95 relations: Academic Press, Adiabatic process, Alkali basalt, Aluminium, Ancient Greek, Andesite, Archean, Barium, Basalt, Caesium, Calcium, Carbon dioxide, Carbonatite, Compatibility (geochemistry), Crust (geology), Cumulate rock, Diapir, Dike (geology), Diorite, Earth, Essexite, Eutectic system, Extrusive rock, Felsic, Fractional crystallization (geology), Gabbro, Geothermal energy, Geothermal gradient, Granite, Granitoid, Granodiorite, Hawaii (island), Hotspot (geology), Iceland Deep Drilling Project, Igneous differentiation, Igneous rock, Intermediate composition, Intrusive rock, Iron, Kimberlite, Komatiite, Lamproite, Lamprophyre, Lava, Layered intrusion, Mafic, Magma (disambiguation), Magma chamber, Magnesium, Mantle (geology), ..., Mid-ocean ridge, Migmatite, Mineral, Mixture, Monzonite, Natural satellite, Nepheline, Obsidian, Outer core, Oxygen, Partial groupoid, Pegmatite, Picrite basalt, Pluton, Potassium, Pumice, Pyroclastic rock, Radioactive decay, Rheid, Rhyolite, Rift, Rock (geology), Rubidium, Scoria, Silicate, Silicate minerals, Silicon, Silicon dioxide, Sill (geology), Sodium, Solid solution, Solidus (chemistry), Subduction, Tephra, Terrestrial planet, Tonalite, Trunki, Types of volcanic eruptions, Ultramafic rock, Viscosity, Volatility (chemistry), Volcanic rock, Volcano, Water, Yellowstone National Park. Expand index (45 more) » « Shrink index
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In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process is one that occurs without transfer of heat or matter between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings.
Alkali basalt or alkali olivine basalt is a fine-grained, dark-coloured, volcanic rock characterized by phenocrysts of olivine, titanium-rich augite, plagioclase feldspar and iron oxides.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Andesite is an extrusive igneous, volcanic rock, of intermediate composition, with aphanitic to porphyritic texture.
The Archean Eon (also spelled Archaean or Archæan) is one of the four geologic eons of Earth history, occurring (4 to 2.5 billion years ago).
Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.
Basalt is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.
Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbonatite is a type of intrusive or extrusive igneous rock defined by mineralogic composition consisting of greater than 50% carbonate minerals.
In geochemistry, compatibility is a measure of how readily a particular trace element substitutes for a major element within a mineral.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
Cumulate rocks are igneous rocks formed by the accumulation of crystals from a magma either by settling or floating.
A diapir (French, from Greek diapeirein, to pierce through) is a type of geologic intrusion in which a more mobile and ductily deformable material is forced into brittle overlying rocks.
A dike or dyke, in geological usage, is a sheet of rock that is formed in a fracture in a pre-existing rock body.
Diorite is an intrusive igneous rock composed principally of the silicate minerals plagioclase feldspar (typically andesine), biotite, hornblende, and/or pyroxene.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Essexite, also called nepheline monzogabbro, is a dark gray or black holocrystalline plutonic igneous rock.
A eutectic system from the Greek "ευ" (eu.
Extrusive rock refers to the mode of igneous volcanic rock formation in which hot magma from inside the Earth flows out (extrudes) onto the surface as lava or explodes violently into the atmosphere to fall back as pyroclastics or tuff.
In geology, felsic refers to igneous rocks that are relatively rich in elements that form feldspar and quartz.
Fractional crystallization, or crystal fractionation, is one of the most important geochemical and physical processes operating within the Earth's crust and mantle.
Gabbro refers to a large group of dark, often phaneritic (coarse-grained), mafic intrusive igneous rocks chemically equivalent to basalt, being its coarse-grained analogue.
Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth.
Geothermal gradient is the rate of increasing temperature with respect to increasing depth in the Earth's interior.
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.
A granitoid or granitic rock is a variety of coarse grained plutonic rock similar to granite which mineralogically is composed predominantly of feldspar and quartz.
Granodiorite is a phaneritic-textured intrusive igneous rock similar to granite, but containing more plagioclase feldspar than orthoclase feldspar.
Hawaiʻi is the largest island located in the U.S. state of Hawaii.
In geology, the places known as hotspots or hot spots are volcanic regions thought to be fed by underlying mantle that is anomalously hot compared with the surrounding mantle.
The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is a geothermal project established in 2000 by a consortium of the National Energy Authority of Iceland (Orkustofnun)(OS) and four of Iceland's leading energy companies: Hitaveita Sudurnesja (HS), Landsvirkjun, Orkuveita Reykjavíkur and Mannvit Engineering.
In geology, igneous differentiation, or magmatic differentiation, is an umbrella term for the various processes by which magmas undergo bulk chemical change during the partial melting process, cooling, emplacement, or eruption.
Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.
In igneous petrology an intermediate composition refers to the chemical composition of a rock that has 52-63 wt% SiO2 being an intermediate between felsic and mafic compositions.
Intrusive rock (also called plutonic rock) is formed when magma crystallizes and solidifies underground to form intrusions, for example plutons, batholiths, dikes, sills, laccoliths, and volcanic necks.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Kimberlite is an igneous rock, which sometimes contains diamonds.
Komatiite is a type of ultramafic mantle-derived volcanic rock.
Lamproite is an ultrapotassic mantle-derived volcanic or subvolcanic rock.
Lamprophyres (Greek λαµπρός (lamprós).
Lava is molten rock generated by geothermal energy and expelled through fractures in planetary crust or in an eruption, usually at temperatures from.
A layered intrusion is a large sill-like body of igneous rock which exhibits vertical layering or differences in composition and texture.
Mafic is an adjective describing a silicate mineral or igneous rock that is rich in magnesium and iron, and is thus a portmanteau of magnesium and '''f'''err'''ic'''.
Magma is molten rock found under the Earth's surface.
A magma chamber is a large pool of liquid rock beneath the surface of the Earth.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
A mid-ocean ridge (MOR) is an underwater mountain system formed by plate tectonics.
Migmatite is a rock that is a mixture of metamorphic rock and igneous rock.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
In chemistry, a mixture is a material made up of two or more different substances which are mixed.
Monzonite is an igneous intrusive rock.
A natural satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet (or sometimes another small Solar System body).
Not to be confused with Nephrite. Nepheline, also called nephelite (from Greek: νεφέλη, "cloud"), is a feldspathoid: a silica-undersaturated aluminosilicate, Na3KAl4Si4O16, that occurs in intrusive and volcanic rocks with low silica, and in their associated pegmatites.
Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock.
The outer core of the Earth is a fluid layer about thick and composed of mostly iron and nickel that lies above Earth's solid inner core and below its mantle.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
In abstract algebra, a partial groupoid (also called halfgroupoid, pargoid, or partial magma) is a set endowed with a partial binary operation.
A pegmatite is a holocrystalline, intrusive igneous rock composed of interlocking phaneritic crystals usually larger than 2.5 cm in size (1 in); such rocks are referred to as pegmatitic.
Picrite basalt, picrobasalt is a variety of high-magnesium olivine basalt that is very rich in the mineral olivine.
In geology, a pluton is a body of intrusive igneous rock (called a plutonic rock) that is crystallized from magma slowly cooling below the surface of the Earth.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Pumice, called pumicite in its powdered or dust form, is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass, which may or may not contain crystals.
Pyroclastic rocks or pyroclastics (derived from the πῦρ, meaning fire; and κλαστός, meaning broken) are clastic rocks composed solely or primarily of volcanic materials.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A rheid is a substance whose temperature is below the melting point and whose deformation by viscous flow during the time of observation is at least three orders of magnitude (1,000×) greater than the elastic deformation under the given conditions.
Rhyolite is an igneous, volcanic rock, of felsic (silica-rich) composition (typically > 69% SiO2 – see the TAS classification).
In geology, a rift is a linear zone where the lithosphere is being pulled apart and is an example of extensional tectonics.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
Rubidium is a chemical element with symbol Rb and atomic number 37.
Scoria is a highly vesicular, dark colored volcanic rock that may or may not contain crystals (phenocrysts).
In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.
Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals with predominantly silicate anions.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
In geology, a sill is a tabular sheet intrusion that has intruded between older layers of sedimentary rock, beds of volcanic lava or tuff, or along the direction of foliation in metamorphic rock.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
A solid solution is a solid-state solution of one or more solutes in a solvent.
In chemistry, materials science, and physics, the solidus is the locus of temperatures (a curve on a phase diagram) below which a given substance is completely solid (crystallized).
Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle.
Tephra is fragmental material produced by a volcanic eruption regardless of composition, fragment size, or emplacement mechanism.
A terrestrial planet, telluric planet, or rocky planet is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.
Tonalite is an igneous, plutonic (intrusive) rock, of felsic composition, with phaneritic texture.
Trunki is a brand of ride-on/carry-on hand luggage for children, designed by Rob Law.
Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and volcanic blocks), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure—have been distinguished by volcanologists.
Ultramafic (also referred to as ultrabasic rocks, although the terms are not wholly equivalent) are igneous and meta-igneous rocks with a very low silica content (less than 45%), generally >18% MgO, high FeO, low potassium, and are composed of usually greater than 90% mafic minerals (dark colored, high magnesium and iron content).
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
In chemistry and physics, volatility is quantified by the tendency of a substance to vaporize.
Volcanic rock (often shortened to volcanics in scientific contexts) is a rock formed from magma erupted from a volcano.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Yellowstone National Park is an American national park located in Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho.