, The New York Times, The News International, The Tribune (Chandigarh), Tipu Sultan, Toledo, Spain, Tudong, Tuition payments, Turkish language, Tutor, Ubada ibn as-Samit, Ulama, Ulugh Beg, University, University college, University of Al Quaraouiyine, University of Calicut, University of Hawaii Press, University of Illinois Press, University of Naples Federico II, Urdu, USA Today, Valencia, Waqf, Western world, Woodside, Queens, Yale Center for the Study of Globalization, Yeshiva, Zamboanga City. Expand index (251 more) »

Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi

Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi or Abdallatif al-Baghdadi (عبداللطيف البغدادي, 1162 in Baghdad–1231), short for Muwaffaq al-Din Muhammad Abd al-Latif ibn Yusuf al-Baghdadi (موفق الدين محمد عبد اللطيف بن يوسف البغدادي), was a physician, historian, Egyptologist and traveler, and one of the most voluminous writers of the Near East in his time.

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Academic audit

In academia, an audit is an educational term for the completion of a course of study for which no assessment of the performance of the student is made nor grade awarded.

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Academic degree

An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, normally at a college or university.

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Academic freedom

Academic freedom is the conviction that the freedom of inquiry by faculty members is essential to the mission of the academy as well as the principles of academia, and that scholars should have freedom to teach or communicate ideas or facts (including those that are inconvenient to external political groups or to authorities) without being targeted for repression, job loss, or imprisonment.

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Africa

Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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Al Jamiatul Ashrafia

Al Jamiatul Ashrafia (الجامعۃ اُلاشرفیہ, अल जामियत-उल-अशरफ़िया) is an Islamic seminary of Sunni Muslims in India.

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Al-Andalus

Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.

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Al-Azhar University

Al-Azhar University (1,, "the (honorable) Azhar University") is a university in Cairo, Egypt.

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Al-Ghazali

Al-Ghazali (full name Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī أبو حامد محمد بن محمد الغزالي; latinized Algazelus or Algazel, – 19 December 1111) was one of the most prominent and influential philosophers, theologians, jurists, and mysticsLudwig W. Adamec (2009), Historical Dictionary of Islam, p.109.

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Al-Jamiah Al-Islamiah Patiya

Al-Jamiah Al-Islamiah, Patiya (আল-জামিয়া আল-ইসলামিয়া পটিয়া), a private Qawmi Islamic university ("Jāmiʿah"), is the second-most prominent Deobandi madrasah in Bangladesh,.

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Al-Jamiatul Ahlia Darul Ulum Moinul Islam

Al-Jamiatul Ahlia Darul Ulum Muinul Islam (আল্‌-জামিয়াতুল আহ্‌লিয়া দারুল উলূম মুঈনুল ইসলাম (হাটহাজারী মাদ্রাসা)), popularly known as the Hathazari Madrassah or the "Boro Madrassah" ("big school"), is a Kawmi (Qaumi) educational institution in Hathazari, Chittagong, Bangladesh.

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Al-Masjid an-Nabawi

The Prophet's Mosque (Classical ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـدُ ٱلـنَّـبَـوِيّ, Al-Masjidun-Nabawiyy; Modern Standard ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـدْ اَلـنَّـبَـوِي, Al-Masjid An-Nabawī) is a mosque established and originally built by the Islamic prophet Muhammad, situated in the city of Medina in the Hejazi region of Saudi Arabia.

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Al-Muqtadir

Abu’l-Faḍl Jaʿfar ibn Ahmad al-Muʿtaḍid (أبو الفضل جعفر بن أحمد المعتضد) (895 – 31 October 932 CE), better known by his regnal name al-Muqtadir bi-llāh (المقتدر بالله, "Mighty in God"), was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 908 to 932 CE (295–320 AH), with the exception of a brief deposition in favour of al-Qahir in 928.

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Al-Mustansir (Baghdad)

Al-Mustansir Bi'llah (full name:Abû Ja`far al-Mustansir bi-llah al-Mansûr ben az-Zâhir Surname Al-Mustansir) was born in Baghdad on 1192.

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Al-Mustansiriya University

Mustansiriyah University (Arabic: الجامعة المستنصرية) is a university in Baghdad, Iraq.

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Al-Nizamiyya of Baghdad

Al-Nizamiyya of Baghdad (Arabic,المدرسة النظامية), one of the first nezamiyehs, was established in 1065.

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Al-Sakhawi

Shams al-Din Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Rahman al-Sakhawi (شمس الدين محمد بن عبدالرحمن السخاوي, 1428/831 AH - 1497/902 AH) was a reputable Shafi'i Muslim hadith scholar and historian who was born in Cairo.

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Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam

Alchemy and chemistry in Islam refers to the study of both traditional alchemy and early practical chemistry (the early chemical investigation of nature in general) by scholars in the medieval Islamic world.

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Aleppo

Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.

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AlMaghrib Institute

AlMaghrib Institute is an Islamic studies institute founded in Houston, Texas, by Muhammad AlShareef in 2002.

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Almería

Almería is a city in Andalusia, Spain, located in the southeast of Spain on the Mediterranean Sea, and is the capital of the province of the same name.

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Ancient Greek philosophy

Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.

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André Carson

André D. Carson (born October 16, 1974) is the U.S. Representative for, in office since a special election in 2008.

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Anti-Americanism

Anti-Americanism, anti-American sentiment, or sometimes Americanophobia, is dislike of or opposition to the governmental policies of the United States, especially regarding the foreign policy, or the American people in general.

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arabic grammar

Arabic grammar (اَلنَّحْو اَلْعَرَبِي or قَوَاعِد اَللُّغَة اَلْعَرَبِيَّة) is the grammar of the Arabic language.

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Arabic literature

Arabic literature (الأدب العربي / ALA-LC: al-Adab al-‘Arabī) is the writing, both prose and poetry, produced by writers in the Arabic language.

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Arabic music

Arabic music or Arab music (Arabic: الموسيقى العربية – ALA-LC) is the music of the Arab people.

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Arabic poetry

Arabic poetry (الشعر العربي ash-shi‘ru al-‘Arabīyyu) is the earliest form of Arabic literature.

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Arabs

Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.

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Arnold H. Green

Arnold H. Green (born July 1940) is a history professor retired from teaching at Brigham Young University, where he specialized in modern Middle-Eastern history, especially the eras of European colonization and of "decolonization".

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Asia

Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Asian South Africans

Asian South Africans are South Africans of Asian descent.

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AsiaOne

AsiaOne is a news and lifestyle aggregator of the Singapore Press Holdings, available on a variety of online platforms.

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Asiatic Society of Bangladesh

The Asiatic Society of Bangladesh was established as the Asiatic Society of Pakistan in Dhaka in 1952, and renamed in 1972.

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Assassins

Order of Assassins or simply Assassins (أساسين asāsīn, حشاشین Hashâshīn) is the common name used to refer to an Islamic sect formally known as the Nizari Ismailis.

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Astrology in medieval Islam

The medieval Muslims took a keen interest in the study of heavens: partly because they considered the celestial bodies to be divine, partly because the dwellers of desert-regions often travelled at night, and relied upon knowledge of the constellations for guidance in their journeys.

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Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world

Islamic astronomy comprises the astronomical developments made in the Islamic world, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age (9th–13th centuries), and mostly written in the Arabic language.

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Australian Aid

AusAID, formally the Australian Agency for International Development, was until 2013 the Australian organisation responsible for delivering most non-military foreign aid.

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Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao

The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (Awtonomong Rehiyon sa Muslim Mindanao, الحكم الذاتي الاقليمي لمسلمي مندناو Al-ḥukm adh-dhātiyy al-'aqlīmiyy limuslimiyy mindanāu; abbreviated ARMM) is an autonomous region of the Philippines, located in the Mindanao island group of the Philippines, that consists of five predominantly Muslim provinces: Basilan (except Isabela City), Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi.

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Avicenna

Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.

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Avicennism

Avicennism is a school in Islamic philosophy which was established by Avicenna.

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Ayyubid dynasty

The Ayyubid dynasty (الأيوبيون; خانەدانی ئەیووبیان) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin founded by Saladin and centred in Egypt.

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Azerbaijani language

Azerbaijani or Azeri, also referred to as Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who are concentrated mainly in Transcaucasia and Iranian Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan).

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Baghdad

Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.

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Balochi language

Balochi (بلؤچی, transliteration: balòči) is the principal language of the Baloch people spoken primarily in Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan.

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Bengali language

Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.

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Beth midrash

A beth midrash (בית מדרש, or beis medrash, beit midrash, pl. batei midrash "House of Learning") is a Jewish study hall located in a synagogue, yeshiva, kollel or other building.

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Bimaristan

Bimaristan is a Persian word (بیمارستان bīmārestān) meaning "hospital", with Bimar- from Middle Persian (Pahlavi) of vīmār or vemār, meaning "sick" plus -stan as location and place suffix.

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Biographical dictionary

A biographical dictionary is a type of encyclopedic dictionary limited to biographical information.

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Bosnian language

The Bosnian language (bosanski / босански) is the standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian mainly used by Bosniaks.

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Brill Publishers

Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.

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Cairo

Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.

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Caliphate

A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).

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Caliphate of Córdoba

The Caliphate of Córdoba (خلافة قرطبة; trans. Khilāfat Qurṭuba) was a state in Islamic Iberia along with a part of North Africa ruled by the Umayyad dynasty.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Cathedral school

Cathedral schools began in the Early Middle Ages as centers of advanced education, some of them ultimately evolving into medieval universities.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Cádiz

Cádiz (see other pronunciations below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain.

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Córdoba, Spain

Córdoba, also called Cordoba or Cordova in English, is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba.

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Charitable trust

A charitable trust is an irrevocable trust established for charitable purposes and, in some jurisdictions, a more specific term than "charitable organization".

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Chess

Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.

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Civil law (common law)

Civil law is a branch of the law.

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Civil law (legal system)

Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.

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Class (education)

A class in education has a variety of related meanings.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Classical Athens

The city of Athens (Ἀθῆναι, Athênai a.tʰɛ̂ː.nai̯; Modern Greek: Ἀθῆναι, Athínai) during the classical period of Ancient Greece (508–322 BC) was the major urban center of the notable polis (city-state) of the same name, located in Attica, Greece, leading the Delian League in the Peloponnesian War against Sparta and the Peloponnesian League.

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Cognate

In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.

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Colin Powell

Colin Luther Powell (born April 5, 1937) is an American statesman and a retired four-star general in the United States Army.

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College

A college (Latin: collegium) is an educational institution or a constituent part of one.

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Consensus decision-making

Consensus decision-making is a group decision-making process in which group members develop, and agree to support a decision in the best interest of the whole.

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Corporation

A corporation is a company or group of people or an organisation authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.

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Council of Europe

The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.

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Court (royal)

A court is an extended royal household in a monarchy, including all those who regularly attend on a monarch, or another central figure.

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Damascus

Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.

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Dars-i Nizami

Dars-i Nizami is a study curriculum or system used in traditional Islamic institutions (madrassas) and Dar Ul Ulooms, which originated in the Indian subcontinent in the 18th century and can now also be found in parts of South Africa, Canada, the United States, the Caribbean and the UK.

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Darul uloom

Darul uloom (transliterated dar al-ʿulūm), also spelled darul ulum etc., is an Arabic term which literally means "house of knowledge".

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Darul Uloom Al-Madania

Darul Uloom Al-Madania is a private Islamic Seminary in Buffalo, New York that is devoted to producing Islamic scholars and Huffaz.

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Darul Uloom Deoband

The Darul Uloom Deoband In Urdu language(دارلعلوم دیوبند)is the Darul uloom Islamic school in India where the Deobandi Islamic movement began.

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Darul Uloom Haqqania

Darul Uloom Haqqania (دار العلوم حقانیہ) is an Islamic religious seminary located in Akora Khattak, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan.

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Davao Region

Davao Region, formerly called Southern Mindanao (Habagatang Mindanao; Timog Mindanao), is an administrative region in the Philippines, designated as Region XI.

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Dawat-e-Islami

Dawat-e-Islami is a non-political Islamic organization based in Pakistan.

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Debate

Debate is a process that involves formal discussion on a particular topic.

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Department of Education (Philippines)

The Department of Education (abbreviated as DepEd; Kagawaran ng Edukasyon) is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for ensuring access to, promoting equity in, and improving the quality of basic education.

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Dimitri Gutas

Dimitri Gutas (Δημήτρης Γούτας; born 1945, Constantinople) is an American Arabist and Hellenist and professor of Arabic and Islamic Studies in the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations at Yale University.

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Donald Rumsfeld

Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a retired American political figure and businessman.

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Early Islamic philosophy

Early Islamic philosophy or classical Islamic philosophy is a period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar (early 9th century CE) and lasting until the 6th century AH (late 12th century CE).

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Early modern period

The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.

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Early social changes under Islam

Many social changes took place under Islam between 610 and 661, including the period of Muhammad's mission and the rule of his four immediate successors who established the Rashidun Caliphate.

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Edinburgh University Press

Edinburgh University Press is a scholarly publisher of academic books and journals, based in Edinburgh, Scotland.

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Education in Islam

Education in Islam is a concept based on verses of the Quran as well as hadiths that emphasize the positive benefits to be gained from the acquisition of knowledge.

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Educational institution

An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education.

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Emulation (observational learning)

In emulation learning, subjects learn about parts of their environment and use this to achieve their own goals.

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Encyclopaedia of Islam

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is an encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies published by Brill.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. is a Scottish-founded, now American company best known for publishing the Encyclopædia Britannica, the world's oldest continuously published encyclopedia.

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Extremism

Extremism means, literally, "the quality or state of being extreme" or the "advocacy of extreme measures or views".

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Faculty (division)

A faculty is a division within a university or college comprising one subject area, or a number of related subject areas.

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Faqīh

A Faqīh (plural Fuqahā') (فقيه, pl.) is an Islamic jurist, an expert in fiqh, or Islamic jurisprudence and Islamic Law.

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Fatima al-Fihri

Fatima bint Muhammad Al-Fihriya Al-Qurashiya (فاطمة بنت محمد الفهرية القرشية.) was an Arab Muslim woman who is credited for founding the oldest existing, continually operating and first degree-awarding educational institution in the world, The University of Al Quaraouiyine in Fes, Morocco in 859 CE.

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Fatimid Caliphate

The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.

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Fatwa

A fatwā (فتوى; plural fatāwā فتاوى.) in the Islamic faith is a nonbinding but authoritative legal opinion or learned interpretation that the Sheikhul Islam, a qualified jurist or mufti, can give on issues pertaining to the Islamic law.

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Fellow

A fellow is a member of a group (or fellowship) that work together in pursuing mutual knowledge or practice.

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Female education

Female education is a catch-all term of a complex set of issues and debates surrounding education (primary education, secondary education, tertiary education, and health education in particular) for girls and women.

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Fez, Morocco

Fez (فاس, Berber: Fas, ⴼⴰⵙ, Fès) is a city in northern inland Morocco and the capital of the Fas-Meknas administrative region.

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Fiqh

Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.

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First aid

First aid is the assistance given to any person suffering a sudden illness or injury, with care provided to preserve life, prevent the condition from worsening, or to promote recovery.

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Foreign Affairs

Foreign Affairs is an American magazine of international relations and U.S. foreign policy published by the Council on Foreign Relations, a nonprofit, nonpartisan, membership organization and think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.

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Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor

Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250; Fidiricu, Federico, Friedrich) was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225.

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Genealogy

Genealogy (from γενεαλογία from γενεά, "generation" and λόγος, "knowledge"), also known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history.

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Geocentric model

In astronomy, the geocentric model (also known as geocentrism, or the Ptolemaic system) is a superseded description of the universe with Earth at the center.

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Geography and cartography in medieval Islam

Medieval Islamic geography was based on Hellenistic geography and reached its apex with Muhammad al-Idrisi in the 12th century.

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George Makdisi

George Abraham Makdisi was born in Detroit, Michigan May 15, 1920, and died in Media, Pennsylvania on 6 September 2002.

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George Saliba

George Saliba is Professor of Arabic and Islamic Science at the Department of Middle Eastern, South Asian, and African Studies, Columbia University, New York, USA, where he has been since 1979.

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Globalization

Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.

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Granada

Granada is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain.

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Greenwood Publishing Group

ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.

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Hadith

Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Hadith studies

Hadith studies (علم الحديث ʻilm al-ḥadīth "knowledge of hadith", also science of hadith, or science of hadith criticism) consist of several religious disciplines used in the study and evaluation of the Islamic hadith — i.e. the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval of the Islamic prophet Muhammad by Muslim scholars.

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Hafiz (Quran)

Hafiz (ḥāfiẓ, حُفَّاظ, pl. ḥuffāẓ, حافظة f. ḥāfiẓa), literally meaning "guardian" or "memorizer", depending on the context, is a term used by Muslims for someone who has completely memorized the Qur'an.

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Hanafi

The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).

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Harun al-Rashid

Harun al-Rashid (هَارُون الرَشِيد Hārūn Ar-Rašīd; "Harun the Orthodox" or "Harun the Rightly-Guided," 17 March 763 or February 766 — 24 March 809 (148–193 Hijri) was the fifth Abbasid Caliph. His birth date is debated, with various sources giving dates from 763 to 766. His epithet "al-Rashid" translates to "the Orthodox," "the Just," "the Upright," or "the Rightly-Guided." Al-Rashid ruled from 786 to 809, during the peak of the Islamic Golden Age. His time was marked by scientific, cultural, and religious prosperity. Islamic art and music also flourished significantly during his reign. He established the legendary library Bayt al-Hikma ("House of Wisdom") in Baghdad in present-day Iraq, and during his rule Baghdad began to flourish as a center of knowledge, culture and trade. During his rule, the family of Barmakids, which played a deciding role in establishing the Abbasid Caliphate, declined gradually. In 796, he moved his court and government to Raqqa in present-day Syria. A Frankish mission came to offer Harun friendship in 799. Harun sent various presents with the emissaries on their return to Charlemagne's court, including a clock that Charlemagne and his retinue deemed to be a conjuration because of the sounds it emanated and the tricks it displayed every time an hour ticked. The fictional The Book of One Thousand and One Nights is set in Harun's magnificent court and some of its stories involve Harun himself. Harun's life and court have been the subject of many other tales, both factual and fictitious. Some of the Twelver sect of Shia Muslims blame Harun for his supposed role in the murder of their 7th Imam (Musa ibn Ja'far).

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Hawza

A Hawza (Arabic/Persian: حوزة) or ḥawza ʻilmiyya (Arabic/Persian: حوزة علمیة) is a seminary where Shi'a Muslim clerics are trained.

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Hebrew language

No description.

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Hijab

A hijab (حجاب, or (dialectal)) is a veil worn by some Muslim women in the presence of any male outside of their immediate family, which usually covers the head and chest.

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History of Islam

The history of Islam concerns the political, social,economic and cultural developments of the Islamic civilization.

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History of Islamic economics

Between the 9th and 14th centuries, the Muslim world developed many concepts and techniques in economics such as Hawala, an early informal value transfer system, Islamic trusts known as waqf, and mufawada.

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Hoover Institution

The Hoover Institution is an American public policy think tank and research institution located at Stanford University in California.

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Hossein Nasr

Hossein Nasr (سید حسین نصر, born April 7, 1933) is an Iranian professor emeritus of Islamic studies at George Washington University, and an Islamic philosopher.

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Ibn `Asakir

Ibn Asakir (Ibn ‘Asākir; 1106–1175) was a Sunni Islamic scholar, a historian and a disciple of the Sufi mystic Abu al-Najib Suhrawardi.

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Ijazah

An ijazah (الإِجازَة., "permission", "authorization", "license") is a license authorizing its holder to transmit a certain text or subject, which is issued by someone already possessing such authority.

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Ijma

Ijmāʿ (إجماع) is an Arabic term referring to the consensus or agreement of the Muslim scholars basically on religious issues.

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Ijtihad

Ijtihad (اجتهاد, lit. effort, physical or mental, expended in a particular activity) is an Islamic legal term referring to independent reasoning or the thorough exertion of a jurist's mental faculty in finding a solution to a legal question.

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Imam

Imam (إمام; plural: أئمة) is an Islamic leadership position.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indonesia

Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.

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Indonesian language

Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.

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Inquisition

The Inquisition was a group of institutions within the government system of the Catholic Church whose aim was to combat public heresy committed by baptized Christians.

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International Baccalaureate

The International Baccalaureate (IB), formerly known as the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO), is an international educational foundation headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland and founded in 1968.

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Intimate parts in Islam

The intimate parts of the human body must, according to Islam, be covered by clothing.

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Iran

Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iraq

Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Islam

IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Islamic architecture

Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the early history of Islam to the present day.

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Islamic ethics

Islamic ethics (أخلاق إسلامية), defined as "good character," historically took shape gradually from the 7th century and was finally established by the 11th century.

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Islamic Golden Age

The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.

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Islamic literature

Islamic literature is literature written with an Islamic perspective, in any language.

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Islamic music

Islamic music may refer to religious music, as performed in Islamic public services or private devotions, or more generally to musical traditions of the Muslim world.

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Islamic philosophy

In the religion of Islam, two words are sometimes translated as philosophy—falsafa (literally "philosophy"), which refers to philosophy as well as logic, mathematics, and physics; and Kalam (literally "speech"), which refers to a rationalist form of Islamic philosophy and theology based on the interpretations of Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism as developed by medieval Muslim philosophers.

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Islamic studies

Islamic studies refers to the study of Islam.

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Islamic university

The term "Islamic university" (الجامعة الإسلامية, Jami'ah Islamiyya), sometimes called madrasah jāmiʿah (مدرسة جامعة), can be used to describe secular educational institutions that were founded by people of Islamic tradition as well as institutions that focus on teaching Islam as a main curriculum.

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Jamaat-e-Islami Hind

Jamaat-e-Islami Hind (JIH) is an Islamic organisation in India, founded as an offshoot of the Jamaat-e-Islami, which split into separate independent organisations in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Jammu & Kashmir following the Partition of India in 1947.

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Jamia Tawakkulia Renga Madrasah

Jamia Tawakkulia Renga (জামেয়া তাওয়াক্কুলিয়া রেঙ্গা) is a madrasah located at Regna, near Mogla Bazar, in Dakshin Surma Upazila, about south of Sylhet, Bangladesh, along the Sylhet to Moulvibazar Highway.

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Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind

Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind or Jamiat Ulama-I-Hind (Urdu:, जमीयत उलेमा-ए-हिन्द, translation: Organisation of Indian Islamic Scholars) is one of the leading Islamic organisations in India.

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Jews

Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.

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Jolo

Jolo (Tausūg: Sūg) is a volcanic island in the southwest Philippines and is the primary island of the province of Sulu wherein its capital of the same name is situated.

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Journal of World History

The Journal of World History is a peer-reviewed academic journal that presents historical analysis from a global point of view, focusing especially on forces that cross the boundaries of cultures and civilizations, including large-scale population movements, economic fluctuations, transfers of technology, the spread of infectious diseases, long-distance trade, and the spread of religious faiths, ideas, and values.

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Junior college (Singapore)

Junior colleges are pre-university institutions in Singapore that offers two-year pre-university courses that leads to either the Singapore-Cambridge GCE Advanced Level or the International Baccalaureate Diploma.

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Jurist

A jurist (from medieval Latin) is someone who researches and studies jurisprudence (theory of law).

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Kannur University

Kannur University was established in 1996 to provide development of higher education in Kasaragod, Kannur, and Wayanad districts of Kerala, India.

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Kerala

Kerala is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast.

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Kerala Nadvathul Mujahideen

Kerala Nadvathul Mujahideen (KNM) is an Islamic organization in state of Kerala founded in 1950.

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Khadija (name)

Khadija (Khadeeja) (خديجة) is an Arabic feminine given name, the name of Khadija bint Khuwaylid, first wife of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.

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Kurdish languages

Kurdish (Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.

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Lahore University of Management Sciences

The Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS) is an independent research university located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

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Legal education

Legal education is the education of individuals in the principles, practices, and theory of law.

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Legal opinion

In law, a legal opinion is in certain jurisdictions a written explanation by a judge or group of judges that accompanies an order or ruling in a case, laying out the rationale and legal principles for the ruling.

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Lexikon des Mittelalters

The Lexikon des Mittelalters ("Lexicon of the Middle Ages", LMA, LexMA) is a German encyclopedia on the history and culture of the Middle Ages.

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Lingua franca

A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.

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List of inventions in the medieval Islamic world

The following is a list of inventions made in the medieval Islamic world, especially during the "Islamic Golden Age" (8th to 13th centuries), as well as the late medieval period, especially in the Emirate of Granada and the Ottoman Empire.

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List of Islamic educational institutions

The following is a list of institutions that have an Islamic or Muslim identity or charter.

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List of Islamic seminaries

This is a list of Islamic seminaries throughout history, including the operational, historical, defunct or converted ones.

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Literacy

Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.

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Loanword

A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.

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Logic in Islamic philosophy

Early Islamic law placed importance on formulating standards of argument, which gave rise to a "novel approach to logic" (منطق manṭiq "speech, eloquence") in Kalam (Islamic scholasticism) However, with the rise of the Mu'tazili philosophers, who highly valued Aristotle's Organon, this approach was displaced by the older ideas from Hellenistic philosophy, The works of al-Farabi, Avicenna, al-Ghazali and other Persian Muslim logicians who often criticized and corrected Aristotelian logic and introduced their own forms of logic, also played a central role in the subsequent development of European logic during the Renaissance.

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Madhhab

A (مذهب,, "way to act"; pl. مذاهب) is a school of thought within fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence).

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Madrasa

Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.

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Madrasah of Granada

The Madrasah of Granada (Madraza de Granada, also Yusufiyya, Casa de la Ciencia, Palacio de la Madraza) was a Madrasah or mosque school in Granada, Andalusia, Spain.

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Maharashtra

Maharashtra (abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area.

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Maimonides

Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.

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Majlis Ugama Islam Singapura

The Majlis Ugama Islam Singapura (Abbreviation: MUIS; Jawi: مجليس أڬام اسلام سيڠاڤورا; المجلس الإسلامي سنغافورة; Arabic Romanization: almajlis al'iislami singhafura), also known as the Islamic Religious Council of Singapore is a statutory board in Singapore.

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Maktab

Maktab (مكتب) or Maktabeh (مكتبة) or Maktabkhaneh (مکتبخانه) (other transliterations include makteb, mekteb, mektep, meqteb, maqtab), also called a Kuttab (الكتَّاب) “school” is an Arabic word meaning elementary schools.

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Malay language

Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.

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Malayalam

Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken across the Indian state of Kerala by the Malayali people and it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India.

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Malaysia

Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.

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Maliki

The (مالكي) school is one of the four major madhhab of Islamic jurisprudence within Sunni Islam.

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Mamluk

Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.

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Mappila

Mappila, also known as a Mappila Muslim, formerly romanized as Moplah and historically as Jonaka Mappila, in general, is a member of the Muslim community of the same nameMiller, E. Roland.

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Marawi

Marawi (Maranao: Inged san Marawi; Arabic: مدينة مراوي‎; Lungsod Islamiko ng Marawi) is the capital city of Lanao del Sur province in the Philippines.

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Mathematics in medieval Islam

Mathematics during the Golden Age of Islam, especially during the 9th and 10th centuries, was built on Greek mathematics (Euclid, Archimedes, Apollonius) and Indian mathematics (Aryabhata, Brahmagupta).

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Medical school

A medical school is a tertiary educational institution —or part of such an institution— that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons.

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Medicine in the medieval Islamic world

In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine is the science of medicine developed in the Islamic Golden Age, and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of Islamic civilization.

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Medieval university

A medieval university is a corporation organized during the Middle Ages for the purposes of higher learning.

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Medina

Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.

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Metaphysics

Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Midrash

In Judaism, the midrash (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. מִדְרָשׁ; pl. מִדְרָשִׁים midrashim) is the genre of rabbinic literature which contains early interpretations and commentaries on the Written Torah and Oral Torah (spoken law and sermons), as well as non-legalistic rabbinic literature (aggadah) and occasionally the Jewish religious laws (halakha), which usually form a running commentary on specific passages in the Hebrew Scripture (Tanakh).

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Midrasha

A midrasha (Hebrew: מדרשה, pl. midrashot/midrashas) refers to an institute of Jewish studies for women.

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Mindanao

Mindanao is the second largest island in the Philippines.

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Ministry of Education (Singapore)

The Ministry of Education (Abbreviation: MOE; Kementerian Pendidikan; Chinese: 教育部; கல்வி அமைச்சு) is a ministry of the Government of Singapore that directs the formulation and implementation of policies related to education in Singapore.

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Mohammad Akram Nadwi

Mohammad Akram Nadwi (born c. 1964)Carla Power,, New York Times Magazine, 25 February 2007.

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Monastic school

Monastic schools (Scholae monasticae) were, along with cathedral schools, the most important institutions of higher learning in the Latin West from the early Middle Ages until the 12th century.

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Morocco

Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.

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Mosque

A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.

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Mosul

Mosul (الموصل, مووسڵ, Māwṣil) is a major city in northern Iraq. Located some north of Baghdad, Mosul stands on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank. The metropolitan area has grown to encompass substantial areas on both the "Left Bank" (east side) and the "Right Bank" (west side), as the two banks are described by the locals compared to the flow direction of Tigris. At the start of the 21st century, Mosul and its surrounds had an ethnically and religiously diverse population; the majority of Mosul's population were Arabs, with Assyrians, Armenians, Turkmens, Kurds, Yazidis, Shabakis, Mandaeans, Kawliya, Circassians in addition to other, smaller ethnic minorities. In religious terms, mainstream Sunni Islam was the largest religion, but with a significant number of followers of the Salafi movement and Christianity (the latter followed by the Assyrians and Armenians), as well as Shia Islam, Sufism, Yazidism, Shabakism, Yarsanism and Mandaeism. Mosul's population grew rapidly around the turn of the millennium and by 2004 was estimated to be 1,846,500. In 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant seized control of the city. The Iraqi government recaptured it in the 2016–2017 Battle of Mosul. Historically, important products of the area include Mosul marble and oil. The city of Mosul is home to the University of Mosul and its renowned Medical College, which together was one of the largest educational and research centers in Iraq and the Middle East. Mosul, together with the nearby Nineveh plains, is one of the historic centers for the Assyrians and their churches; the Assyrian Church of the East; its offshoot, the Chaldean Catholic Church; and the Syriac Orthodox Church, containing the tombs of several Old Testament prophets such as Jonah, some of which were destroyed by ISIL in July 2014.

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Motilal Banarsidass

Motilal Banarsidass (MLBD) is a leading Indian publishing house on Sanskrit and Indology since 1903, located in Delhi, India.

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Mufti

A mufti (مفتي) is an Islamic scholar who interprets and expounds Islamic law (Sharia and fiqh).

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Muhammad

MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.

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Muhammad's wives

Muhammad's wives or Wives of Muhammad were the women married to the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Muhtasib

A muḥtasib (محتسب) was a supervisor of bazaars and trade in the medieval Islamic countries.

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Murcia

Murcia is a city in south-eastern Spain, the capital and most populous city of the Autonomous Community of the Region of Murcia, and the seventh largest city in the country, with a population of 442,573 inhabitants in 2009 (about one third of the total population of the Region).

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Muslim

A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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Natural science

Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.

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New Testament

The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.

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Newt Gingrich

Newton Leroy Gingrich (né McPherson; born June 17, 1943) is an American politician and author, born in Pennsylvania, later representing Georgia in Congress, and ultimately serving as 50th Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1995 to 1999.

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Nezamiyeh

The Nizamiyyah (from نظامیه, النظامیة) are a group of the medieval institutions of higher education established by Khwaja Nizam al-Mulk in the eleventh century in Iran.

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Nizam al-Mulk

Abu Ali Hasan ibn Ali Tusi (April 10, 1018 – October 14, 1092), better known by his honorific title of Nizam al-Mulk (نظام‌الملک, "Order of the Realm") was a Persian scholar and vizier of the Seljuq Empire.

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Occult

The term occult (from the Latin word occultus "clandestine, hidden, secret") is "knowledge of the hidden".

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Old Testament

The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.

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Opinion

An opinion is a judgment, viewpoint, or statement that is not conclusive.

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Organon

The Organon (Greek: Ὄργανον, meaning "instrument, tool, organ") is the standard collection of Aristotle's six works on logic.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies

The Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies (OCIS) is a Recognised Independent Centre of the University of Oxford, England.

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Parochial school

A parochial school is a private primary or secondary school affiliated with a religious organization, and whose curriculum includes general religious education in addition to secular subjects, such as science, mathematics and language arts.

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Pashto

Pashto (پښتو Pax̌tō), sometimes spelled Pukhto, is the language of the Pashtuns.

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Patronage

Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Philippines

The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

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Plural

The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.

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Post-9/11

The post-9/11 period is the time after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, characterized by heightened suspicion of non-Americans in the United States, increased government efforts to address terrorism, and a more aggressive American foreign policy.

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Postgraduate education

Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree generally is required, and it is normally considered to be part of higher education.

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Primary School Leaving Examination

The Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE) is a national examination in Singapore that is administered by the Ministry of Education and taken by all students near the end of their sixth year in primary school before they move on to secondary school.

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Prophets and messengers in Islam

Prophets in Islam (الأنبياء في الإسلام) include "messengers" (rasul, pl. rusul), bringers of a divine revelation via an angel (Arabic: ملائكة, malāʾikah);Shaatri, A. I. (2007).

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Qawmi Madrasas

Qawmi (কওমী; also variously phonetically transliterated as Quawmi, Quomi, Qaumi, Qaumee, Kawmi, or Qawmy) is an adjective describing one of the two major madrasah educational categories in Bangladesh.

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Quran

The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).

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Reading education in the United States

Reading education is the process by which individuals are taught to derive meaning from text.

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Regions of the Philippines

In the Philippines, regions (rehiyon), (ISO 3166-2:PH) are administrative divisions that serve primarily to organize the provinces (lalawigan) of the country for administrative convenience.

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Religious law

Religious law refers to ethical and moral codes taught by religious traditions.

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Romanization of Arabic

The romanization of Arabic writes written and spoken Arabic in the Latin script in one of various systematic ways.

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Safa and Marwa

Safa (Aṣ-Ṣafā) and Marwa (Al-Marwah) are two small hills now located in the Great Mosque of Mecca in Saudi Arabia named the Kabbah.

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Sahabah

The term (الصحابة meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") refers to the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Saladin

An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب / ALA-LC: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin (11374 March 1193), was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.

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Samarkand

Samarkand (Uzbek language Uzbek alphabet: Samarqand; سمرقند; Самарканд; Σαμαρκάνδη), alternatively Samarqand, is a city in modern-day Uzbekistan and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Central Asia.

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School

A school is an institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the direction of teachers.

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Schools of Islamic theology

Schools of Islamic theology are various Islamic schools and branches in different schools of thought regarding aqidah (creed).

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Science in the medieval Islamic world

Science in the medieval Islamic world was the science developed and practised during the Islamic Golden Age under the Umayyads of Córdoba, the Abbadids of Seville, the Samanids, the Ziyarids, the Buyids in Persia, the Abbasid Caliphate and beyond, spanning the period c. 800 to 1250.

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Seljuq dynasty

The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.

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Seminary

Seminary, school of theology, theological seminary, Early-Morning Seminary, and divinity school are educational institutions for educating students (sometimes called seminarians) in scripture, theology, generally to prepare them for ordination as clergy, academia, or ministry.

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Semitic root

The roots of verbs and most nouns in the Semitic languages are characterized as a sequence of consonants or "radicals" (hence the term consonantal root).

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September 11 attacks

The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.

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Seville

Seville (Sevilla) is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville, Spain.

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Shaikh Ibrahim Memon Madani

Ibrahim Memon Madani, is an imam and Muslim scholar who was born in Medina.

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Sharia

Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.

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Shia Islam

Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.

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Sic et Non

Sic et Non, an early scholastic text whose title translates from Medieval Latin as "Yes and No", was written by Peter Abelard.

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Siege of Baghdad (1258)

The Siege of Baghdad, which lasted from January 29 until February 10, 1258, entailed the investment, capture, and sack of Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, by Ilkhanate Mongol forces and allied troops.

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Sinan ibn Thabit

Sinan ibn Thabit ibn Qurra سنان بن ثابت بن قرة) (880; † 943) was an Arab Sabian physician, astronomer and mathematician who later converted to Islam. He was the son of Thabit ibn Qurra and the father of Ibrahim ibn Sinan. He is also a scientist who started mobile hospital services for rural areas.

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Singapore-Cambridge GCE Ordinary Level

The Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level (O-level) examination is a national examination held annually in Singapore.

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Soccsksargen

Soccsksargen (officially styled as SOCCSKSARGEN) (pronounced), formerly known simply as Cotabato or Kota Bato, is an administrative region of the Philippines, located in south-central Mindanao.

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Songkok

The songkok or peci or kopiah is a cap widely worn in Indonesia, Brunei, Malaysia, Singapore, the southern Philippines and southern Thailand, most commonly among Muslim males.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.

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State school

State schools (also known as public schools outside England and Wales)In England and Wales, some independent schools for 13- to 18-year-olds are known as 'public schools'.

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Study circle

A study circle is a small group of people who meet multiple times to discuss an issue.

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Sultan

Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.

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Sunni Islam

Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.

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Sylhet

Sylhet (সিলেট, ꠍꠤꠟꠐ), also known as Jalalabad, the spiritual capital; is a metropolitan city in northeastern Bangladesh.

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Tafsir

Tafsir (lit) is the Arabic word for exegesis, usually of the Qur'an.

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Tajwid

Tajweed (تجويد,, meaning "elocution"), sometimes rendered as tajwid, refers to the rules governing pronunciation during recitation of the Quran.

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Tariqa

A tariqa (or tariqah; طريقة) is a school or order of Sufism, or specifically a concept for the mystical teaching and spiritual practices of such an order with the aim of seeking Haqiqa, which translates as "ultimate truth".

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Taylor & Francis

Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.

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Thailand

Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The News International

The News International, published in broadsheet size, is the largest English language newspaper in Pakistan.

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The Tribune (Chandigarh)

The Tribune is an Indian English-language daily newspaper published from Chandigarh, New Delhi, Jalandhar, Dehradun and Bathinda.

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Tipu Sultan

Tipu Sultan (born Sultan Fateh Ali Sahab Tipu, 20 November 1750 – 4 May 1799), also known as the Tipu Sahib, was a ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore.

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Toledo, Spain

Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain; it is the capital of the province of Toledo and the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha.

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Tudong

Tudong (also spelled tudung) is a Malay word, literally meaning the noun "cover", which is commonly translated/referred to as veil or headscarf in English.

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Tuition payments

Tuition payments, usually known as tuition in American English and as tuition fees in Commonwealth English, are fees charged by education institutions for instruction or other services.

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Turkish language

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).

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Tutor

A tutor is a person who provides assistance or tutelage to one or more people on certain subject areas or skills.

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Ubada ibn as-Samit

Ubadah ibn aṣ-Ṣāmit (عبادة بن الصامت) was a companion of Muhammad and later one of the successful commanders of Rashidun army and served under the Rashidun caliphs Abu Bakr and Umar.

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Ulama

The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".

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Ulugh Beg

Mīrzā Muhammad Tāraghay bin Shāhrukh (میرزا محمد طارق بن شاہ رخ, میرزا محمد تراغای بن شاہ رخ), better known as Ulugh Beg (March 22, 1394 in Sultaniyeh, Persia – October 27, 1449, Samarkand), was a Timurid ruler as well as an astronomer, mathematician and sultan.

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University

A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.

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University college

In a number of countries, a university college is a college institution that provides tertiary education but does not have full or independent university status.

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University of Al Quaraouiyine

The University of al-Qarawiyyin, also written Al Quaraouiyine or Al-Karaouine (Université Al Quaraouiyine), is a university located in Fez, Morocco.

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University of Calicut

The University of Calicut is an affiliating university located at Thenjipalam in Malappuram district of Kerala state in India.

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University of Hawaii Press

The University of Hawaii Press is a university press that is part of the University of Hawaiokinai.

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University of Illinois Press

The University of Illinois Press (UIP) is a major American university press and is part of the University of Illinois system.

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University of Naples Federico II

The University of Naples Federico II (Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II) is a university located in Naples, Italy.

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Urdu

Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.

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USA Today

USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.

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Valencia

Valencia, officially València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre.

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Waqf

A waqf (وقف), also known as habous or mortmain property, is an inalienable charitable endowment under Islamic law, which typically involves donating a building, plot of land or other assets for Muslim religious or charitable purposes with no intention of reclaiming the assets.

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Western world

The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.

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Woodside, Queens

Woodside is a residential and commercial neighborhood in the western portion of the borough of Queens in New York City.

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Yale Center for the Study of Globalization

The Yale Center for the Study of Globalization, or YCSG, is a research center at Yale University at New Haven, Connecticut.

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Yeshiva

Yeshiva (ישיבה, lit. "sitting"; pl., yeshivot or yeshivos) is a Jewish institution that focuses on the study of traditional religious texts, primarily the Talmud and the Torah.

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Zamboanga City

, officially the, (Chavacano: Ciudad de Zamboanga, Lungsod ng Zamboanga), is a highly urbanized city in the Zamboanga Peninsula,.

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Islamic School, Islamic religious school, Islamic religious schools, Islamic seminaries, Islamic seminary, Jamiah, Jāmiʿah, Koran school, Madarassa, Madarsa, Maddrasa, Madrasah, Madrasahs, Madrasas, Madrase, Madraseh, Madrassa, Madrassa system, Madrassah, Madrassahs, Madrassas, Madraza, Madreesa, Madressa, Madressah, Maedraesae, Medersa, Medrese, Medreseh, Medressah, Medresseh, Mosque school, Muslim school, Muslim seminary, Mädräsä, Qur'an school, Qur'anic school, Quran school, Quranic school.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madrasa

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