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Magnetic resonance imaging

Index Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease. [1]

182 relations: Ablation, Aliasing, American College of Physicians, Anaphylaxis, Anatomy, Aneurysm, Angiography, Annals of Internal Medicine, Artificial cardiac pacemaker, Atmosphere of Earth, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Bile duct, Biliary tract, Black and white, Bleeding, Bone, Calcification, Cancer staging, Carbon, Cardiomyopathy, Celsius, Central nervous system, Cerebrospinal fluid, Cerebrovascular disease, Chelation, Choosing Wisely, Claustrophobia, Cochlear implant, Colorectal cancer, Congenital heart defect, Consumer Reports, Contraindication, Contrast agent, Copper, Coronary artery disease, Cortical pseudolaminar necrosis, Cost-effectiveness analysis, CT scan, Current Procedural Terminology, Deficit Reduction Act of 2005, Dementia, Demyelinating disease, Dialysis, Diffusion MRI, Earth's field NMR, Echocardiography, Edema, Electric field gradient, Electron paramagnetic resonance, ..., Epilepsy, Excited state, Exogeny, Extracellular, Fast low angle shot magnetic resonance imaging, Fat, Ferritin, Ferromagnetism, Fibrosis, Fluorine, Foreign body, Fragmentation (weaponry), Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Gadodiamide, Gadolinium, Gadoxetic acid, Grey matter, Harvard Medical School, Health system, Helium, Hemoglobin, Hemosiderin, High-definition fiber tracking, High-intensity focused ultrasound, History of neuroimaging, Homogeneity (physics), Hydrogen, Hyperintensity, Hyperpolarization (physics), Image-guided surgery, In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Infarction, Infection, Inflammation, International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Interventional radiology, Intraoperative MRI, Intravenous therapy, Ionizing radiation, Iron, Iron overload, Iterative reconstruction, Jemris, Joint, Joint injection, Lipid, List of infections of the central nervous system, List of neuroimaging software, Lithium, Liver, Low back pain, Magnet, Magnetic field, Magnetic immunoassay, Magnetic particle imaging, Magnetic resonance elastography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (journal), Magnetic resonance microscopy, Manganese, Medical diagnosis, Medical imaging, Melanin, Metabolism, Metabolite, Methemoglobin, MRI artifact, MRI contrast agent, MRI sequence, Myocarditis, N-localizer, National Audit Office (United Kingdom), Neoplasm, Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, Nobel Prize controversies, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Nuclear medicine, Oral administration, Orbit (anatomy), Oscillation, Overdiagnosis, Oxygen-17, Pancreas, Paramagnetism, Paul Lauterbur, Perfusion MRI, Peter Mansfield, Phosphorus, Physics of magnetic resonance imaging, Posterior cranial fossa, Properties of water, Prostate, Prostate cancer, Proton, Rabi cycle, Radio frequency, Radio wave, Radiocontrast agent, Radiofrequency coil, Radiology, Radiopaedia, Radiosurgery, Relaxation (NMR), Resonance, Robinson oscillator, Scientific American, Secretin, Shim (magnetism), Signal-to-noise ratio, Sodium, Sodium MRI, Soft tissue pathology, Spin (physics), Spin echo, Spinal cord, Spin–lattice relaxation, Spin–spin relaxation, SQUID, Stenosis, Stereotactic surgery, Superconductivity, Tesla (unit), Thermodynamic equilibrium, United States, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Uterus, Virtopsy, Visual artifact, White matter, X-ray, Xenon. Expand index (132 more) »

Ablation

Ablation is removal of material from the surface of an object by vaporization, chipping, or other erosive processes.

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Aliasing

In signal processing and related disciplines, aliasing is an effect that causes different signals to become indistinguishable (or aliases of one another) when sampled.

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American College of Physicians

The American College of Physicians (ACP) is a national organization of internal medicineAmerican Board of Medical Specialties -. Retrieved 20 October 2014 physicians (internists)Mercy Cedar Rapids -. Retrieved 20 October 2014—specialists who apply scientific knowledge and clinical expertise to the diagnosis, treatment, and compassionate care of adults across the spectrum from health to complex illness.

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Anaphylaxis

Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.

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Anatomy

Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.

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Aneurysm

An aneurysm is a localized, abnormal, weak spot on a blood vessel wall that causes an outward bulging, likened to a bubble or balloon.

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Angiography

Angiography or arteriography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the inside, or lumen, of blood vessels and organs of the body, with particular interest in the arteries, veins and the heart chambers.

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Annals of Internal Medicine

Annals of Internal Medicine is an academic medical journal published by the American College of Physicians (ACP).

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Artificial cardiac pacemaker

A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the heart's natural pacemaker) is a medical device that generates electrical impulses delivered by electrodes to contract the heart muscles and regulate the electrical conduction system of the heart.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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Atom

An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Atomic nucleus

The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.

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Bile duct

A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile, and is present in most vertebrates.

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Biliary tract

The biliary tract, (biliary tree or biliary system) refers to the liver, gall bladder and bile ducts, and how they work together to make, store and secrete bile.

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Black and white

Black and white, often abbreviated B/W or B&W, and hyphenated black-and-white when used as an adjective, is any of several monochrome forms in visual arts.

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Bleeding

Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.

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Bone

A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.

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Calcification

Calcification is the accumulation of calcium salts in a body tissue.

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Cancer staging

Cancer staging is the process of determining the extent to which a cancer has developed by growing and spreading.

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Carbon

Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Cardiomyopathy

Cardiomyopathy is a group of diseases that affect the heart muscle.

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Celsius

The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Cerebrospinal fluid

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.

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Cerebrovascular disease

Cerebrovascular disease includes a variety of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels of the brain and the cerebral circulation.

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Chelation

Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.

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Choosing Wisely

Choosing Wisely is a United States-based health educational campaign, led by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM).

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Claustrophobia

| Name.

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Cochlear implant

A cochlear implant (CI) is a surgically implanted electronic device that provides a sense of sound to a person with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss in both ears.

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Colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).

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Congenital heart defect

A congenital heart defect (CHD), also known as a congenital heart anomaly or congenital heart disease, is a problem in the structure of the heart that is present at birth.

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Consumer Reports

Consumer Reports is an American magazine published since 1930 by Consumers Union, a nonprofit organization dedicated to unbiased product testing, consumer-oriented research, public education, and advocacy.

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Contraindication

In medicine, a contraindication is a condition or factor that serves as a reason to withhold a certain medical treatment due to the harm that it would cause the patient.

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Contrast agent

A contrast agent (or contrast medium) is a substance used to increase the contrast of structures or fluids within the body in medical imaging.

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Copper

Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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Coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

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Cortical pseudolaminar necrosis

Cortical pseudolaminar necrosis, also known as cortical laminar necrosis and simply laminar necrosis, is the (uncontrolled) death of cells in the (cerebral) cortex of the brain in a band-like pattern, with a relative preservation of cells immediately adjacent to the meninges.

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Cost-effectiveness analysis

Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is a form of economic analysis that compares the relative costs and outcomes (effects) of different courses of action.

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CT scan

A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

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Current Procedural Terminology

The Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code set is a medical code set maintained by the American Medical Association through the CPT Editorial Panel.

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Deficit Reduction Act of 2005

The Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 is a United States Act of Congress concerning the federal budget that became law in 2006.

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Dementia

Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.

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Demyelinating disease

A demyelinating disease is any disease of the nervous system in which the myelin sheath of neurons is damaged.

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Dialysis

In medicine, dialysis (from Greek διάλυσις, diàlysis, "dissolution"; from διά, dià, "through", and λύσις, lỳsis, "loosening or splitting") is the process of removing excess water, solutes and toxins from the blood in those whose native kidneys have lost the ability to perform these functions in a natural way.

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Diffusion MRI

Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI or DW-MRI) is the use of specific MRI sequences as well as software that generates images from the resulting data, that uses the diffusion of water molecules to generate contrast in MR images.

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Earth's field NMR

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in the geomagnetic field is conventionally referred to as Earth's field NMR (EFNMR).

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Echocardiography

An echocardiogram, often referred to as a cardiac echo or simply an echo, is a sonogram of the heart.

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Edema

Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.

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Electric field gradient

In atomic, molecular, and solid-state physics, the electric field gradient (EFG) measures the rate of change of the electric field at an atomic nucleus generated by the electronic charge distribution and the other nuclei.

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Electron paramagnetic resonance

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) or electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is a method for studying materials with unpaired electrons.

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Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.

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Excited state

In quantum mechanics, an excited state of a system (such as an atom, molecule or nucleus) is any quantum state of the system that has a higher energy than the ground state (that is, more energy than the absolute minimum).

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Exogeny

In a variety of contexts, exogeny or exogeneity is the fact of an action or object originating externally.

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Extracellular

In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell".

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Fast low angle shot magnetic resonance imaging

Fast low angle shot magnetic resonance imaging (FLASH MRI) is a particular sequence of magnetic resonance imaging.

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Fat

Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.

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Ferritin

Ferritin is a universal intracellular protein that stores iron and releases it in a controlled fashion.

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Ferromagnetism

Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such as iron) form permanent magnets, or are attracted to magnets.

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Fibrosis

Fibrosis is the formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue in a reparative or reactive process.

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Fluorine

Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.

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Foreign body

In the field of medicine, a foreign body, sometimes known as FB (Latin: corpus alienum), is any object originating outside the body of an organism.

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Fragmentation (weaponry)

Fragmentation is the process by which the casing of an artillery or mortar shell, rocket, missile, bomb, grenade, etc.

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Functional magnetic resonance imaging

Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow.

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Gadodiamide

Gadodiamide is a gadolinium-based MRI contrast agent, used in MR imaging procedures to assist in the visualization of blood vessels.

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Gadolinium

Gadolinium is a chemical element with symbol Gd and atomic number 64.

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Gadoxetic acid

Gadoxetic acid is a gadolinium-based MRI contrast agent.

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Grey matter

Grey matter (or gray matter) is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries.

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Harvard Medical School

Harvard Medical School (HMS) is the graduate medical school of Harvard University.

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Health system

A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.

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Helium

Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.

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Hemoglobin

Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.

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Hemosiderin

Hemosiderin image of a kidney viewed under a microscope. The brown areas represent hemosiderin Hemosiderin or haemosiderin is an iron-storage complex.

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High-definition fiber tracking

High definition fiber tracking (HDFT) is a tractography technique where data from MRI scanners is processed through computer algorithms to reveal the detailed wiring of the brain and to pinpoint fiber tracts.

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High-intensity focused ultrasound

High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is an early stage medical technology that is in various stages of development worldwide to treat a range of disorders.

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History of neuroimaging

The first neuroimaging technique ever is the so-called ‘human circulation balance’ invented by Angelo Mosso in the 1880s and able to non-invasively measure the redistribution of blood during emotional and intellectual activity.

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Homogeneity (physics)

In physics, a homogeneous material or system has the same properties at every point; it is uniform without irregularities.

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Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hyperintensity

Hyperintensities refer to areas of high intensity on types of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the human brain or that of other mammals that reflect lesions produced largely by demyelination and axonal loss.

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Hyperpolarization (physics)

Hyperpolarization is the nuclear spin polarization of a material far beyond thermal equilibrium conditions.

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Image-guided surgery

Image-guided surgery (IGS) is any surgical procedure where the surgeon uses tracked surgical instruments in conjunction with preoperative or intraoperative images in order to directly or indirectly guide the procedure.

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In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy

In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a specialized technique associated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

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Infarction

Infarction is tissue death (necrosis) due to inadequate blood supply to the affected area.

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Infection

Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.

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Inflammation

Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.

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International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine

The International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine is a "multi-disciplinary nonprofit association that promotes innovation, development, and application of magnetic resonance techniques in medicine and biology throughout the world".

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Interventional radiology

Interventional radiology (IR), sometimes known as vascular and interventional radiology (VIR), is a medical specialty which provides minimally invasive image-guided diagnosis and treatment of disease.

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Intraoperative MRI

Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) refers to an operating room configuration that enables surgeons to image the patient via an MRI scanner while the patient is undergoing surgery, particularly brain surgery.

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Intravenous therapy

Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).

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Ionizing radiation

Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.

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Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Iron overload

Iron overload (variously known as haemochromatosis, hemochromatosis, hemochromocytosis, Celtic curse, Irish illness, British gene, Scottish sickness and bronzing diabetes) indicates accumulation of iron in the body from any cause.

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Iterative reconstruction

Iterative reconstruction refers to iterative algorithms used to reconstruct 2D and 3D images in certain imaging techniques.

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Jemris

Jemris is an open source MRI sequence design and simulation framework written in C++.

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Joint

A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole.

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Joint injection

In medicine, a joint injection (intra-articular injection) is a procedure used in the treatment of inflammatory joint conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, gout, tendinitis, bursitis, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, and occasionally osteoarthritis.

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Lipid

In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.

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List of infections of the central nervous system

There are five main causes of infections of the central nervous system (CNS): bacterial, viral, fungal, protozoal, and prionic.

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List of neuroimaging software

Neuroimaging software is used to study the structure and function of the brain.

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Lithium

Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.

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Liver

The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Low back pain

Low back pain (LBP) is a common disorder involving the muscles, nerves, and bones of the back.

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Magnet

A magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field.

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Magnetic field

A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.

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Magnetic immunoassay

Magnetic immunoassay (MIA) is a novel type of diagnostic immunoassay using magnetic beads as labels in lieu of conventional enzymes (ELISA), radioisotopes (RIA) or fluorescent moieties (fluorescent immunoassays).

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Magnetic particle imaging

Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is an emerging non-invasive tomographic technique that directly detects superparamagnetic nanoparticle tracers.

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Magnetic resonance elastography

Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a non-invasive medical imaging technique that measures the mechanical properties (stiffness) of soft tissues by introducing shear waves and imaging their propagation using MRI.

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging (journal)

Magnetic Resonance Imaging is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier, encompassing biology, physics, and clinical science as they relate to the development and use of magnetic resonance imaging technology.

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Magnetic resonance microscopy

Magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM, µMRI) is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at a microscopic level down to the scale of microns.

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Manganese

Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.

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Medical diagnosis

Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.

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Medical imaging

Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).

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Melanin

Melanin (from μέλας melas, "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms.

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Metabolism

Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Metabolite

A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.

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Methemoglobin

Methemoglobin (English: methaemoglobin) (pronounced "met-hemoglobin") is a form of the oxygen-carrying metalloprotein hemoglobin, in which the iron in the heme group is in the Fe3+ (ferric) state, not the Fe2+ (ferrous) of normal hemoglobin.

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MRI artifact

In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a visual artifact is an anomaly during visual representation.

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MRI contrast agent

MRI contrast agents are contrast agents used to improve the visibility of internal body structures in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

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MRI sequence

In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a sequence is a particular setting of pulse sequences and pulsed field gradients, resulting in a particular image appearance.

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Myocarditis

Myocarditis, also known as inflammatory cardiomyopathy, is inflammation of the heart muscle.

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N-localizer

The N-localizer or N-bar is a device that enables guidance of stereotactic surgery or radiosurgery using tomographic images that are obtained via medical imaging technologies such as X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or positron emission tomography (PET).

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National Audit Office (United Kingdom)

The National Audit Office (NAO) is an independent Parliamentary body in the United Kingdom which is responsible for auditing central government departments, government agencies and non-departmental public bodies.

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Neoplasm

Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.

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Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) or nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy (NFD) is a rare and serious syndrome that involves fibrosis of skin, joints, eyes, and internal organs.

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Nobel Prize controversies

After his death in 1896, the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel established the Nobel Prizes.

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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.

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Nuclear magnetic resonance

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.

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Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy or magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), is a spectroscopic technique to observe local magnetic fields around atomic nuclei.

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Nuclear medicine

Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.

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Oral administration

| name.

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Orbit (anatomy)

In anatomy, the orbit is the cavity or socket of the skull in which the eye and its appendages are situated.

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Oscillation

Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states.

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Overdiagnosis

Overdiagnosis is the diagnosis of "disease" that will never cause symptoms or death during a patient's ordinarily expected lifetime.

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Oxygen-17

Oxygen-17 is a low-abundant, natural, stable isotope of oxygen (0.0373% in seawater; approximately twice as abundant as deuterium).

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Pancreas

The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.

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Paramagnetism

Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby certain materials are weakly attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, and form internal, induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field.

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Paul Lauterbur

Paul Christian Lauterbur (May 6, 1929 – March 27, 2007) was an American chemist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2003 with Peter Mansfield for his work which made the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) possible.

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Perfusion MRI

Perfusion MRI or perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) is perfusion scanning by the use of a particular MRI sequence.

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Peter Mansfield

Sir Peter Mansfield FRS (9 October 1933 – 8 February 2017) was an English physicist who was awarded the 2003 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, shared with Paul Lauterbur, for discoveries concerning Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).

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Phosphorus

Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.

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Physics of magnetic resonance imaging

The physics of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) involves the interaction of biological tissue with electromagnetic fields.

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Posterior cranial fossa

The posterior cranial fossa is part of the cranial cavity, located between the foramen magnum and tentorium cerebelli.

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Properties of water

Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.

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Prostate

The prostate (from Ancient Greek προστάτης, prostates, literally "one who stands before", "protector", "guardian") is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals.

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Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.

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Proton

| magnetic_moment.

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Rabi cycle

In physics, the Rabi cycle (or Rabi flop) is the cyclic behaviour of a two-level quantum system in the presence of an oscillatory driving field.

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Radio frequency

Radio frequency (RF) refers to oscillatory change in voltage or current in a circuit, waveguide or transmission line in the range extending from around twenty thousand times per second to around three hundred billion times per second, roughly between the upper limit of audio and the lower limit of infrared.

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Radio wave

Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light.

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Radiocontrast agent

Radiocontrast agents are substances used to enhance the visibility of internal structures in X-ray-based imaging techniques such as computed tomography (contrast CT), projectional radiography, and fluoroscopy.

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Radiofrequency coil

Radiofrequency coils (RF coils) are the receivers, and sometimes also the transmitters, of radiofrequency (RF) signals in equipment used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

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Radiology

Radiology is the science that uses medical imaging to diagnose and sometimes also treat diseases within the body.

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Radiopaedia

Radiopaedia is a wiki-based international collaborative radiology educational web resource containing reference articles, radiology images, and patient cases.

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Radiosurgery

Radiosurgery is surgery using radiation, that is, the destruction of precisely selected areas of tissue using ionizing radiation rather than excision with a blade.

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Relaxation (NMR)

In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) the term relaxation describes how signals change with time.

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Resonance

In physics, resonance is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at specific frequencies.

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Robinson oscillator

The Robinson oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit originally devised for use in the field of continuous wave (CW) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).

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Scientific American

Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

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Secretin

Secretin is a hormone that regulates water homeostasis throughout the body and influences the environment of the duodenum by regulating secretions in the stomach, pancreas, and liver.

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Shim (magnetism)

A shim is a device used to adjust the homogeneity of a magnetic field.

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Signal-to-noise ratio

Signal-to-noise ratio (abbreviated SNR or S/N) is a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise.

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Sodium

Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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Sodium MRI

Like more common forms of MRI, sodium MRI relies on the use of a powerful magnetic field to induce alignment of nuclei with magnetic spin.

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Soft tissue pathology

Soft tissue pathology is the subspecialty of surgical pathology which deals with the diagnosis and characterization of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the soft tissues, such as muscle, adipose tissue, tendons, fascia, and connective tissues.

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Spin (physics)

In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.

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Spin echo

In magnetic resonance, a spin echo is the refocusing of spin magnetisation by a pulse of resonant electromagnetic radiation.

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Spinal cord

The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.

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Spin–lattice relaxation

Spin–lattice relaxation is the mechanism by which the component of the magnetization vector along the direction of the static magnetic field reaches thermodynamic equilibrium with its surroundings (the "lattice") in nuclear magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance imaging.

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Spin–spin relaxation

In physics, the spin–spin relaxation is the mechanism by which, the transverse component of the magnetization vector, exponentially decays towards its equilibrium value in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

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SQUID

A SQUID (for superconducting quantum interference device) is a very sensitive magnetometer used to measure extremely subtle magnetic fields, based on superconducting loops containing Josephson junctions.

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Stenosis

A stenosis is an abnormal narrowing in a blood vessel or other tubular organ or structure.

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Stereotactic surgery

Stereotactic surgery or stereotaxy is a minimally invasive form of surgical intervention which makes use of a three-dimensional coordinate system to locate small targets inside the body and to perform on them some action such as ablation, biopsy, lesion, injection, stimulation, implantation, radiosurgery (SRS), etc.

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Superconductivity

Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.

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Tesla (unit)

The tesla (symbol T) is a derived unit of magnetic flux density (informally, magnetic field strength) in the International System of Units.

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Thermodynamic equilibrium

Thermodynamic equilibrium is an axiomatic concept of thermodynamics.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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University of Wisconsin–Madison

The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, UW, or regionally as UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin, United States.

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Uterus

The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.

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Virtopsy

Virtopsy is a virtual alternative to a traditional autopsy, conducted with scanning and imaging technology.

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Visual artifact

Visual artifacts (also artefacts) are anomalies apparent during visual representation as in digital graphics and other forms of imagery, particularly microscopy.

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White matter

White matter refers to areas of the central nervous system (CNS) that are mainly made up of myelinated axons, also called tracts.

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X-ray

X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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Xenon

Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_resonance_imaging

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