421 relations: Abbot of Abingdon, Abbot of Battle, Abbot of Peterborough, Abbot of St Albans, Abbot of Westminster, Abbotsbury Abbey, Absolute monarchy, Administration of Estates Act 1925, Alan Basset, Alan of Galloway, Albert Pollard, Albigensian Crusade, Alnwick Castle, American Bar Association, Ancient constitution of England, Angevin kings of England, Anglo-Saxons, Archbishop of Canterbury, Archbishop of Dublin (Roman Catholic), Archdeacon of Hereford, Architect of the Capitol, Arthur Hall (English politician), Article One of the United States Constitution, Barnwell chronicler, Baron, Baronial Order of Magna Charta, Battle of Bouvines, Battle of Lincoln (1217), Battle of Sandwich (1217), BBC News Online, BBC Radio 4, Beeswax, Belvoir Castle, Benedict of Sausetun, Bill of Rights 1689, Bishop of Bath and Wells, Bishop of Chichester, Bishop of Coventry, Bishop of Ely, Bishop of Exeter, Bishop of Hereford, Bishop of Lincoln, Bishop of London, Bishop of Rochester, Bishop of Salisbury, Bishop of Winchester, Bishop of Worcester, Blanche of Castile, Bodleian Library, Brian de Lisle, ..., British Empire, British Library, Bury St Edmunds, Bury St Edmunds Abbey, Canterbury Cathedral, Cardigan, Ceredigion, Cardinal (Catholic Church), Castle-guard, Cerne Abbey, Chained library, Charles I of England, Charter, Charter of Liberties, Charter of the Forest, Chertsey Abbey, Chester, Chief Justice of the United States, Chronica Majora, Cinque Ports, Cirencester Abbey, City of London, Civil liberties in the United Kingdom, Civil Procedure Acts Repeal Act 1879, Classical Latin, Commonwealth of England, Conservation and restoration of parchment, Constitution of the United Kingdom, Cornelia Parker, Coup d'état, Court (royal), Crown Proceedings Act 1947, Crusades, Darnell's Case, David Carpenter (historian), David Ross (businessman), David Rubenstein, Diggers, Divine right of kings, Dover, Dover Castle, Dowry, Due process, Durham Cathedral, Earl of Albemarle, Earl of Cardigan, Earl of Chester, Earl of Essex, Earl of Gloucester, Earl of Hereford, Earl of Norfolk, Earl of Oxford, Earl of Suffolk, Earl of Winchester, Edward Coke, Edward I of England, Edward II of England, Edward III of England, Edward Jenks, English Civil War, English law, Estates of the realm, Eustace de Vesci, Eustace of Fauconberg, Evesham Abbey, Excommunication, Exemplified copy, Exeter, Facsimile, Faversham, Feudal relief, Feudalism, Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution, First Barons' War, Fishing weir, Francis Bacon, Francis Burdett, Fraunces Tavern, Frederic William Maitland, Fundamental Laws of England, Gascony, Gérard d'Athée, Geoffrey de Saye, Geoffrey FitzGeoffrey de Mandeville, 2nd Earl of Essex, George Ferrers, George IV of the United Kingdom, Gerrard Winstanley, Gilbert de Clare, 5th Earl of Gloucester, Giles de Braose, Glorious Revolution, Gloucester Cathedral, Granville Sharp, Great Charter of Ireland, Great Seal of the Realm, Guala Bicchieri, Guildhall, London, Habeas corpus, Harleian Library, Harry Woolf, Baron Woolf, Helmsley Castle, Henry Care, Henry de Bohun, 1st Earl of Hereford, Henry de Loundres, Henry I of England, Henry II of England, Henry III of England, Henry Spelman, Henry VI of England, Henry VII of England, Henry VIII of England, Hereford Cathedral, Hereford Mappa Mundi, Historiography, History of democracy, History of human rights, Homage (feudal), Hornby Castle, Lancashire, House of Stuart, Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent, Hugh Bigod, 3rd Earl of Norfolk, Hugh de Neville, Hugh Foliot, Hugh of Northwold, Hugh of Wells, Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford, Hyde Abbey, Igor Judge, Baron Judge, Internet History Sourcebooks Project, Intestacy, Investiture Controversy, Isle of Axholme, J. 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The following is a list of abbots of Abingdon.
Abbot of Battle was the title given to the abbot of Battle Abbey in Sussex, England.
A list of the abbots of the abbey of Peterborough, known until the late 10th century as "Medeshamstede".
This is a list of abbots of St Albans Abbey up to its Dissolution in 1539.
The Abbot of Westminster was the head (abbot) of Westminster Abbey.
Abbotsbury Abbey, dedicated to Saint Peter, was a Benedictine monastery in the village of Abbotsbury in Dorset, England.
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
The Administration of Estates Act 1925 is a law passed in 1925 in England and Wales that changed the historical rules of inheritance for example gavelkind and primogeniture to that of modern-day norms.
Alan Basset (died 1232 or 1233) was an English baron.
Alan of Galloway (born before 1199; died 1234), also known as Alan fitz Roland, was a leading thirteenth-century Scottish magnate.
Albert Frederick Pollard (16 December 1869 – 3 August 1948) was a British historian who specialized in the Tudor period.
The Albigensian Crusade or the Cathar Crusade (1209–1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by Pope Innocent III to eliminate Catharism in Languedoc, in southern France.
Alnwick Castle is a castle and stately home in Alnwick in the English county of Northumberland.
The American Bar Association (ABA), founded August 21, 1878, is a voluntary bar association of lawyers and law students, which is not specific to any jurisdiction in the United States.
The ancient constitution of England was a 17th-century political theory about the common law, used at the time in particular to oppose the royal prerogative.
The Angevins ("from Anjou") were a royal house that ruled England in the 12th and early 13th centuries; its monarchs were Henry II, Richard I and John.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury.
The Archbishop of Dublin (Ard-Easpag Bhaile Átha Cliath) is the title of the senior cleric who presides over the Archdiocese of Dublin.
The Archdeacon of Hereford is a senior ecclesiastical officer in the Church of England Diocese of Hereford.
The Architect of the Capitol (AOC) is the federal agency responsible for the maintenance, operation, development, and preservation of the United States Capitol Complex, and also the head of that agency.
Arthur Hall (1539–1605) was an English Member of Parliament, courtier and translator.
Article One of the United States Constitution establishes the legislative branch of the federal government, the United States Congress.
The Barnwell Chronicle is a thirteenth-century Latin chronicle named after Barnwell Priory, near Cambridge, where the manuscript was kept.
Baron is a rank of nobility or title of honour, often hereditary.
The Baronial Order of Magna Charta ("BOMC") is a scholarly, charitable, and lineage society founded in 1898.
The Battle of Bouvines, was a medieval battle fought on 27 July 1214 near the town of Bouvines in the County of Flanders.
The Second Battle of Lincoln occurred at Lincoln Castle on Saturday 20 May 1217, during the First Barons' War, between the forces of the future Louis VIII of France and those of King Henry III of England.
The Battle of Sandwich, also called the Battle of Dover took place on 24 August 1217 as part of the First Barons' War.
BBC News Online is the website of BBC News, the division of the BBC responsible for newsgathering and production.
BBC Radio 4 is a radio station owned and operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) that broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history.
Beeswax (cera alba) is a natural wax produced by honey bees of the genus Apis.
Belvoir Castle is a stately home in the English county of Leicestershire, overlooking the Vale of Belvoir.
Benedict of Sausetun (or Benedict of Sawston) was a medieval Bishop of Rochester.
The Bill of Rights, also known as the English Bill of Rights, is an Act of the Parliament of England that deals with constitutional matters and sets out certain basic civil rights.
The Bishop of Bath and Wells heads the Church of England Diocese of Bath and Wells in the Province of Canterbury in England.
The Bishop of Chichester is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Chichester in the Province of Canterbury. The diocese covers the counties of East and West Sussex. The see is based in the City of Chichester where the bishop's seat is located at the Cathedral Church of the Holy Trinity. On 3 May 2012 the appointment was announced of Martin Warner, Bishop of Whitby, as the next Bishop of Chichester. His enthronement took place on 25 November 2012 in Chichester Cathedral. The bishop's residence is The Palace, Chichester. Since 2015, Warner has also fulfilled the diocesan-wide role of alternative episcopal oversight, following the decision by Mark Sowerby, Bishop of Horsham, to recognise the orders of priests and bishops who are women.
The Bishop of Coventry is the Ordinary of the England Diocese of Coventry in the Province of Canterbury.
The Bishop of Ely is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Ely in the Province of Canterbury.
The Bishop of Exeter is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Exeter in the Province of Canterbury.
The Bishop of Hereford is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Hereford in the Province of Canterbury.
The Bishop of Lincoln is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Lincoln in the Province of Canterbury.
The Bishop of London is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury.
The Bishop of Rochester is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Rochester in the Province of Canterbury.
The Bishop of Salisbury is the ordinary of the Church of England's Diocese of Salisbury in the Province of Canterbury.
The Bishop of Winchester is the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Winchester in the Church of England.
The Bishop of Worcester is the head of the Church of England Diocese of Worcester in the Province of Canterbury, England.
Blanche of Castile (Blanca; 4 March 1188 – 27 November 1252) was Queen of France by marriage to Louis VIII.
The Bodleian Library is the main research library of the University of Oxford, and is one of the oldest libraries in Europe.
Brian de Lisle (died 1234) was an English soldier.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the largest national library in the world by number of items catalogued.
Bury St Edmunds is a historic market town and civil parish in the in St Edmundsbury district, in the county of Suffolk, England.
The Abbey of Bury St Edmunds was once among the richest Benedictine monasteries in England, until the Dissolution of the monasteries in 1539.
Canterbury Cathedral in Canterbury, Kent, is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England.
Cardigan (Aberteifi) is a town in the county of Ceredigionformerly Cardiganshirein Wales.
A cardinal (Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church) is a senior ecclesiastical leader, considered a Prince of the Church, and usually an ordained bishop of the Roman Catholic Church.
Castle-guard was an arrangement under the feudal system, by which the duty of finding knights to guard royal castles was imposed on certain manors, knight's fees or baronies.
Cerne Abbey was a Benedictine monastery founded in 987 in the town now called Cerne Abbas, Dorset, by Æthelmær the Stout.
A chained library is a library where the books are attached to their bookcase by a chain, which is sufficiently long to allow the books to be taken from their shelves and read, but not removed from the library itself.
Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
A charter is the grant of authority or rights, stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified.
The Charter of Liberties, also called the Coronation Charter, was a written proclamation by Henry I of England, issued upon his accession to the throne in 1100.
The Charter of the Forest of 1217 (Carta Foresta) is a charter that re-established for free men rights of access to the royal forest that had been eroded by William the Conqueror and his heirs.
Chertsey Abbey, dedicated to St Peter, was a Benedictine monastery located at Chertsey in the English county of Surrey.
Chester (Caer) is a walled city in Cheshire, England, on the River Dee, close to the border with Wales.
The Chief Justice of the United States is the chief judge of the Supreme Court of the United States and thus the head of the United States federal court system, which functions as the judicial branch of the nation's federal government.
The Chronica Majora is an important medieval illuminated manuscript chronicle written in Latin by Matthew Paris, a Benedictine monk living in the Abbey of St Albans.
The Confederation of Cinque Ports is a historic series of coastal towns in Kent and Sussex.
Cirencester Abbey or St Mary's Abbey, Cirencester in Gloucestershire was founded as an Augustinian monastery in 1117 on the site of an earlier church, the oldest-known Saxon church in England, which had itself been built on the site of a Roman structure.
The City of London is a city and county that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London.
Civil liberties in the United Kingdom have a long and formative history.
The Civil Procedure Acts Repeal Act 1879 (42 & 43 Vict c 59) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
The Commonwealth was the period from 1649 to 1660 when England and Wales, later along with Ireland and Scotland, was ruled as a republic following the end of the Second English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I. The republic's existence was declared through "An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth", adopted by the Rump Parliament on 19 May 1649.
The conservation and restoration of parchment constitutes the care and treatment of parchment materials which have cultural and historical significance.
The United Kingdom does not have one specific constitutional document named as such.
Cornelia Ann Parker OBE, RA (born 1956) is an English sculptor and installation artist.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
A court is an extended royal household in a monarchy, including all those who regularly attend on a monarch, or another central figure.
The Crown Proceedings Act 1947 (c. 44) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that allowed, for the first time, civil actions against the Crown to be brought in the same way as against any other party.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
The Five Knights' case (1627) 3 How St Tr 1 (also Darnel's or Darnell's case) (K.B. 1627), is a case in English law, and now UK constitutional law, fought by five knights (among them Thomas Darnell) in 1627 against forced loans placed on them by King Charles I in a common law court.
David Carpenter (born 1947) is an English historian and writer, and Professor of Medieval History at King's College London where he has been working since 1988.
David Peter John Ross (born 10 July 1965) is an English businessman and one of the co-founders (with Charles Dunstone and Guy Johnson) of Carphone Warehouse.
David Mark Rubenstein (born August 11, 1949) is an American financier and philanthropist best known as the co-founder and co-executive chairman of The Carlyle Group, January 2014 a global private equity investment company based in Washington, D.C. He also currently serves as chairman of the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, chairman of the Smithsonian Institution, and President of the Economic Club of Washington, D.C. According to the Forbes ranking of the wealthiest people in America, Rubenstein has a net worth of $2.9 billion.
The Diggers were a group of Protestant radicals in England, sometimes seen as forerunners of modern anarchism, and also associated with agrarian socialism and Georgism.
The divine right of kings, divine right, or God's mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy.
Dover is a town and major ferry port in the home county of Kent, in South East England.
Dover Castle is a medieval castle in Dover, Kent, England.
A dowry is a transfer of parental property, gifts or money at the marriage of a daughter.
Due process is the legal requirement that the state must respect all legal rights that are owed to a person.
The Cathedral Church of Christ, Blessed Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert of Durham, commonly known as Durham Cathedral and home of the Shrine of St Cuthbert, is a cathedral in the city of Durham, United Kingdom, the seat of the Anglican Bishop of Durham.
Earl of Albemarle is a title created several times from Norman times onwards.
Earl of Cardigan is a title in the Peerage of England, currently held by the Marquesses of Ailesbury, and used as a courtesy title by the heir apparent to that Marquessate, currently David Brudenell-Bruce, Earl of Cardigan, son of the 8th Marquess.
The Earldom of Chester (Welsh: Iarll Caer) was one of the most powerful earldoms in medieval England, extending principally over the counties of Cheshire and Flintshire.
Earl of Essex is a title in the Peerage of England which was first created in the 12th century by King Stephen of England.
The title of Earl of Gloucester was created several times in the Peerage of England.
The title of Earl of Hereford was created six times in the Peerage of England.
Earl of Norfolk is a title which has been created several times in the Peerage of England.
Earl of Oxford is a dormant title in the Peerage of England, first created for Edgar the Atheling and held by him from 1066 to 1068, and later offered to Aubrey III de Vere by the empress Matilda in 1141, one of four counties he could choose if Cambridgeshire was held by the king of Scotland.
Earl of Suffolk is a title that has been created four times in the Peerage of England.
Earl of Winchester was a title that was created three times in the Peerage of England during the Middle Ages.
Sir Edward Coke ("cook", formerly; 1 February 1552 – 3 September 1634) was an English barrister, judge, and politician who is considered to be the greatest jurist of the Elizabethan and Jacobean eras.
Edward I (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots (Malleus Scotorum), was King of England from 1272 to 1307.
Edward II (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), also called Edward of Carnarvon, was King of England from 1307 until he was deposed in January 1327.
Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II.
Edward Jenks, FBA (1861–1939) was an English jurist, and noted writer on law and its place in history.
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.
English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.
The estates of the realm, or three estates, were the broad orders of social hierarchy used in Christendom (Christian Europe) from the medieval period to early modern Europe.
Eustace de Vesci (1169–1216) was an English lord of Alnwick Castle, and a Magna Carta surety.
Eustace of Fauconberg was a medieval English Bishop of London from 1221 to 1228 and was also Lord High Treasurer.
Evesham Abbey was founded by Saint Egwin at Evesham in Worcestershire, England between 700 and 710 AD following an alleged vision of the Virgin Mary by a swineherd by the name of Eof.
Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community or to restrict certain rights within it, in particular receiving of the sacraments.
An exemplified copy (or exemplification) is an official attested copy or transcript of a public instrument, made under the seal and original pen-in-hand signature of a court or public functionary and in the name of the sovereign, e.g., "The People of the State of New York".
Exeter is a cathedral city in Devon, England, with a population of 129,800 (mid-2016 EST).
A facsimile (from Latin fac simile (to 'make alike')) is a copy or reproduction of an old book, manuscript, map, art print, or other item of historical value that is as true to the original source as possible.
Faversham is a market town and civil parish in the Swale district of Kent, England.
Feudal relief was a one-off "fine" or form of taxation payable to an overlord by the heir of a feudal tenant to license him to take possession of his fief, i.e. an estate-in-land, by inheritance.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
The Fifth Amendment (Amendment V) to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights and, among other things, protects individuals from being compelled to be witnesses against themselves in criminal cases.
The First Barons' War (1215–1217) was a civil war in the Kingdom of England in which a group of rebellious major landowners (commonly referred to as barons) led by Robert Fitzwalter and supported by a French army under the future Louis VIII of France, waged war against King John of England.
A fishing weir, fish weir, fishgarth or kiddle is an obstruction placed in tidal waters, or wholly or partially across a river, to direct the passage of, or trap fish.
Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (22 January 15619 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.
Sir Francis Burdett, 5th Baronet (25 January 1770 – 23 January 1844) was an English reformist politician, the son of Francis Burdett and his wife Eleanor, daughter of William Jones of Ramsbury manor, Wiltshire, and grandson of Sir Robert Burdett, Bart.
Fraunces Tavern is a landmark museum and restaurant in New York City, situated at 54 Pearl Street at the corner of Broad Street.
Frederic William Maitland, FBA (28 May 1850 – 19 December 1906) was an English historian and lawyer who is generally regarded as the modern father of English legal history.
In the 1760s William Blackstone described the Fundamental Laws of England in Commentaries on the Laws of England, Book the First – Chapter the First: Of the Absolute Rights of Individuals as "the absolute rights of every Englishman" and traced their basis and evolution as follows.
Gascony (Gascogne; Gascon: Gasconha; Gaskoinia) is an area of southwest France that was part of the "Province of Guyenne and Gascony" prior to the French Revolution.
Gérard D’Athée was a mercenary captain employed by King John of England from 1211 to 1215 to control southern Wales.
Geoffrey de Saye (1155–1230) was an English nobleman, and a Magna Carta surety.
Geoffrey de Mandeville, 2nd Earl of Essex and 4th Earl of Gloucester (c. 1191 – 23 February 1216) was an English peer.
George Ferrers (c. 1500 – 1579) was a courtier and writer.
George IV (George Augustus Frederick; 12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover following the death of his father, King George III, on 29 January 1820, until his own death ten years later.
Gerrard Winstanley (19 October 1609 – 10 September 1676) was an English Protestant religious reformer, political philosopher, and activist during The Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell.
Gilbert de Clare, 4th Earl of Hertford, 5th Earl of Gloucester, 1st Lord of Glamorgan, 7th Lord of Clare (1180 – 25 October 1230) was the son of Richard de Clare, 3rd Earl of Hertford (c. 1153–1217), from whom he inherited the Clare estates.
Giles de Braose (or Giles de Bruse; died 1215) was Bishop of Hereford from 1200 to 1215.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.
Gloucester Cathedral, formally the Cathedral Church of St Peter and the Holy and Indivisible Trinity, in Gloucester, England, stands in the north of the city near the River Severn.
Granville Sharp (10 November 1735 – 6 July 1813) was one of the first English campaigners for the abolition of the slave trade.
Magna Carta Hiberniae 1216 (or the Great Charter of Ireland) is an issue of the English Magna Carta (or Great Charter of Liberties) in Ireland.
The Great Seal of the Realm or Great Seal of the United Kingdom (known prior to the Treaty of Union of 1707 as the Great Seal of England; and from then until the Union of 1801 as the Great Seal of Great Britain and Ireland) is a seal that is used to symbolise the Sovereign's approval of important state documents.
Guala Bicchieri (1150 – 1227) was an Italian diplomat, papal official and cardinal.
Guildhall is a Grade I-listed building in the City of London, England.
Habeas corpus (Medieval Latin meaning literally "that you have the body") is a recourse in law through which a person can report an unlawful detention or imprisonment to a court and request that the court order the custodian of the person, usually a prison official, to bring the prisoner to court, to determine whether the detention is lawful.
The Harleian Library, Harley Collection, Harleian Collection and other variants (Bibliotheca Harleiana) is one of the main "closed" collections of the British Library in London (formerly the library of the British Museum).
Harry Kenneth Woolf, Baron Woolf, (born 2 May 1933) is a British life peer, and retired barrister and judge.
Helmsley Castle (also known anciently as Hamlake) is a medieval castle situated in the market town of Helmsley, within the North York Moors National Park, North Yorkshire, England.
Henry Care (1646–1688) was an English political writer and journalist, or "Whig propagandist", whose speciality was anti-Catholicism.
Henry de Bohun, 1st Earl of Hereford (1176 – 1 June 1220) was an Anglo-Norman nobleman.
Henry de Loundres (died 1228) was an Anglo-Norman churchman who was Archbishop of Dublin, from 1213 to 1228.
Henry I (c. 1068 – 1 December 1135), also known as Henry Beauclerc, was King of England from 1100 to his death.
Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also partially controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany.
Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272), also known as Henry of Winchester, was King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Aquitaine from 1216 until his death.
Sir Henry Spelman (c.1562 – October 1641) was an English antiquary, noted for his detailed collections of medieval records, in particular of church councils.
Henry VI (6 December 1421 – 21 May 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471, and disputed King of France from 1422 to 1453.
Henry VII (Harri Tudur; 28 January 1457 – 21 April 1509) was the King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizure of the crown on 22 August 1485 to his death on 21 April 1509.
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.
The current Hereford Cathedral, located at Hereford in England, dates from 1079.
The Hereford Mappa Mundi is a medieval map of the known world (mappa mundi in Latin), of a form deriving from the T and O pattern, dating from c. 1300.
Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject.
A democracy is a political system, or a system of decision-making within an institution or organization or a country, in which all members have an equal share of power.
While belief in the sanctity of human life has ancient precedents in many religions of the world, the idea of modern human rights began during the era of renaissance humanism in the early modern period.
Homage in the Middle Ages was the ceremony in which a feudal tenant or vassal pledged reverence and submission to his feudal lord, receiving in exchange the symbolic title to his new position (investiture).
Hornby Castle is a country house, developed from a medieval castle, standing to the east of the village of Hornby in the Lune Valley, Lancashire, England.
The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a European royal house that originated in Scotland.
Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent (c. 1170 – before 5 May 1243) was Justiciar of England and Ireland and one of the most influential men in England during the reigns of King John (1199–1216) and of his infant son and successor King Henry III (1216–1272).
Hugh Bigod (– 18 February 1225) was a member of the powerful early Norman Bigod family and was for a short time the 3rd Earl of Norfolk.
Hugh de Neville (died 1234) was the Chief Forester under the kings Richard I, John and Henry III of England; he was the sheriff for a number of counties.
Hugh Foliot (c. 1155 – 7 August 1234) was a medieval Bishop of Hereford.
Hugh of Northwold (died 1254) was a medieval Bishop of Ely.
Hugh of Wells (died 7 February 1235) was a medieval Bishop of Lincoln.
Humphrey (IV) de Bohun (1204 – 24 September 1275) was 2nd Earl of Hereford and 1st Earl of Essex, as well as Constable of England.
Hyde Abbey was a medieval Benedictine monastery just outside the walls of Winchester, Hampshire, England.
Igor Judge, Baron Judge (born 19 May 1941) is a former English judge who served as the Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales, the head of the judiciary, from 2008 to 2013.
The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the Fordham University History Department and Center for Medieval Studies.
Intestacy is the condition of the estate of a person who dies without having made a valid will or other binding declaration.
The Investiture controversy or Investiture contest was a conflict between church and state in medieval Europe over the ability to appoint local church officials through investiture.
The Isle of Axholme is a geographical area of North Lincolnshire, England.
Sir James Clarke ("Jim") Holt, FBA (26 April 1922 – 9 April 2014) was an English medieval historian, known particularly for his work on Magna Carta.
John Greville Agard Pocock ONZM (born 7 March 1924) is a historian of political thought from New Zealand.
James Morice (1539–1597) was an English politician.
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
Jocelin of Wells (died 19 November 1242) was a medieval Bishop of Bath (and Glastonbury).
John de Baalun or Balun (died 1235), was a justice itinerant and baron.
John de Lacy (– 22 July 1240) was the 2nd Earl of Lincoln, of the fourth creation.
John FitzAlan, 3rd Lord of Clun and Oswestry (1200–1240) in the Welsh Marches in the county of Shropshire.
John FitzRobert (ca. 1190–1240) (de Clavering) is listed as one of the Surety Barons in Magna Carta (1215) where he is described as Lord of Warkworth Castle.
John Lilburne (161429 August 1657), also known as Freeborn John, was an English political Leveller before, during and after the English Civil Wars 1642–1650.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John of Fountains (died 6 May 1225) was a medieval Bishop of Ely.
John of Monmouth (c. 1182 – 1248) was an Anglo-Norman feudal lord of Breton ancestry, who was lord of Monmouth between 1190 and 1248.
John Pine (1690–1756) was an English designer, engraver, and cartographer notable for his artistic contribution to the Augustan style and Newtonian scientific paradigm that flourished during the British Enlightenment.
John Rastell (or Rastall) (c. 1475 – 1536) was an English printer, author, member of parliament, and barrister.
John Glover Roberts Jr. (born January 27, 1955) is an American lawyer who serves as the 17th and current Chief Justice of the United States.
John Selden (16 December 1584 – 30 November 1654) was an English jurist, a scholar of England's ancient laws and constitution and scholar of Jewish law.
John Wilkes (17 October 1725 – 26 December 1797) was an English radical, journalist, and politician.
John (24 December 1166 – 19 October 1216), also known as John Lackland (Norman French: Johan sanz Terre), was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216.
In Medieval England and Scotland the Chief Justiciar (later known simply as the Justiciar) was roughly equivalent to a modern Prime Minister as the monarch's chief minister.
Kent County Council is a county council that governs most of the county of Kent in England.
Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States.
King's Bruton is an independent fully co-educational secondary day and boarding school based in Bruton, Somerset, England.
In feudal Anglo-Norman England and Ireland, a knight's fee was a unit measure of land deemed sufficient to support a knight.
The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici), also known as the Order of Solomon's Temple, the Knights Templar or simply as Templars, were a Catholic military order recognised in 1139 by papal bull Omne Datum Optimum of the Holy See.
Lambeth Palace is the official London residence of the Archbishop of Canterbury in England, in north Lambeth, on the south bank of the River Thames, 400 yards south-east of the Palace of Westminster, which houses the Houses of Parliament, on the opposite bank.
The phrase law of the land is a legal term, equivalent to the Latin lex terrae, or legem terrae in the accusative case.
The Legion of Honor (formerly known as The California Palace of the Legion of Honor) is a part of the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco (FAMSF).
The Levellers was a political movement during the English Civil War (1642–1651).
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Lincoln Castle is a major Norman castle constructed in Lincoln, England during the late 11th century by William the Conqueror on the site of a pre-existing Roman fortress.
Lincoln Cathedral or the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, and sometimes St.
The Lincoln Cathedral Library is a library of Lincoln Cathedral, Lincolnshire, England.
Lincoln is a cathedral city and the county town of Lincolnshire in the East Midlands of England.
Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs) is a county in east central England.
Linda Colley, CBE, FBA, FRSL, FRHistS (born 13 September 1949 in Chester, England) is a British historian of Britain, empire and nationalism.
List of all Mayors and Lord Mayors of London (Leader of the City of London Corporation and First Citizen of the City of London – from medieval times).
This is an incomplete list of some of the manuscripts from the Cotton library that today form the Cotton collection of the British Library.
Little Dunmow is a village situated in rural Essex, England, in the vale of the River Chelmer about east-southeast of the town of Great Dunmow.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales is the head of the judiciary and President of the Courts of England and Wales.
The Lord High Constable is a hereditary, now ceremonial, office of Scotland.
Louis IX (25 April 1214 – 25 August 1270), commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France and is a canonized Catholic and Anglican saint.
Louis VIII the Lion (Louis VIII le Lion; 5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) was King of France from 1223 to 1226.
Magna Carta (An Embroidery) is a 2015 work by English installation artist Cornelia Parker.
Magna Carta of Chester, or Cheshire, was a charter of rights issued in 1215 in the style of the Magna Carta.
In the Kingdom of England, the Magnum Concilium, or Great Council, was an assembly convened at certain times of the year when church leaders and wealthy landowners were invited to discuss the affairs of the country with the king.
Malmesbury Abbey, at Malmesbury in Wiltshire, England, is a religious house dedicated to Saint Peter and Saint Paul.
The titles of Earl of Hertford and Marquess of Hertford have been created several times in the peerages of England and Great Britain.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony (1628–1691) was an English settlement on the east coast of North America in the 17th century around the Massachusetts Bay, the northernmost of the several colonies later reorganized as the Province of Massachusetts Bay.
The Massachusetts Body of Liberties was the first legal code established by European colonists in New England.
The Massachusetts General Court (formally styled the General Court of Massachusetts) is the state legislature of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
The Keeper or Master of the Rolls and Records of the Chancery of England, known as the Master of the Rolls, is the second-most senior judge in England and Wales after the Lord Chief Justice, and serves as President of the Civil Division of the Court of Appeal and Head of Civil Justice.
Matthew Paris, known as Matthew of Paris (Latin: Matthæus Parisiensis, "Matthew the Parisian"; c. 1200 – 1259), was a Benedictine monk, English chronicler, artist in illuminated manuscripts and cartographer, based at St Albans Abbey in Hertfordshire.
Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.
Milton Abbey school is an independent school for day and boarding pupils in the village of Milton Abbas, near Blandford Forum in Dorset, in South West England.
In law, a minor is a person under a certain age, usually the age of majority, which legally demarcates childhood from adulthood.
Natalie M. Fryde is an historian of medieval England.
The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives.
The National Constitution Center is a nonprofit, nonpartisan institution devoted to the United States Constitution.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
The Ninth Amendment (Amendment IX) to the United States Constitution addresses rights, retained by the people, that are not specifically enumerated in the Constitution.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
The Norman yoke refers to the oppressive aspects of feudalism in England attributed to the impositions of William the Conqueror, his retainers and their descendants.
Northampton is the county town of Northamptonshire in the East Midlands of England.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
Occupy London was a movement for social justice and real democracy in London, England, and part of the international Occupy movement.
The Offences Against the Person Act 1828 (9 Geo. 4 c. 31) (also known as Lord Lansdowne's Act) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Old Sarum Cathedral was a Roman Catholic and Norman cathedral at old Salisbury, now known as Old Sarum, between 1092 and 1220.
Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English military and political leader.
Oriel CollegeOxford University Calendar 2005–2006 (2005) p.323 has the corporate designation as "The Provost and Scholars of the House of the Blessed Mary the Virgin in Oxford, commonly called Oriel College, of the Foundation of Edward the Second of famous memory, sometime King of England", p324 has people — Oxford University Press.
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Pandulf Verraccio (died 16 September 1226), whose first name may also be spelled Pandolph or Pandulph (Pandolfo in Italian), was a Roman ecclesiastical politician, papal legate to England and bishop of Norwich.
A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church.
A woodcut showing Henry II of England greeting the pope's legate. A papal legate or Apostolic legate (from the Ancient Roman title legatus) is a personal representative of the pope to foreign nations, or to some part of the Catholic Church.
Parchment is a writing material made from specially prepared untanned skins of animals—primarily sheep, calves, and goats.
Parliament House is the meeting place of the Parliament of Australia, located in Canberra, the capital of Australia.
The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it became the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Parliamentary sovereignty (also called parliamentary supremacy or legislative supremacy) is a concept in the constitutional law of some parliamentary democracies.
A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or governments, which formally ends a state of war between the parties.
Peel's Acts (as they are commonly known) were Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Peter de Maulay or Peter de Mauley (died 1241) was a nobleman and administrator who was one of King John of England's "evil counsellors".
Peter des Roches (died 9 June 1238) was bishop of Winchester in the reigns of King John of England and his son Henry III.
Peterborough Cathedral, properly the Cathedral Church of St Peter, St Paul and St Andrew – also known as Saint Peter's Cathedral in the United Kingdom – is the seat of the Anglican Bishop of Peterborough, dedicated to Saint Peter, Saint Paul and Saint Andrew, whose statues look down from the three high gables of the famous West Front.
The Petition of Right is a major English constitutional document that sets out specific liberties of the subject that the king is prohibited from infringing.
Philip d'Aubigny, sometimes Phillip or Phillipe Daubeney (c.a. 1166 – c.a. 1236), a knight and royal chancellor, was one of 5 sons of Ralph d'Aubigny and Sybil Valoignes, whose ancestral home was Saint Aubin-d'Aubigné in Brittany.
Philip II, known as Philip Augustus (Philippe Auguste; 21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223, a member of the House of Capet.
The Pilgrimage of Grace was a popular uprising that began in Yorkshire in October 1536, before spreading to other parts of Northern England including Cumberland, Northumberland and north Lancashire, under the leadership of lawyer Robert Aske.
Poitou, in Poitevin: Poetou, was a province of west-central France whose capital city was Poitiers.
A political myth is an ideological narrative that is believed by social groups.
Pontefract (or, Pomfret) Castle is a castle in the town of Pontefract, in West Yorkshire, England.
Pope Clement V (Clemens V; c. 1264 – 20 April 1314), born Raymond Bertrand de Got (also occasionally spelled de Guoth and de Goth), was Pope from 5 June 1305 to his death in 1314.
Pope Honorius III (1150 – 18 March 1227), born as Cencio Savelli, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 18 July 1216 to his death in 1227.
Pope Innocent III (Innocentius III; 1160 or 1161 – 16 July 1216), born Lotario dei Conti di Segni (anglicized as Lothar of Segni) reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death in 1216.
The Province of Maryland was an English and later British colony in North America that existed from 1632 until 1776, when it joined the other twelve of the Thirteen Colonies in rebellion against Great Britain and became the U.S. state of Maryland.
The Provisions of Oxford were constitutional reforms developed in 1258 to resolve a dispute between the English barons and King Henry III.
The Public Record Office (abbreviated as PRO, pronounced as three letters and referred to as the PRO), Chancery Lane in the City of London, was the guardian of the national archives of the United Kingdom from 1838 until 2003, when it was merged with the Historical Manuscripts Commission to form The National Archives, based at Kew.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
A quill pen is a writing implement made from a moulted flight feather (preferably a primary wing-feather) of a large bird.
Ralph Neville (or Ralf Nevill;Clanchy From Memory to Written Record p. 90 died 1244) was a medieval clergyman and politician who served as Bishop of Chichester and Lord Chancellor of England.
Randulf of Evesham was a medieval Bishop of Worcester-elect and Abbot of Evesham.
Ranulf de Blondeville, 6th Earl of Chester and 1st Earl of Lincoln (1170–1232), known in some references as the 4th Earl of Chester (in the second lineage of the title after the original family line was broken after the 2nd Earl), was one of the "old school" of Anglo-Norman barons whose loyalty to the Angevin dynasty was consistent but contingent on the receipt of lucrative favours.
Reading Abbey is a large, ruined abbey in the centre of the town of Reading, in the English county of Berkshire.
Reginald de Braose (died June 1228) was one of the sons of William de Braose, 4th Lord of Bramber and Matilda, also known as Maud de St. Valery and Lady de la Haie.
Remand (also known as pre-trial detention or provisional detention) is the process of detaining a person who has been arrested and charged with a criminal offense until their trial.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
In polymer chemistry and materials science, resin is a "solid or highly viscous substance" of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers.
Richard Cosin (died 1596) was an English jurist.
Richard de Clare, 3rd Earl of Hertford, lord of Clare, Tonbridge, and Cardigan (–1217), was a powerful Norman nobleman with vast lands in England and Wales.
Richard de Montfichet (or Richard de Munfichet) (died 1267) was a Magna Carta surety.
Sir Richard de Percy (c. 1170-1244), 5th Baron Percy, was a Magnate from the North of England, and a participant in the First Barons' War.
Richard Overton (fl. 1640–1664) was an English pamphleteer and Leveller during the Civil War and Interregnum (England).
Richard Poore or Poor (died 15 April 1237) was a medieval English clergyman best known for his role in the establishment of modern Salisbury and its cathedral at their present location, away from the fortress at Old Sarum.
Richard Pynson (1448 in Normandy – 1529) was one of the first printers of English books.
Rights of Man (1791), a book by Thomas Paine, including 31 articles, posits that popular political revolution is permissible when a government does not safeguard the natural rights of its people.
The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London.
Robert Beale (1541 – 25 May 1601) was an English diplomat, administrator, and antiquary in the reign of Elizabeth I. As Clerk of the Privy Council, Beale wrote the official record of the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots, to which he was an eyewitness.
Robert Brady MD (1627–1700) was an English academic and historical writer supporting the royalist position in the reigns of Charles II of England and James II of England.
Sir Robert de Ros (died about 1227) was an Anglo-Norman feudal baron, soldier, and administrator, who was one of the Twenty-Five Barons appointed under clause 61 of the 1215 Magna Carta agreement to monitor its observance by King John of England.
Robert de Vere (after c. 1165 – before 25 October 1221), hereditary Master Chamberlain of England, was son of Aubrey de Vere, 1st Earl of Oxford, and Agnes of Essex.
Robert de Vieuxpont (died 1227/8) (alias Vipont, also Veteripont Latinized to de Vetere Ponte ("from the Old Bridge")) was an Anglo-Norman landowner and administrator in the north of England.
Robert FitzwalterAlso spelled FitzWalter, fitzWalter, etc.
Robert I (11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329), popularly known as Robert the Bruce (Medieval Gaelic: Roibert a Briuis; modern Scottish Gaelic: Raibeart Bruis; Norman French: Robert de Brus or Robert de Bruys; Early Scots: Robert Brus; Robertus Brussius), was King of Scots from 1306 until his death in 1329.
Sir Robert Milton Worcester, KBE, DL (born 21 December 1933) is the founder of MORI (Market & Opinion Research International Ltd.) and a member and contributor to many voluntary organisations.
Roger Bigod (– 1221) was the son of Hugh Bigod, 1st Earl of Norfolk and his first wife, Juliana de Vere.
Roger de Montbegon (Roger de Mumbezon, Roger de Mont Begon) (died 1226) was a landowner in northern England (especially or particularly Lancashire), Baron of Hornby, and one of the Magna Carta sureties.
Henry Ross Perot (born June 27, 1930) is an American business magnate and former politician.
A royal forest, occasionally "Kingswood", is an area of land with different definitions in England, Wales, and Scotland.
The Royal Mint is a government-owned mint that produces coins for the United Kingdom.
Runnymede is a water-meadow alongside the River Thames in the English county of Surrey, and just over west of central London.
Saer de Quincy, 1st Earl of Winchester (c. 1170 – 3 November 1219) was one of the leaders of the baronial rebellion against John, King of England, and a major figure in both the kingdoms of Scotland and England in the decades around the turn of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.
Salisbury Cathedral, formally known as the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary, is an Anglican cathedral in Salisbury, England, and one of the leading examples of Early English architecture.
A sandwich is a food typically consisting of vegetables, sliced cheese or meat, placed on or between slices of bread, or more generally any dish wherein two or more pieces of bread serve as a container or wrapper for another food type.
Sandwich is a historic town and civil parish on the River Stour in the non-metropolitan district of Dover, within the ceremonial county of Kent, south-east England.
Scribal abbreviations or sigla (singular: siglum or sigil) are the abbreviations used by ancient and medieval scribes writing in Latin, and later in Greek and Old Norse.
Scutage is a medieval English tax levied on holders of a knight's fee under the feudal land tenure of knight-service.
A seal is a device for making an impression in wax, clay, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, and is also the impression thus made.
Sealing wax is a wax material of a seal which, after melting, hardens quickly (to paper, parchment, ribbons and wire, and other material) forming a bond that is difficult to separate without noticeable tampering.
The Second Barons' War (1264–1267) was a civil war in England between the forces of a number of barons led by Simon de Montfort against the royalist forces of King Henry III, led initially by the king himself and later by his son Prince Edward, the future King Edward I. The war featured a series of massacres of Jews by Montfort's supporters including his sons Henry and Simon, in attacks aimed at seizing and destroying evidence of Baronial debts.
Selby Abbey is an Anglican parish church in the town of Selby, North Yorkshire, England.
A seneschal was a senior court appointment within a royal, ducal, or noble household during the Middle Ages and early Modern period, historically a steward or majordomo of a medieval great house, such as a royal household.
The Septennial Act 1716 (1 Geo 1 St 2 c 38), also known as the Septennial Act 1715, was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain.
The Abbey Church of St Mary the Virgin at Sherborne in the English county of Dorset, is usually called Sherborne Abbey.
A sheriff is a government official, with varying duties, existing in some countries with historical ties to England, where the office originated.
This is a list of Sheriffs of Norfolk and Suffolk.
Sir Edward Dering, 1st Baronet (1598–1644) was an English antiquary and politician.
Sir Robert Bruce Cotton, 1st Baronet (22 January 1570/1 – 6 May 1631) of Conington Hall in the parish of Conington in Huntingdonshire, England,Kyle, Chris & Sgroi was a Member of Parliament and an antiquarian who founded the Cotton library.
The Sixth Amendment (Amendment VI) to the United States Constitution is the part of the United States Bill of Rights that sets forth rights related to criminal prosecutions.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
In both moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment.
The Society of Antiquaries of London (SAL) is a learned society "charged by its Royal Charter of 1751 with 'the encouragement, advancement and furtherance of the study and knowledge of the antiquities and history of this and other countries'." It is based at Burlington House, Piccadilly, London (a building owned by the UK government), and is a registered charity.
The Somme is a river in Picardy, northern France.
The Colony of Southern Rhodesia was a self-governing British Crown colony in southern Africa from 1923 to 1980, the predecessor state of modern Zimbabwe.
St Albans is a city in Hertfordshire, England, and the major urban area in the City and District of St Albans.
St Augustine's Abbey was a Benedictine monastery in Canterbury, Kent, England.
St Paul's Cathedral, London, is an Anglican cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of London and the mother church of the Diocese of London.
Staines-upon-Thames is a town on the River Thames in Surrey, England.
A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a city, state, or country.
The Statute Law (Ireland) Revision Act 1872 (35 & 36 Vict c 98) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which repealed, as to Ireland, certain Acts of the Parliament of England which had been extended to Ireland royal writs or acts of the Parliament of Ireland down to Poynings' Law (1495).
The Statute Law (Repeals) Act 1969 (c 52) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Statute Law Revision Act 1863 (26 & 27 Vict c 125) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Statute Law Revision Act 1948 (11 & 12 Geo 6 c 62) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Statute of Marlborough (52 Hen 3) was a set of laws passed by King Henry III of England in 1267.
The Statutes of Mortmain were two enactments, in 1279 and 1290, by Edward I of England aimed at preserving the kingdom's revenues by preventing land from passing into the possession of the Church.
Statutory law or statute law is written law set down by a body of legislature or by a singular legislator (in the case of absolute monarchy).
Stephen Langton (c. 1150 – 9 July 1228) was an English Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and Archbishop of Canterbury between 1207 and his death in 1228.
Suffolk is an East Anglian county of historic origin in England.
The Supremacy Clause of the United States Constitution (Article VI, Clause 2) establishes that the Constitution, federal laws made pursuant to it, and treaties made under its authority, constitute the supreme law of the land.
The Supreme Court of California is the court of last resort in the courts of the State of California.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions (such as Crown dependencies, provinces, or states).
The English Historical Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal that was established in 1886 and published by Oxford University Press (formerly Longman).
The National Archives (TNA) is a non-ministerial government department.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States of America.
Thomas Berthelet (died 1555) was a London printer, probably from France.
Thomas Egerton, 1st Viscount Brackley, (1540 – 15 March 1617), known as 1st Baron Ellesmere from 1603 to 1616, was an English nobleman, judge and statesman from the Egerton family who served as Lord Keeper and Lord Chancellor for twenty-one years.
Sir Thomas Moulton (died 1240) was an English landowner, knight, admiral and judge during the reigns of King John and King Henry III.
Thomas Paine (born Thomas Pain; – In the contemporary record as noted by Conway, Paine's birth date is given as January 29, 1736–37. Common practice was to use a dash or a slash to separate the old-style year from the new-style year. In the old calendar, the new year began on March 25, not January 1. Paine's birth date, therefore, would have been before New Year, 1737. In the new style, his birth date advances by eleven days and his year increases by one to February 9, 1737. The O.S. link gives more detail if needed. – June 8, 1809) was an English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary.
Alfred Thompson “Tom” Denning, Baron Denning, (23 January 1899 – 5 March 1999) was an English lawyer and judge.
Anthony Neil Wedgwood Benn (3 April 1925 – 14 March 2014), originally known as Anthony Wedgwood Benn, but later as Tony Benn, was a British politician, writer, and diarist.
The Treaty of Lambeth of 1217, also known as the Treaty of Kingston to distinguish it from the Treaty of Lambeth of 1212, was a peace treaty signed by Prince Louis of France in September 1217 ending the campaign known as the First Barons' War to uphold the claim by Louis to the throne of England.
The Triennial Act 1641 (16 Cha. I c. 1) (also known as the Dissolution Act) was an Act passed on 15 February 1641,, Accessed 7 May 2008 by the English Long Parliament, during the reign of King Charles I. The act requires that Parliament meet for at least a fifty-day session once every three years.
The British two pound (£2) coin is a denomination of the pound sterling.
An uncodified constitution is a type of constitution where the fundamental rules often take the form of customs, usage, precedent and a variety of statutes and legal instruments.
The Union of South Africa (Unie van Zuid-Afrika, Unie van Suid-Afrika) is the historic predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa.
The Bill of Rights is the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution.
The United States Bullion Depository, often known as Fort Knox, is a fortified vault building located within the United States Army post of Fort Knox, Kentucky.
The United States Capitol, often called the Capitol Building, is the home of the United States Congress, and the seat of the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.
The Virginia Company refers collectively to two joint stock companies chartered under James I on 10 April 1606 with the goal of establishing settlements on the coast of North America.
The Virginia Museum of Contemporary Art (abbreviated as "Virginia MOCA") is a contemporary art museum in Virginia Beach, Virginia.
Wilfred Lewis Warren (24 August 1929 – 19 July 1994) was an historian of medieval England.
Walkern ('Walchra' in Domesday) is a village and civil parish in East Hertfordshire.
Walter de Gray or Walter de Grey (died 1 May 1255) was an English prelate and statesman who was Archbishop of York from 1215 to 1255.
In law, a ward is someone placed under the protection of a legal guardian.
Warkworth Castle is a ruined medieval building in the village of the same name in the English county of Northumberland.
The Wars of the Roses were a series of English civil wars for control of the throne of England fought between supporters of two rival branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the House of Lancaster, associated with a red rose, and the House of York, whose symbol was a white rose.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
A water-meadow (also water meadow or watermeadow) is an area of grassland subject to controlled irrigation to increase agricultural productivity.
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.
Whig history (or Whig historiography) is an approach to historiography that presents the past as an inevitable progression towards ever greater liberty and enlightenment, culminating in modern forms of liberal democracy and constitutional monarchy.
The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom.
Whitby Abbey was a 7th-century Christian monastery that later became a Benedictine abbey.
A widow is a woman whose spouse has died and a widower is a man whose spouse has died.
Sir William Blackstone (10 July 1723 – 14 February 1780) was an English jurist, judge and Tory politician of the eighteenth century.
William Brewer (alias Briwere, Brigwer, etc.) (died 1226) of Tor Brewer in Devon, was a prominent administrator and judge in England during the reigns of kings Richard I, his brother King John, and John's son Henry III.
William Briwere (died 1244) was a medieval Bishop of Exeter.
William d'Aubigny or D'Aubeney or d'Albini, Lord of Belvoir (died 1 May 1236) was a prominent member of the baronial rebellions against King John of England.
William d'Aubigny, 3rd Earl of Arundel, also called William de Albini IV, (before 1180 – 1 February 1221) was an English nobleman, a favourite of King John, and a participant in the Fifth Crusade.
William de Beauchamp (c.1186–1260) was a British judge and High Sheriff.
William de Blois was a medieval Bishop of Worcester.
William de Cornhill (or William of Cornhill; died 1223) was a medieval Bishop of Coventry.
William II de Ferrers, 4th Earl of Derby (c. 1168 – c. 1247) was a favourite of King John of England.
William de Forz, 3rd Earl of Albemarle (died 26 March 1242) was an English nobleman.
William de Lanvallei III (died 1217) was an English landowner, governor of Colchester Castle, and a Magna Carta surety.
William de Mowbray, 6th Baron of Thirsk, 4th Baron Mowbray (–) was a Norman Lord and English noble who was one of the twenty five executors of the Magna Carta.
William de Warenne, 5th Earl of Surrey (died 27 May 1240) was the son of Hamelin de Warenne and Isabel, daughter of William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey.
William fitz Geoffrey de Mandeville (died 1227) was the third Earl of Essex of the second creation from 1216 to his death.
William Hardell was a Mayor of London and a Magna Carta surety.
William Lambarde (18 October 1536 – 19 August 1601) was an English antiquarian, writer on legal subjects, and politician.
William Longespée, 3rd Earl of Salisbury (c. 1176 – 7 March 1226) ("Long Sword", Latinised to de Longa Spatha) was an Anglo-Norman nobleman, primarily remembered for his command of the English forces at the Battle of Damme and for remaining loyal to his half-brother, King John.
William Malet (''fl.'' born before 1175–1215), feudal baron of Curry Mallet in Somerset, was one of the guarantors of Magna Carta.
William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke (1146 or 1147 – 14 May 1219), also called William the Marshal (Norman French: Williame li Mareschal), was an Anglo-Norman soldier and statesman.
William Marshal, 2nd Earl of Pembroke (French:Guillaume) (1190 – 6 April 1231) was a medieval English nobleman and was one of Magna Carta sureties.
William of Huntingfield (d 1219/1) was a medieval English baron, Sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk and one of the Magna Carta sureties.
William of Sainte-Mère-Église was a medieval Bishop of London.
William Penn (14 October 1644 – 30 July 1718) was the son of Sir William Penn, and was an English real estate entrepreneur, philosopher, early Quaker, and founder of the English North American colony the Province of Pennsylvania.
William Stubbs (21 June 1825 – 22 April 1901) was an English historian and Anglican bishop.
Winchcombe Abbey is a now-vanished Benedictine abbey in Winchcombe, Gloucestershire, this abbey was once in the capital of Mercia, an Anglo Saxon kingdom at the time of the Heptarchy in England.
Windsor Castle is a royal residence at Windsor in the English county of Berkshire.
Windsor is a historic market town and unparished area in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead in Berkshire, England.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
In common law, a writ (Anglo-Saxon gewrit, Latin breve) is a formal written order issued by a body with administrative or judicial jurisdiction; in modern usage, this body is generally a court.
1066 and All That: A Memorable History of England, comprising all the parts you can remember, including 103 Good Things, 5 Bad Kings and 2 Genuine Dates is a tongue-in-cheek reworking of the history of England.
The 1939–40 New York World's Fair, which covered the of Flushing Meadows-Corona Park (also the location of the 1964–1965 New York World's Fair), was the second most expensive American world's fair of all time, exceeded only by St.
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