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Index Maghreb

The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania. [1]

220 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Africa (Roman province), Al-Andalus, Alexandria, Algeria, Algerian dinar, Algiers, Almohad Caliphate, Almoravid dynasty, American Economic Association, Ancient Libya, Arab League, Arab Maghreb Union, Arab slave trade, Arabian Peninsula, Arabic, Arid, Atlantic coastal desert, Atlantic Ocean, Atlas Mountains, Augustine of Hippo, Augustus Henry Keane, Avner Greif, Élisée Reclus, Baghdad, Banu Hilal, Barbary Coast, Barbary pirates, Barca (ancient city), Béjaïa, BBC, Belisarius, Berber languages, Berberism, Berbers, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, Byzantine Empire, Caliphate, Canary Current, Carthage, Casablanca, Catholic Church, Ceuta, Chad, Chott Melrhir, Christian, Christianity, Christianity in Algeria, Christianization, Classical antiquity, ..., Community of Sahel-Saharan States, Constantinois, Conversion to Christianity, Couscous, Cyprian, Cyrenaica, Date palm, Desert pavement, Djerid, Draa River, Earth, Earth's orbit, Ecoregion, Egypt, Erg (landform), Esparto, Ethnic groups in Europe, European Moroccans, European Tunisians, Evangelicalism, Exarchate of Africa, Fatimid Caliphate, France, French colonial empire, French language, Geographical distribution of French speakers, Gulf of Tunis, Habib Bourguiba, Halophyte, Hamada, Hammadid dynasty, Haplogroup E-M215 (Y-DNA), Haplogroup J (Y-DNA), Haplogroup J-M267, Haplogroup R1, Haratin, Hispania, History of Algeria, History of Libya, History of Mauritania, History of Morocco, History of Tunisia, History of Western Sahara, Hodna, Ibadi, Iberian Peninsula, Ibn Khaldun, Ifriqiya, International Monetary Fund, Irreligion, Islam, ISO 3166, Italy, Jews, Judaism, Julia of Corsica, Justinian I, Kabylie, Kairouan, Kouloughlis, Libya, Libyan dinar, Lichen, Littoral zone, M'zab, Maghreb placename etymology, Maghrebi Arabic, Maghrebi Jews, Maghrebi script, Maghrebis, Mali, Maliki, Marabout, Marinid dynasty, Mashriq, Masinissa, Massylii, Matriarchal religion, Mauretania, Mauritania, Mauritanian ouguiya, Mediterranean Acacia-Argania dry woodlands, Mediterranean Basin, Mediterranean climate, Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests, Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe, Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub, Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean woodlands and forests, Melilla, Migration Period, Moors, Morisco, Moroccan dirham, Moroccans, Morocco, Muammar Gaddafi, Mughrabi, Muladi, Niger, North Africa, North Saharan steppe and woodlands, Nouakchott, Numidia, Olive, Ottoman Empire, Passion of Saint Perpetua, Saint Felicitas, and their Companions, Phoenicia, Pied-Noir, Pillars of Hercules, Plazas de soberanía, Pope Benedict VII, Protestantism, Public domain, Punic Wars, Rabat, Reconquista, Red Sea, Rif, Roman Africans, Roman Empire, Root (linguistics), Sahara, Sahara Desert (ecoregion), Sahel, Saint Monica, Septimius Severus, Shia Islam, Sidi, Single market, Sous, Southern Europe, Spain, Spaniards, Sub-Saharan Africa, Succulent plant, Sudan, Sunni Islam, Superstate, Tamazgha, Tertullian, The American Economic Review, The World Factbook, Tiaret, Titus Burckhardt, Traditional Berber religion, Trans-Saharan trade, Tripoli, Tripolitania, Tunis, Tunisia, Tunisian dinar, Tunisian people, Tunisian salt lakes, Umayyad Caliphate, Utica, Tunisia, Vandal Kingdom, Vandalic War, Vandals, Wadi, Wattasid dynasty, Western Asia, Western Roman Empire, Western Sahara, World Bank, World Wide Fund for Nature, Y chromosome, Zawiya (institution), Zayyanid dynasty, Zirid dynasty. Expand index (170 more) »

Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Africa (Roman province)

Africa Proconsularis was a Roman province on the north African coast that was established in 146 BC following the defeat of Carthage in the Third Punic War.

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Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.

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Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.

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Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.

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Algerian dinar

The dinar (دينار, Berber language: Dinar or Menkuc, French 'Dinar'; sign: DA; code: DZD) is the monetary currency of Algeria and it is subdivided into 100 centimes which are now obsolete due the extreme low value of the single currency unit of "one dinar".

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Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.

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Almohad Caliphate

The Almohad Caliphate (British English:, U.S. English:; ⵉⵎⵡⴻⵃⵃⴷⴻⵏ (Imweḥḥden), from Arabic الموحدون, "the monotheists" or "the unifiers") was a Moroccan Berber Muslim movement and empire founded in the 12th century.

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Almoravid dynasty

The Almoravid dynasty (Imṛabḍen, ⵉⵎⵕⴰⴱⴹⴻⵏ; المرابطون, Al-Murābiṭūn) was an imperial Berber Muslim dynasty centered in Morocco.

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American Economic Association

The American Economic Association (AEA) is a learned society in the field of economics, headquartered in Nashville, Tennessee.

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Ancient Libya

The Latin name Libya (from Greek Λιβύη, Libyē) referred to the region west of the Nile generally corresponding to the modern Maghreb.

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Arab League

The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.

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Arab Maghreb Union

The Arab Maghreb Union (AMU); اتحاد المغرب العربي) is a trade agreement aiming for economic and future political unity among Arab countries of the Maghreb in North Africa. Its members are the nations of Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia. The Union has been unable to achieve tangible progress on its goals due to deep economic and political disagreements between Morocco and Algeria regarding, among others, the issue of Western Sahara. No high level meetings have taken place since 3 July 2008 and commentators regard the Union as largely dormant.

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Arab slave trade

The Arab slave trade was the practice of slavery in the Arab world, mainly in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Southeast Africa and Europe.

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Arabian Peninsula

The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life.

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Atlantic coastal desert

The Atlantic coastal desert is the westernmost ecoregion in the Sahara Desert of North Africa.

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Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.

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Atlas Mountains

The Atlas Mountains (jibāl al-ʾaṭlas; ⵉⴷⵓⵔⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵟⵍⴰⵙ, idurar n waṭlas) are a mountain range in the Maghreb.

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Augustine of Hippo

Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.

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Augustus Henry Keane

Augustus Henry Keane (1833–1912) was an Irish Roman Catholic journalist and linguist, known for his ethnological writings.

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Avner Greif

Avner Greif (born 1955) is an economics professor at Stanford University, Stanford, California.

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Élisée Reclus

Jacques Élisée Reclus (15 March 1830 – 4 July 1905) was a renowned French geographer, writer and anarchist.

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Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.

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Banu Hilal

The Banu Hilal (Arabic: بنو هلال or الهلاليين) was a confederation of tribes of Arabia from the Hejaz and Najd regions of the Arabian Peninsula that emigrated to North Africa in the 11th century.

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Barbary Coast

The Barbary Coast, or Berber Coast, was the term used by Europeans from the 16th until the early 19th century to refer to much of the collective land of the Berber people.

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Barbary pirates

The Barbary pirates, sometimes called Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were Ottoman pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based primarily in the ports of Salé, Rabat, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli.

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Barca (ancient city)

Barca, also called Barce) (Βάρκη, برقة, Berber: Berqa) is an Ancient city and former bishopric, which survives in both Latin Catholic and Orthodox titular see.

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Béjaïa (بِجَايَة, Bijayah; Bgayet, Bgayeth, ⴱⴳⴰⵢⴻⵜ), formerly Bougie and Bugia, is a Mediterranean port city on the Gulf of Béjaïa in Algeria; it is the capital of Béjaïa Province, Kabylia.

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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Flavius Belisarius (Φλάβιος Βελισάριος, c. 505 – 565) was a general of the Byzantine Empire.

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Berber languages

The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.

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Berberism (Berber: Timmuzɣa or Tamaziɣiẓri) or Amazighism is a Berber political-cultural movement of ethnic, geographic, or cultural nationalism, started mainly in Kabylia, Algeria, and in Morocco and later spreading to the rest of the Berber communities in North Africa.

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Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.

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Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor

The Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor Affairs (DRL) is a bureau within the United States Department of State.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).

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Canary Current

The Canary Current is a wind-driven surface current that is part of the North Atlantic Gyre.

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Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.

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Casablanca (ad-dār al-bayḍāʾ; anfa; local informal name: Kaẓa), located in the central-western part of Morocco bordering the Atlantic Ocean, is the largest city in Morocco.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Ceuta (also;; Berber language: Sebta) is an Spanish autonomous city on the north coast of Africa, separated by 14 kilometres from Cadiz province on the Spanish mainland by the Strait of Gibraltar and sharing a 6.4 kilometre land border with M'diq-Fnideq Prefecture in the Kingdom of Morocco.

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Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.

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Chott Melrhir

Chott Melrhir also known as Chott Melghir or Chott Melhir is an endorheic salt lake in northeastern Algeria.

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A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.

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ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Christianity in Algeria

Christianity came to North Africa in the Roman era.

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Christianization (or Christianisation) is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Community of Sahel-Saharan States

The Community of Sahel-Saharan States (CEN-SAD; Arabic:; French: Communauté des Etats Sahélo-Sahariens; Portuguese: Comunidade dos Estados Sahelo-Saarianos) aims to create a free trade area within Africa.

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Constantinois is a cultural and historical region of the Maghreb, located in northeastern Algeria.

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Conversion to Christianity

Conversion to Christianity is a process of religious conversion in which a previously non-Christian person converts to Christianity.

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Couscous is a Maghrebi dish of small (about diameter) steamed balls of crushed durum wheat semolina that is traditionally served with a stew spooned on top.

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Saint Cyprian (Thaschus Cæcilius Cyprianus; 200 – September 14, 258 AD) was bishop of Carthage and a notable Early Christian writer of Berber descent, many of whose Latin works are extant.

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Cyrenaica (Cyrenaica (Provincia), Κυρηναία (ἐπαρχία) Kyrēnaíā (eparkhíā), after the city of Cyrene; برقة) is the eastern coastal region of Libya.

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Date palm

Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit.

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Desert pavement

A desert pavement, also called reg (in the western Sahara), serir (eastern Sahara), gibber (in Australia), or saï (central Asia) is a desert surface covered with closely packed, interlocking angular or rounded rock fragments of pebble and cobble size.

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el-Djerid, al-Jarīd (الجريد; "Palm Leaf", Darija l-Jrīd) is a semi-desert natural region comprising southern Tunisia and adjacent parts of Algeria and Libya.

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Draa River

The Draa (Asif en Dra, ⴰⵙⵉⴼ ⴻⵏ ⴷⵔⴰ, wad dərʿa; also spelled Dra or Drâa, in older sources mostly Darha or Dara) is Morocco's longest river, at.

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Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Earth's orbit

Earth's orbit is the trajectory along which Earth travels around the Sun.

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An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.

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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Erg (landform)

An erg (also sand sea or dune sea, or sand sheet if it lacks dunes) is a broad, flat area of desert covered with wind-swept sand with little or no vegetative cover.

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Esparto, halfah grass, or esparto grass, is a fiber produced from two species of perennial grasses of north Africa and southern Europe.

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Ethnic groups in Europe

The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.

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European Moroccans

European Moroccans are Moroccans whose ancestry lies within the continent of Europe, most notably France and Spain.

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European Tunisians

European Tunisians are Tunisians whose ancestry lies within the continent of Europe and its ethnic groups, most notably French people, Italian Tunisians (mostly Sicilians and Sardinians), Maltese people and Turco-Tunisians.

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Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.

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Exarchate of Africa

The Exarchate of Africa was a division of the Byzantine Empire centered at Carthage, Tunisia, which encompassed its possessions on the Western Mediterranean.

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Fatimid Caliphate

The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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French colonial empire

The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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Geographical distribution of French speakers

This article details the geographical distribution of speakers of the French language, regardless of the legislative status within the countries where it is spoken.

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Gulf of Tunis

The Gulf of Tunis is a large Mediterranean bay in north-eastern Tunisia, extending for from Cap Farina in the west to Cap Bon in the east.

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Habib Bourguiba

Habib Ben Ali Bourguiba (الحبيب بورقيبة al-Ḥabīb Būrqībah; 3 August 1903 – 6 April 2000) was a Tunisian lawyer, nationalist leader and statesman who served as the country's leader from independence in 1956 to 1987.

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A halophyte is a plant that grows in waters of high salinity, coming into contact with saline water through its roots or by salt spray, such as in saline semi-deserts, mangrove swamps, marshes and sloughs and seashores.

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A hamada (Arabic, حمادة ḥammāda) is a type of desert landscape consisting of high, largely barren, hard rocky plateaus, where most of the sand has been removed by deflation.

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Hammadid dynasty

The Hammadid dynasty was a Sanhaja Berber dynasty that ruled an area roughly corresponding to north-eastern modern Algeria between 1008 and 1152.

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Haplogroup E-M215 (Y-DNA)

E-M215, also known as E1b1b and formerly E3b, is a major human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.

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Haplogroup J (Y-DNA)

Haplogroup J-M304, also known as J, (2 February 2016).

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Haplogroup J-M267

In Genetic genealogy and human genetics, Y DNA haplogroup J-M267, also commonly known as Haplogroup J1 is a subclade (branch) of Y-DNA haplogroup J-P209, (commonly known as Haplogroup J) along with its sibling clade Y DNA haplogroup J-M172 (commonly known as Haplogroup J2).

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Haplogroup R1

Haplogroup R1, or R-M173, is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.

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Haratin, also referred to as Harratins, Haratine or Hartani, are oasis-dwellers in the Sahara, especially in the Maghreb.

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Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.

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History of Algeria

Much of the history of Algeria has taken place on the fertile coastal plain of North Africa, which is often called the Maghreb (or Maghrib).

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History of Libya

Libya's history covers its rich mix of ethnic groups added to the indigenous Berber tribes.

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History of Mauritania

The original inhabitants of Mauritania were the Bafour, presumably a Mande ethnic group, connected to the contemporary Arabized minor social group of Imraguen ("fishermen") on the Atlantic coast.

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History of Morocco

The history of Morocco spans several millennia, succeeding the prehistoric cultures of Jebel Irhoud and Taforalt.

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History of Tunisia

The present day Republic of Tunisia, al-Jumhuriyyah at-Tunisiyyah, has over ten million citizens, almost all of Arab-Berber descent.

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History of Western Sahara

The history of Western Sahara can be traced back to the times of Carthaginian explorer Hanno the Navigator in the 5th century BC.

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The Hodna (Le Hodna) is a natural region of Algeria located between the Tell and Saharan Atlas ranges at the eastern end of the Hautes Plaines.

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The Ibāḍī movement, Ibadism or Ibāḍiyya, also known as the Ibadis (الاباضية, al-Ibāḍiyyah), is a school of Islam dominant in Oman.

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Iberian Peninsula

The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.

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Ibn Khaldun

Ibn Khaldun (أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي.,; 27 May 1332 – 17 March 1406) was a fourteenth-century Arab historiographer and historian.

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Ifriqiya or Ifriqiyah or el-Maghrib el-Adna (Lower West) was the area during medieval history that comprises what is today Tunisia, Tripolitania (western Libya) and the Constantinois (eastern Algeria); all part of what was previously included in the Africa Province of the Roman Empire.

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International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.

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Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.

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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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ISO 3166

ISO 3166 is a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) that defines codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, special areas of geographical interest, and their principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states).

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.

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Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.

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Julia of Corsica

Saint Julia of Corsica (Santa Giulia da Corsica; Sainte Julie; Santa Ghjulia; Sancta Iulia), also known as Saint Julia of Carthage, and more rarely Saint Julia of Nonza, was a virgin martyr who is venerated as a Christian saint.

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Justinian I

Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.

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Kabylie, or Kabylia (Tamurt en Yiqbayliyen; Tazwawa; ⵜⴰⵎⵓⵔⵜ ⵏ ⵍⴻⵇⴱⴰⵢⴻⵍ), is a cultural region, natural region, and historical region in northern Algeria.

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Kairouan (القيروان, also known as al-Qayrawan), is the capital of the Kairouan Governorate in Tunisia.

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Kouloughlis, also spelled Koulouglis, Cologhlis and Qulaughlis (from Turkish kuloğlu "children of servants" or "children of slaves", from kul "servant/slave" + oğlu "son of") was a term used during the Ottoman period to designate the mixed offspring of Turkish men and local North African women (i.e. Berber, Arab or Arab-Berber), situated in the western and central coastal regions in the Barbary coast (i.e. in Algeria, Libya, and Tunisia). The phrase comes from the fact that the rulers of the Ottoman Empire conquered much of Arab world and sent Turkish people to the conquered lands. Whilst the terminology was commonly used in Ottoman Algeria, Ottoman Libya, and Ottoman Tunisia, it was not used in Ottoman Egypt to refer to Turco-Egyptians. Today, the descendants of the Kouloughlis have largely integrated into their local societies after independence, however, they still maintain some of their cultural traditions (particularly food); they also continue to practice the Hanafi school of Islam (in contrast to the ethnic Arabs and Berbers who practice the Maliki school), and uphold their Turkish origin surnames.

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Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.

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Libyan dinar

The dinar (دينار dīnār) is the currency of Libya.

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A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship.

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Littoral zone

The littoral zone is the part of a sea, lake or river that is close to the shore.

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The M'zab or Mzab, (Mozabite Aghlan, مزاب), is a natural region of the northern Sahara Desert in Ghardaïa Province, Algeria.

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Maghreb placename etymology

The place names of the Maghreb come from a variety of origins, mostly Arabic and Berber, but including a few derived from Phoenician, Latin, and several other languages.

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Maghrebi Arabic

Maghrebi Arabic (Western Arabic; as opposed to Eastern Arabic or Mashriqi Arabic) is an Arabic dialect continuum spoken in the Maghreb region, in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Western Sahara, and Mauritania.

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Maghrebi Jews

Maghrebi Jews (מַגּרֶבִּים Maghrebim or) or North African Jews (Yehudei Tzfon Africa) are Jews who had traditionally lived in the Maghreb region of North Africa (al-Maghrib, Arabic for "the west") under Arab rule during the Middle Ages.

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Maghrebi script

Maghrebi (or Maghribi) script is a cursive form of the Arabic alphabet influenced by Kufic letters that developed in the Maghreb (North Africa) and later in Spain, particularly Andalusia.

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Maghrebis or Maghrebians are the native inhabitants of the Maghreb in Northwest Africa.

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Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.

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The (مالكي) school is one of the four major madhhab of Islamic jurisprudence within Sunni Islam.

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A marabout (lit) is a Muslim religious leader and teacher in West Africa, and (historically) in the Maghreb.

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Marinid dynasty

The Marinid dynasty (Berber: Imrinen, المرينيون Marīniyūn) or Banu abd al-Haqq was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Zenata Berber descent that ruled Morocco from the 13th to the 15th century.

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The Mashriq (مَـشْـرِق, also Mashreq, Mashrek) is the historical region of the Arab world to the east of Egypt.

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Masinissa, or Masensen, (Berber: Masensen, ⵎⵙⵏⵙⵏ; c.238 BC – 148 BC)—also spelled Massinissa and Massena—was the first King of Numidia.

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The Massylii or Maesulians were a Berber federation of tribes in eastern Numidia, which was formed by an amalgamation of smaller tribes during the 4th century BC.

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Matriarchal religion

A matriarchal religion is a religion that focuses on a goddess or goddesses.

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Mauretania (also spelled Mauritania; both pronounced) is the Latin name for an area in the ancient Maghreb.

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Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.

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Mauritanian ouguiya

The ouguiya (sign: UM; أوقية; currency code: MRU), also spelled "ougiya", is the currency of Mauritania.

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Mediterranean Acacia-Argania dry woodlands

The Mediterranean Acacia-Argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets is a Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub ecoregion in North Africa centered mainly on Morocco but also including northwestern Western Sahara and the eastern Canary Islands.

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Mediterranean Basin

In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.

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Mediterranean climate

A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.

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Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests

Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests is an ecoregion, in the temperate coniferous forest biome, which occupies the high mountain ranges of North Africa and southern Spain.

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Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe

The Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe is a Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub ecoregion of North Africa.

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Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub

Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub are generally characterized by dry summers and rainy winters, although in some areas rainfall may be uniform.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Mediterranean woodlands and forests

The Mediterranean woodlands and forests is an ecoregion, of the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome, in the coastal plains, hills, and mountains bordering the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean in North Africa.

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Melilla (مليلية, Maliliyyah; ⵎⵔⵉⵜⵙ, Mřič) is a Spanish autonomous city located on the north coast of Africa, sharing a border with Morocco, with an area of.

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Migration Period

The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.

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The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.

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Moriscos (mouriscos,; meaning "Moorish") were former Muslims who converted or were coerced into converting to Christianity, after Spain finally outlawed the open practice of Islam by its sizeable Muslim population (termed mudéjar) in the early 16th century.

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Moroccan dirham

The dirham (درهم); plural: (دراهم, ⴰⴷⵔⵀⵎ, Dirham, Dírha, pronounced darahim) is the currency of Morocco.

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Moroccans (Berber: ⵉⵎⵖⵕⴰⴱⵉⵢⵏ, Imɣṛabiyen) are people inhabiting or originating from Morocco that share a common Moroccan culture and Maghrebi ancestry.

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Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.

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Muammar Gaddafi

Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi (20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist.

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Mughrabi, Mugrabi, Mograbi, or Moghrabi is a surname and place name derived from "Maghreb" – meaning "West" in Arabic, and usually referring to North Africa or specifically to Morocco, i.e., the westernmost part of the Arab and Muslim world.

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The Muladi (mulaˈði, pl. muladíes; mulɐˈði, pl. muladis; muɫəˈðitə or muladí, pl. muladites or muladís; مولد trans. muwallad, pl. مولدون muwalladūn or مولدين muwalladīn) were Muslims of local descent or of mixed Arab, Berber, and Iberian origin, who lived in Al-Andalus during the Middle Ages.

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Niger, also called the Niger officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa named after the Niger River.

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North Africa

North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.

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North Saharan steppe and woodlands

The North Saharan steppe and woodlands is a desert ecoregion, in the Deserts and xeric shrublands biome, that forms the northern edge of the Sahara.

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Nouakchott (نواكشوط, originally derived from Berber Nawākšūṭ, "place of the winds") page 273.

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Numidia (202 BC – 40 BC, Berber: Inumiden) was an ancient Berber kingdom of the Numidians, located in what is now Algeria and a smaller part of Tunisia and Libya in the Berber world, in North Africa.

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The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "European olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands and Réunion.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Passion of Saint Perpetua, Saint Felicitas, and their Companions

The Passion of Saint Perpetua, Saint Felicitas, and their Companions is one of the oldest and most notable early Christian texts.

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Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.

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Pied-Noir ("Black-Foot"), plural Pieds-Noirs, is a term primarily referring to people of European, mostly ethnic French origin, who were born in Algeria during the period of French rule from 1830 to 1962.

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Pillars of Hercules

The Pillars of Hercules (Latin: Columnae Herculis, Greek: Ἡράκλειαι Στῆλαι, Arabic: أعمدة هرقل / Aʿmidat Hiraql, Spanish: Columnas de Hércules) was the phrase that was applied in Antiquity to the promontories that flank the entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar.

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Plazas de soberanía

The plazas de soberanía (literally "places of sovereignty") are the Spanish sovereign territories in North Africa.

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Pope Benedict VII

Pope Benedict VII (Benedictus VII; d. October 983) was Pope from October 974 to his death in 983.

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Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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Public domain

The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply.

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Punic Wars

The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 BC to 146 BC.

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Rabat (الرِّبَاط,; ⴰⵕⴱⴰⵟ) is the capital city of Morocco and its third largest city with an urban population of approximately 580,000 (2014) and a metropolitan population of over 1.2 million.

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The Reconquista (Spanish and Portuguese for the "reconquest") is a name used to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492.

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Red Sea

The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.

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The Rif or Riff (Berber: ⴰⵔⵉⴼ Arif or ⴰⵔⵔⵉⴼ Arrif or ⵏⴽⵔ Nkor) is a mainly mountainous region in the northern part of the Kingdom of Morocco.

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Roman Africans

Roman-Africans are the ancient North African populations of Roman North Africa that had a Romanized culture and used to speak their own variety of Latin as a result.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Root (linguistics)

A root (or root word) is a word that does not have a prefix in front of the word or a suffix at the end of the word.

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The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.

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Sahara Desert (ecoregion)

The Sahara Desert ecoregion, as defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), includes the hyper-arid center of the Sahara, between 18° and 30° N. It is one of several desert and xeric shrubland ecoregions that cover the northern portion of the African continent.

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The Sahel is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of transition in Africa between the Sahara to the north and the Sudanian Savanna to the south.

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Saint Monica

Saint Monica (c.331/2- 387) (AD 322–387), also known as Monica of Hippo, was an early Christian saint and the mother of St.

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Septimius Severus

Septimius Severus (Lucius Septimius Severus Augustus; 11 April 145 – 4 February 211), also known as Severus, was Roman emperor from 193 to 211.

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Shia Islam

Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.

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Sidi or Sayidi, also Sayyidi and Sayeedi, (Sayyīdī, Sīdī (dialectal) "milord") is an Arabic masculine title of respect.

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Single market

A single market is a type of trade bloc in which most trade barriers have been removed (for goods) with some common policies on product regulation, and freedom of movement of the factors of production (capital and labour) and of enterprise and services.

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The Sous region (also spelt Sus, Suss, Souss or Sousse) (Berber: ⵙⵓⵙ, Sus) is a region in mid-southern Morocco.

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Southern Europe

Southern Europe is the southern region of the European continent.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Spaniards are a Latin European ethnic group and nation.

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Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.

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Succulent plant

In botany, succulent plants, also known as succulents, are plants that have some parts that are more than normally thickened and fleshy, usually to retain water in arid climates or soil conditions.

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The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.

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Sunni Islam

Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.

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A superstate is defined as "a large and powerful state formed when several smaller countries unite", "A large and powerful state formed from a federation or union of nations".

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Tamazgha (Tamazɣa, Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵗⴰ or ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵖⴰ) is a Berber language toponym denoting the Greater Maghreb, the lands traditionally inhabited by Berbers (Mazice/Amazigh).

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Tertullian, full name Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, c. 155 – c. 240 AD, was a prolific early Christian author from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa.

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The American Economic Review

The American Economic Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal of economics.

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The World Factbook

The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.

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Tiaret (Berber: Tahert or Tihert, ⵜⴰⵀⴻⵔⵜ, i.e. "Lioness"; تاهرت / تيارت) is a major city in central Algeria that gives its name to the wider farming region of Tiaret Province.

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Titus Burckhardt

Titus Burckhardt (who also used Ibrahim Izz al-Din as his Islamic name), a German Swiss, was born in Florence, Italy in 1908 and died in Lausanne, Switzerland in 1984.

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Traditional Berber religion

The traditional Berber religion is the ancient and native set of beliefs and deities adhered to by the Berber autochthones of North Africa.

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Trans-Saharan trade

Trans-Saharan trade requires travel across the Sahara (north and south) to reach sub-Saharan Africa from the North African coast, Europe, to the Levant.

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Tripoli (طرابلس,; Berber: Oea, or Wy't) is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.1 million people in 2015.

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Tripolitania or Tripolitana (طرابلس, Berber: Ṭrables, from Vulgar Latin *Trapoletanius, from Latin Regio Tripolitana, from Greek Τριπολιτάνια) is a historic region and former province of Libya.

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Tunis (تونس) is the capital and the largest city of Tunisia.

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Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.

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Tunisian dinar

The dinar (دينار, Dinar, ISO 4217 currency code: TND) is the currency of Tunisia.

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Tunisian people

Tunisian people or Tunisians (Twensa توانسة), are a Maghrebi ethnic group and nation native to Maghreb, primarily Tunisia who speak Tunisian Darja and share a common Tunisian culture and identity.

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Tunisian salt lakes

The Tunisian salt lakes are a series of lakes in central Tunisia, lying south of the Atlas Mountains at the northern edge of the Sahara.

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Umayyad Caliphate

The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.

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Utica, Tunisia

Utica is an ancient city located between Carthage in the south and Hippo Diarrhytus (now Bizerte) in the north, near the outflow of the Medjerda River into the Mediterranean.

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Vandal Kingdom

The Vandal Kingdom (Regnum Vandalum) or Kingdom of the Vandals and Alans (Regnum Vandalorum et Alanorum) was a kingdom, established by the Germanic Vandals under Genseric, in North Africa and the Mediterranean from 435 AD to 534 AD.

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Vandalic War

The Vandalic War (Βανδηλικὸς πόλεμος) was a conflict fought in North Africa (largely in modern Tunisia) between the forces of the Eastern Roman ("Byzantine") Empire and the Vandalic Kingdom of Carthage, in 533–534.

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The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland.

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Wadi (wādī; ואדי), alternatively wād (وَاد), is the Arabic and Hebrew term traditionally referring to a valley.

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Wattasid dynasty

The Wattasid dynasty (ⵉⵡⴻⵟⵟⴰⵙⴻⵏ, Iweṭṭasen; الوطاسيون, al-waṭṭāsīyūn) was a ruling dynasty of Morocco.

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Western Asia

Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.

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Western Roman Empire

In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.

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Western Sahara

Western Sahara (الصحراء الغربية, Taneẓroft Tutrimt, Spanish and French: Sahara Occidental) is a disputed territory in the Maghreb region of North Africa, partially controlled by the self-proclaimed Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and partially Moroccan-occupied, bordered by Morocco proper to the north, Algeria to the northeast, Mauritania to the east and south, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.

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World Bank

The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.

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World Wide Fund for Nature

The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.

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Y chromosome

The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.

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Zawiya (institution)

A zaouia or zawiya (زاوية zāwiyah; "assembly" "group" or "circle", also spelled zawiyah, zawiyya, zaouiya, zaouïa and zwaya) is an Islamic religious school or monastery.

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Zayyanid dynasty

The Zayyanid dynasty (زيانيون, Ziyānyūn) or Abd al-Wadids (بنو عبد الواد, Bānu ʿabd āl-Wād) was a Berber Zenata dynasty that ruled the Kingdom of Tlemcen, an area of northwestern Algeria, centered on Tlemcen.

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Zirid dynasty

The Zirid dynasty (ⵜⴰⴳⵍⴷⴰ ⵏ ⴰⵢⵜ ⵣⵉⵔⵉ Tagelda n Ayt Ziri, زيريون /ALA-LC: Zīryūn; Banu Ziri) was a Sanhaja Berber dynasty from modern-day Algeria which ruled the central Maghreb from 972 to 1014 and Ifriqiya (eastern Maghreb) from 972 to 1148.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maghreb

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