389 relations: A Letter to a Hindu, Academy Awards, Activism, Adolf Hitler, Advaita Vedanta, Aga Khan, Aga Khan Palace, Ahimsa, Ahmedabad, Akhil Bharatiya Hindu Mahasabha, Al Gore, Albert Einstein, All India Congress Committee, All India Radio, All-India Muslim League, American Friends Service Committee, Andhra Pradesh, Anything Goes, Apartheid, Appendicitis, Archibald Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell, Arranged marriage, Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi, Aung San Suu Kyi, Axiom, Ṛta, Ātman (Hinduism), B. R. Ambedkar, Bacha Khan, Bambatha Rebellion, Bangalore, Bangladesh, Bania (caste), Bapu (book), Barack Obama, Barrister, Battle of Colenso, Battle of Spion Kop, Bayswater, Ben Kingsley, Bengal, Benigno Aquino Jr., Benito Mussolini, Beretta M1934, Bernard K. Mbenga, Bhagat Singh, Bhagavad Gita, Bhagavata Purana, Bhakti movement, Bhakti yoga, ..., Bhavnagar State, Bhikhu Parekh, Bhogaraju Pattabhi Sitaramayya, Bible, Bloemfontein, Bollywood, Bombay Presidency, Brahmin, British Empire, British Raj, Buddhism, C. Rajagopalachari, Caliphate, Call to the bar, Cannes Lions International Festival of Creativity, Cape Town, Cesar Chavez, Chaman Nahal, Charles Freer Andrews, Chastity, Chikmagalur, Child marriage, Chishti Order, Chittaranjan Das, Chityal, Nalgonda district, Christianity, Civil disobedience, Civil Disobedience (Thoreau), Civil resistance, Civil rights movement, Civil rights movements, Cole Porter, Colony of Natal, Communal Award, Community of the Ark, Cross-examination, Dalit, Daridra Narayana, Delhi, Desmond Tutu, Devanagari, Devdas Gandhi, Dewan, Dharma, Dhoti, Direct Action Day, Disfranchisement, Dominion, Dominion of India, Dominion of Pakistan, Dowry, Durban, Dvaita Vedanta, Edward Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, Edwin Arnold, Eknath Easwaran, Fakir, Fana (Sufism), Fasting, Father of the Nation, Frederic Thesiger, 1st Viscount Chelmsford, Freedom, Freeman Freeman-Thomas, 1st Marquess of Willingdon, Fruitarianism, Gandhi (bookstore), Gandhi (film), Gandhi cap, Gandhi Jayanti, Gandhi Market, Gandhi Peace Prize, Gandhi Smriti, Gandhi Teerth, Gandhi the Man, Gandhi, My Father, Gandhian economics, Gandhi–Irwin Pact, Gandhinagar, Gandhism, George Orwell, Girgaum Chowpatty, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Government of India, Great Soul: Mahatma Gandhi and His Struggle with India, Gujarat, Gujarati language, Harijan, Harilal Gandhi, Harishchandra, Henry David Thoreau, Henry Stephens Salt, Hermann Giliomee, Hermann Kallenbach, Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Rule, Hindi, Hindu, Hindu nationalism, Honorary titles of Indian leaders, Honorific, Houston, Hunger strike, I Have a Dream, I.B. Tauris, Independence, Independence Day (India), India, India After Gandhi, India House, London, Indian Ambulance Corps, Indian indenture system, Indian independence movement, Indian National Congress, Indian Opinion, Indian people, Indian subcontinent, Inner Temple, International Day of Non-Violence, Islam, Jainism, Jallianwala Bagh massacre, James Bevel, James Lawson (activist), Jews, Jinja, Uganda, Jnana yoga, Johannesburg, John Haynes Holmes, John Lennon, John Maffey, 1st Baron Rugby, John Ruskin, Joseph Chamberlain, Joseph Lelyveld, Journal of Modern African Studies, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Jurisprudence, Justice, Kaffir (racial term), Kanyakumari, Karamchand Uttamchand Gandhi, Karma yoga, Karnataka, Kasturba Gandhi, Kathiawar, Kathiawar Agency, Khadi, Khaksars, Khanqah, Kheda, Khilafat Movement, Krishna, Kuruvilla Pandikattu, KwaZulu-Natal, Lage Raho Munna Bhai, Lahore, Lanza del Vasto, Lech Wałęsa, Leo Tolstoy, List of civil rights leaders, List of fasts undertaken by Mahatma Gandhi, List of peace activists, List of roads named after Mahatma Gandhi, Louis Fischer, Madurai, Mahadev Desai, Mahatma Gandhi District, Houston, Mahatma Gandhi Series, Mahatma: Life of Gandhi, 1869–1948, Mahātmā, Main Street, Maine Gandhi Ko Nahin Mara, Malaria, Manilal Gandhi, Maria Lacerda de Moura, Mark Juergensmeyer, Martin Buber, Martin Luther King Jr., Martyrs' Day (India), Me Nathuram Godse Boltoy, Messiah, Michael N. 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"A Letter to a Hindu" (also known as "A Letter to a Hindoo") was a letter written by Leo Tolstoy to Tarak Nath Das on 14 December 1908.
The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars, are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership.
Activism consists of efforts to promote, impede, or direct social, political, economic, or environmental reform or stasis with the desire to make improvements in society.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Advaita Vedanta (अद्वैत वेदान्त, IAST:, literally, "not-two"), originally known as Puruṣavāda, is a school of Hindu philosophy and religious practice, and one of the classic Indian paths to spiritual realization.
Aga Khan (آقاخان; also transliterated as Aqa Khan and Agha Khan) is a title used also as a name by the Imam of the Nizari Ismailis, whose current holder is the 49th Imam (1957–present), Prince Shah Karim Al Husseini Aga Khan IV (b. 1936).
The Aga Khan Palace was built by Sultan Muhammed Shah Aga Khan III in Pune, India.
Ahimsa (IAST:, Pāli) means 'not to injure' and 'compassion' and refers to a key virtue in Indian religions.
Ahmedabad, also known as Amdavad is the largest city and former capital of the Indian state of Gujarat.
The Akhil Bhāratiya Hindū Mahāsabhā (translation: All-India Hindu Grand-Assembly) is a right wing Hindu nationalist political party in India.
Albert Arnold Gore Jr. (born March 31, 1948) is an American politician and environmentalist who served as the 45th Vice President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
The All India Congress Committee (AICC) is the Presidium or the central decision-making assembly of the Indian National Congress.
All India Radio (AIR), officially known since 1956 as Ākāshvāṇī ("Voice from the Sky") is the national public radio broadcaster of India and a division of Prasar Bharati.
The All-India Muslim League (popularised as Muslim League) was a political party established during the early years of the 20th century in the British Indian Empire.
The American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) is a Religious Society of Friends (Quaker) founded organization working for peace and social justice in the United States and around the world.
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India.
Anything Goes is a 1934 musical with music and lyrics by Cole Porter.
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
Appendicitis is inflammation of the appendix.
Field Marshal Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell, (5 May 1883 – 24 May 1950) was a senior officer of the British Army.
Arranged marriage is a type of marital union where the bride and groom are selected by individuals other than the couple themselves, particularly family members, such as the parents.
Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated on 30 January 1948 in the compound of Birla House (now Gandhi Smriti), a large mansion in central New Delhi.
Aung San Suu Kyi (born 19 June 1945) is a Burmese politician, diplomat, and author, and Nobel Peace Prize laureate (1991).
An axiom or postulate is a statement that is taken to be true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments.
In the Vedic religion, Ṛta (Sanskrit ऋतम् "that which is properly/excellently joined; order, rule; truth") is the principle of natural order which regulates and coordinates the operation of the universe and everything within it.
Ātma is a Sanskrit word that means inner self or soul.
Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (14 April 1891 – 6 December 1956), popularly known as Babasaheb, was an Indian jurist, economist, politician and social reformer who inspired the Dalit Buddhist movement and campaigned against social discrimination towards Untouchables (Dalits), while also supporting the rights of women and labour.
Abdul Ghaffār Khān (6 February 1890 – 20 January 1988), nicknamed Fakhr-e-Afghān, lit.
The Bambatha rebellion was a Zulu revolt against British rule and taxation in Natal, South Africa, in 1906.
Bangalore, officially known as Bengaluru, is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
The Bania (otherwise known as Baniya, Vani and Vania) is an occupational community of merchants, bankers, money-lenders, dealers in grains or in spices, and in modern times numerous commercial enterprises.
Bapu: Conversations and Correspondence with Mahatma Gandhi is an autobiographical description of F. Mary Barr's relationship and interactions with Mahatma Gandhi, whom she refers to as Bapu (father).
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
A barrister (also known as barrister-at-law or bar-at-law) is a type of lawyer in common law jurisdictions.
The Battle of Colenso was the third and final battle fought during the Black Week of the Second Boer War.
The Battle of Spion Kop (Slag bij Spionkop.; Slag van Spioenkop) was fought about west-south-west of Ladysmith on the hilltop of Spioenkop(1) along the Tugela River, Natal in South Africa from 23–24 January 1900.
Bayswater is an area within the City of Westminster and the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in central London.
Sir Ben Kingsley (born Krishna Pandit Bhanji; 31 December 1943) is an English actor with a career spanning over 50 years.
Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.
Benigno Simeon "Ninoy" Aquino Jr. (November 27, 1932 – August 21, 1983) was the husband of former Philippine President Corazon Aquino and father of former Philippine President Benigno Aquino III.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
The Beretta Model 1934 is a compact, semi-automatic pistol which was issued as a standard service firearm to the Italian armed forces beginning in 1934.
Bernard K. Mbenga is a historian at North-West University, South Africa, where he is a specialist in the history of the north-west of South Africa.
Bhagat Singh (– 23 March 1931) was an Indian nationalist considered to be one of the most influential revolutionaries of the Indian independence movement.
The Bhagavad Gita (भगवद्गीता, in IAST,, lit. "The Song of God"), often referred to as the Gita, is a 700 verse Hindu scripture in Sanskrit that is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata (chapters 23–40 of the 6th book of Mahabharata).
Bhagavata Purana (Devanagari: भागवतपुराण) also known as Śrīmad Bhāgavata Mahā Purāṇa, Śrīmad Bhāgavatam or Bhāgavata, is one of Hinduism's eighteen great Puranas (Mahapuranas, great histories).
The Bhakti movement refers to the theistic devotional trend that emerged in medieval Hinduism and later revolutionised in Sikhism.
Bhakti yoga, also called Bhakti marga (literally the path of Bhakti), is a spiritual path or spiritual practice within Hinduism focused on loving devotion towards a personal god.
Bhavnagar State was a princely state in Saurashtra during the British Raj.
Bhikhu Chotalal Parekh, Baron Parekh (born 4 January 1935 in Amalsad, Gujarat) as the speaker for the Justice KT Desai Memorial Lecture 2009, Bombay Bar Association.
Dr Bhogaraju Pattabhi Sitaramayya (24 November 1880 – 17 December 1959) was born in Gundugolanu village, Krishna district (now part of West Godavari district) in Andhra Pradesh, was an Indian independence activist and political leader in the state of Andhra Pradesh.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Bloemfontein (Afrikaans and Dutch "fountain of flowers" or "blooming fountain"; also known as Bloem) is the capital city of the province of Free State of South Africa; and, as the judicial capital of the nation, one of South Africa's three national capitals (the other two being Cape Town, the legislative capital, and Pretoria, the administrative capital) and is the seventh largest city in South Africa.
Hindi cinema, often metonymously referred to as Bollywood, is the Indian Hindi-language film industry, based in the city of Mumbai (formerly Bombay), Maharashtra, India.
The Bombay Presidency, also known as Bombay and Sind from 1843 to 1936 and the Bombay Province, was an administrative subdivision (presidency) of British India.
Brahmin (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मण) is a varna (class) in Hinduism specialising as priests, teachers (acharya) and protectors of sacred learning across generations.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari (10 December 1878 – 25 December 1972) informally called Rajaji or C.R., was an Indian politician, independence activist, lawyer, writer and statesman.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
The call to the bar is a legal term of art in most common law jurisdictions where persons must be qualified to be allowed to argue in court on behalf of another party and are then said to have been "called to the bar" or to have received a "call to the bar".
The Cannes Lions International Festival of Creativity (formerly the International Advertising Festival) is a global event for those working in creative communications, advertising, and related fields.
Cape Town (Kaapstad,; Xhosa: iKapa) is a coastal city in South Africa.
Cesar Chavez (born César Estrada Chávez,; March 31, 1927 – April 23, 1993) was an American labor leader and civil rights activist who, with Dolores Huerta, co-founded the National Farm Workers Association (later the United Farm Workers union, UFW) in 1962.
Chaman Nahal commonly known as C Nahal, also known as Chaman Nahal Azadi, is an Indian born writer of English literature.
Charles Freer Andrews (12 February 1871 – 5 April 1940) was a Church of England priest.
Chastity is sexual conduct of a person deemed praiseworthy and virtuous according to the moral standards and guidelines of their culture, civilization or religion.
Chikmagalur is a town located in the Chikmagalur district in the Indian state of Karnataka.
Child marriage is a formal marriage or informal union entered into by an individual before reaching a certain age, specified by several global organizations such as UNICEF as minors under the age of 18.
The Chishtī Order (چشتی chishtī) is a Sunni Sufi order within the mystic Sufi tradition of Islam.
Chittaranjan Das (C. R. Das) (চিত্তরঞ্জন দাশ Chittorônjon Dash), popularly called Deshbandhu (Friend of the Nation), (5 November 1869 – 16 June 1925), was a leading Indian politician, a prominent lawyer, an activist of the Indian National Movement and founder-leader of the Swaraj (Independence) Party in Bengal during British occupation in India.
Chityal is a village in Nalgonda district of the Indian state of Telangana.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Civil disobedience is the active, professed refusal of a citizen to obey certain laws, demands, orders or commands of a government or occupying international power.
Resistance to Civil Government (Civil Disobedience) is an essay by American transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau that was first published in 1849.
Civil resistance is political action that relies on the use of nonviolent resistance by civil groups to challenge a particular power, force, policy or regime.
The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) was a decades-long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already held.
Civil rights movements are a worldwide series of political movements for equality before the law, that peaked in the 1960s.
Cole Albert Porter (June 9, 1891 – October 15, 1964) was an American composer and songwriter.
The Colony of Natal was a British colony in south-eastern Africa.
The Communal Award was made by the British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald on 16 August 1932 granting separate electorates in India for the Forward Caste, scheduled Caste, Muslims, Buddhists, Sikhs, Indian Christians, Anglo-Indians, Europeans and Depressed Classes (now known as the Scheduled Caste) etc.
The Community of the Ark is a small spiritual commune in southern France that was founded in 1948 by Lanza del Vasto.
In law, cross-examination is the interrogation of a witness called by one's opponent.
Dalit, meaning "broken/scattered" in Sanskrit and Hindi, is a term mostly used for the castes in India that have been subjected to untouchability.
Daridra Narayana or Daridranarayana or Daridra Narayan is an axiom enunciated by the late-19th century Indian sage Swami Vivekananda, espousing that service to the poor is equivalent in importance and piety to service to God.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African Anglican cleric and theologian known for his work as an anti-apartheid and human rights activist.
Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.
Devdas Mohandas Gandhi (22 May 1900 – 3 August 1957) was the fourth and youngest son of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.
The originally Persian title dewan (also known as diwan, also spelled or devan/ divan) has, at various points in Islamic history, designated a powerful government official, minister or ruler.
Dharma (dharma,; dhamma, translit. dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions – Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.
The Vesti, also known as panche, Dhoti, dhuti, mardani, chaadra, dhotar, and panchey, is a traditional men's garment worn in the Indian subcontinent.
Direct Action Day (16 August 1946), also known as the Great Calcutta Killings, was a day of widespread communal rioting between Muslims and Hindus in the city of Calcutta (now known as Kolkata) in the Bengal province of British India.
Disfranchisement (also called disenfranchisement) is the revocation of the right of suffrage (the right to vote) of a person or group of people, or through practices, prevention of a person exercising the right to vote.
Dominions were semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867.
Between gaining independence from the United Kingdom on 15 August 1947 and the proclamation of a republic on 26 January 1950, India was an independent dominion in the British Commonwealth of Nations with king George VI as its head of state.
Pakistan (পাকিস্তান অধিরাজ্য; مملکتِ پاکستان), also called the Dominion of Pakistan, was an independent federal dominion in South Asia that was established in 1947 as a result of the Pakistan movement, followed by the simultaneous partition of British India to create a new country called Pakistan.
A dowry is a transfer of parental property, gifts or money at the marriage of a daughter.
Durban (eThekwini, from itheku meaning "bay/lagoon") is the largest city in the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal and the third most populous in South Africa after Johannesburg and Cape Town.
Dvaita Vedanta (द्वैत वेदान्त) is a sub-school in the Vedanta tradition of Hindu philosophy.
Edward Frederick Lindley Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, (16 April 1881 – 23 December 1959), styled Lord Irwin from 1925 until 1934 and Viscount Halifax from 1934 until 1944, was one of the most senior British Conservative politicians of the 1930s.
Sir Edwin Arnold KCIE CSI (10 June 1832 – 24 March 1904) was an English poet and journalist, who is most known for his work The Light of Asia.
Eknath Easwaran (December 17, 1910 – October 26, 1999) was an Indian-born spiritual teacher, author, as well as a translator and interpreter of Indian religious texts such as the Bhagavad Gita and the Upanishads.
A fakir, or faqir (فقیر (noun of faqr)), derived from faqr (فقر, "poverty") is a person who is self-sufficient and only possesses the spiritual need for God.
Fanaa (فناء) is the Sufi term for "passing away" or "annihilation" (of the self).
Fasting is the willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time.
The Father of the Nation is an honorific title given to a man considered the driving force behind the establishment of his country, state, or nation.
Frederic John Napier Thesiger, 1st Viscount Chelmsford, (12 August 1868 – 1 April 1933) was a British statesman who served as Governor of Queensland from 1905 to 1909, Governor of New South Wales from 1909 to 1913, and Viceroy of India from 1916 to 1921, where he was responsible for the creation of the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms.
Freedom, generally, is having an ability to act or change without constraint.
Major Freeman Freeman-Thomas, 1st Marquess of Willingdon (12 September 1866 – 12 August 1941), was a British Liberal politician and administrator who served as Governor General of Canada, the 13th since Canadian Confederation, and as Viceroy and Governor-General of India, the country's 22nd.
Fruitarianism is a diet that consists entirely or primarily of fruits in the botanical sense, and possibly nuts and seeds, without animal products.
Gandhi Bookstores were created in 1971; they are now one of the biggest bookstores chains in Mexico.
Gandhi is a 1982 epic historical drama film based on the life of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, the leader of India's non-violent, non-cooperative independence movement against the United Kingdom's rule of the country during the 20th century.
The Gandhi cap (गांधी टोपी) is a white coloured sidecap, pointed in front and back and having a wide band.
Gandhi Jayanti is a national festival celebrated in India to mark the occasion of the birthday of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, who is also known as the "Father of the Nation".
Gandhi Market (காந்தி மார்க்கெட்) officially called as Mahatma Gandhi Market, is a wholesale farmers' market in the city of Tiruchirappalli in Tamil Nadu, India.
The International Gandhi Peace Prize, named after Mahatma Gandhi, is awarded annually by the Government of India.
Gandhi Smriti formerly known as Birla House or Birla Bhavan, is a museum dedicated to Mahatma Gandhi, situated on Tees January Road, formerly Albuquerque Road, in New Delhi, India.
Gandhi Teerth (Gandhi Research Foundation) is a research institution and museum on Mahatma Gandhi, in Jalgaon, Maharashtra, India.
Gandhi the Man is a biography of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi written by Eknath Easwaran.
Gandhi, My Father is a 2007 Indian biographical drama film by Feroz Abbas Khan (not to be confused with actor Feroz Khan).
Gandhian economics is a school of economic thought based on the spiritual and socio-economic principles expounded by Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi.
The Gandhi Irwin Pact was a political agreement signed by Mahatma Gandhi and the then Viceroy of India, Lord Irwin on 5 March 1931 before the second Round Table Conference in London.
Gandhinagar is the capital of the state of Gujarat in Western India.
Gandhism is a body of ideas that describes the inspiration, vision and the life work of Mohandas Gandhi.
Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950), better known by his pen name George Orwell, was an English novelist, essayist, journalist and critic whose work is marked by lucid prose, awareness of social injustice, opposition to totalitarianism and outspoken support of democratic socialism.
Girgaon Chowpatty (Marathi: गिरगाव चौपाटी), commonly known as Chaupati (pronounced 'chow-patty'), is one of the famous public beaches adjoining Marine Drive in the Girgaon area of Mumbai, India.
Gopal Krishna Gokhale CIE (9 May 1866 – 19 February 1915) was one of the political leaders and a social reformer during the Indian Independence Movement against the British Empire in India.
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
Great Soul: Mahatma Gandhi and His Struggle With India is a 2011 biography of Indian political and spiritual leader Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi written by Pulitzer Prize-winning author Joseph Lelyveld and published by Alfred A Knopf.
Gujarat is a state in Western India and Northwest India with an area of, a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population in excess of 60 million.
Gujarati (ગુજરાતી) is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat.
Harijan (Hindustani: हरिजन (Devanagari), ہریجن (Nastaleeq); translation: "person of Hari/Vishnu") was a term popularized by Indian political leader Mohandas Gandhi for referring communities traditionally considered so called Untouchable (formerly called "acchoot" अछूत in Hindi). The term achoot is now considered derogatory, and the term Harijan is no longer used.
Harilal Mohandas Gandhi (23 August 1888 – 18 June 1948) was the eldest son of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.
Harishchandra is a legendary Indian king, who appears in several legends in texts such as Aitareya Brahmana, Mahabharata, the Markandeya Purana, and the Devi-Bhagavata Purana and was the son of Sathyavrata (Trishanku).
Henry David Thoreau (see name pronunciation; July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862) was an American essayist, poet, philosopher, abolitionist, naturalist, tax resister, development critic, surveyor, and historian.
Henry Stephens Salt (20 September 1851 – 19 April 1939) was an English writer and campaigner for social reform in the fields of prisons, schools, economic institutions, and the treatment of animals.
Hermann Giliomee is an author of historical and political studies, former Professor of Political Studies at the University of Cape Town (1983–2002), President of the South African Institute of Race Relations (1995–1997) and Extraordinary Professor of History at the Stellenbosch University.
Hermann Kallenbach (1 March 1871 – 25 March 1945) was a Lithuanian born Jewish South African architect who was one of the foremost friends and associates of Mahatma Gandhi.
Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Rule is a book written by Mohandas K. Gandhi in 1909.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Hindu nationalism has been collectively referred to as the expressions of social and political thought, based on the native spiritual and cultural traditions of the Indian subcontinent.
The following is the list of honorary titles given to various Indian leaders during Indian independence struggle.
An honorific is a title that conveys esteem or respect for position or rank when used in addressing or referring to a person.
Houston is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 2.312 million within a land area of.
A hunger strike is a method of non-violent resistance or pressure in which participants fast as an act of political protest, or to provoke feelings of guilt in others, usually with the objective to achieve a specific goal, such as a policy change.
"I Have a Dream" is a public speech delivered by American civil rights activist Martin Luther King Jr. during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom on August 28, 1963, in which he calls for an end to racism in the United States and called for civil and economic rights.
I.B. Tauris (usually typeset as I.B.Tauris) was an independent publishing house with offices in London and New York City.
Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory.
Independence Day is annually celebrated on 15 August, as a national holiday in India commemorating the nation's independence from the United Kingdom on 15 August 1947, the UK Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act 1947 transferring legislative sovereignty to the Indian Constituent Assembly.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
India after Gandhi: The History of the World's Largest Democracy is a book by Indian historian Ramachandra Guha, published by HarperCollins in August 2007.
The High Commission of India in London is the diplomatic mission of India in the United Kingdom.
The Natal Indian Ambulance Corps was created by Mahatma Gandhi for use by the British as stretcher bearers during the Second Boer War, with expenses met by the local Indian community.
The Indian indenture system was a system of indenture, a form of debt bondage, by which 3.5 million Indians were transported to various colonies of European powers to provide labour for the (mainly sugar) plantations.
The Indian independence movement encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule (1757–1857) and the British Indian Empire (1857–1947) in the Indian subcontinent.
The Indian National Congress (INC, often called Congress Party) is a broadly based political party in India.
The Indian Opinion was a newspaper established by Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
The Honourable Society of the Inner Temple, commonly known as Inner Temple, is one of the four Inns of Court (professional associations for barristers and judges) in London.
The International Day of Non-Violence is observed on 2 October, the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, also known as the Amritsar massacre, took place on 13 April 1919 when troops of the British Indian Army under the command of Colonel Reginald Dyer fired rifles into a crowd of Indians, who had gathered in Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, Punjab.
James Luther Bevel (October 19, 1936 – December 19, 2008) was a minister and leader of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States.
James Morris Lawson, Jr. (born September 22, 1928) is an American activist and university professor.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jinja is a town in Uganda, the third-largest economy in the East African Community.
Jñāna yoga, also known as Jnanamarga, is one of the several spiritual paths in Hinduism that emphasizes the "path of knowledge", also known as the "path of self-realization".
Johannesburg (also known as Jozi, Joburg and Egoli) is the largest city in South Africa and is one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world.
John Haynes Holmes (November 29, 1879 – April 3, 1964) was a prominent Unitarian minister, pacifist, and co-founder of the NAACP and the ACLU.
John Winston Ono Lennon (9 October 19408 December 1980) was an English singer, songwriter, and peace activist who co-founded the Beatles, the most commercially successful band in the history of popular music.
John Loader Maffey, 1st Baron Rugby, (1 July 1877 – 20 April 1969) was a British civil servant and diplomat who was a key figure in Anglo-Irish relations during the Second World War.
John Ruskin (8 February 1819 – 20 January 1900) was the leading English art critic of the Victorian era, as well as an art patron, draughtsman, watercolourist, a prominent social thinker and philanthropist.
Joseph Chamberlain (8 July 1836 – 2 July 1914) was a British statesman who was first a radical Liberal, then, after opposing home rule for Ireland, a Liberal Unionist, and eventually served as a leading imperialist in coalition with the Conservatives.
Joseph Lelyveld (born April 5, 1937) was an American executive editor of the New York Times from 1994 to 2001, and interim executive editor in 2003 after the resignation of Howell Raines.
The Journal of Modern African Studies is a quarterly academic journal covering developments in modern African politics and society.
The Journal of the American Academy of Religion, formerly the Journal of Bible and Religion, is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Academy of Religion.
Jurisprudence or legal theory is the theoretical study of law, principally by philosophers but, from the twentieth century, also by social scientists.
Justice is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered.
Kaffir (alternatively kaffer; originally cafri) is an ethnic slur used to refer to a black person.
Kanyakumari is a City in Kanyakumari district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.
Karamchand Uttamchand Nadhi (1822–1885) also known as Kaba Gandhi was a political figure in Porbandar.
Karma yoga, also called Karma marga, is one of the several spiritual paths in Hinduism, one based on the "yoga of action".
Karnataka also known Kannada Nadu is a state in the south western region of India.
Kasturbai "Kasturba" Mohandas Gandhi (born Kasturbai Makhanji Kapadia on (11 April 1869 – 22 February 1944) was a political activist and the wife of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi as well as the daughter of Indian basketball legend, Kausutbh Chenchu. In association with her husband, Kasturba Gandhi was involved in the Indian independence movement in British-ruled India.
Kathiawar (also written Kathiawad or Kattywar) is a peninsula in western India and part of the Saurashtra region.
The Kathiawar Agency, on the Kathiawar peninsula (Saurashtra lying between 20° 41′ and 23° 8′ N. and 68° 56′ and 72° 20′ E.; extreme length about 220 miles, greatest breadth about 165 miles, area about 23,445 square miles, and its 1001 population 2,645,805) in the western part of the Indian subcontinent, was a political unit of some 200 small princely states under the suzerainty of the Bombay Presidency of British India, now part of Gujarat state.
Khadi (IAST) or khaddar is handspun, hand-woven natural fiber cloth from India, Bangladesh and Pakistan mainly made out of cotton.
The Khaksar movement (تحریکِ خاکسار) was a social movement based in Lahore, Punjab, British India, established by Allama Mashriqi in 1931, with the aim of freeing India from the rule of the British Empire and establish a Hindu-Muslim government in India.
A khanqah or khaniqah (also transliterated as khankahs, khaneqa, khanegah or khaneqah (خانقاه)), also known as a ribat (رباط) – among other terms – is a building designed specifically for gatherings of a Sufi brotherhood or tariqa and is a place for spiritual retreat and character reformation.
Kheda, also known as Kaira, is a town and a municipality in the Indian state of Gujarat.
The Khilafat movement (1919–22) was a pan-Islamist, political protest campaign launched by Muslims of India to influence the British government not to abolish the Ottoman Caliphate.
Krishna (Kṛṣṇa) is a major deity in Hinduism.
Reverend Kuruvilla Pandikattu, born 28 November 1957, is an Indian Jesuit Priest and Professor of Philosophy, Science and Religion at Jnana-Deepa Vidyapeeth: Institute of Philosophy and Religion, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
KwaZulu-Natal (also referred to as KZN and known as "the garden province") is a province of South Africa that was created in 1994 when the Zulu bantustan of KwaZulu ("Place of the Zulu" in Zulu) and Natal Province were merged.
Lage Raho Munna Bhai is a 2006 Indian comedy-drama film directed by Rajkumar Hirani and produced by Vidhu Vinod Chopra.
Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.
Lanza del Vasto (born Giuseppe Giovanni Luigi Maria Enrico Lanza di Trabia-Branciforte; 29 September 1901 – 6 January 1981) was a philosopher, poet, artist, Catholic and nonviolent activist.
Lech Wałęsa (born 29 September 1943) is a retired Polish politician and labour activist.
Count Lyov (also Lev) Nikolayevich Tolstoy (also Лев) Николаевич ТолстойIn Tolstoy's day, his name was written Левъ Николаевичъ Толстой.
Civil rights leaders are influential figures in the promotion and implementation of political freedom and the expansion of personal civil liberties and rights.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, popularly known as Mahatma Gandhi or The Father of the Nation in India, undertook 17 fasts during India's freedom movement.
This list of peace activists includes people who have proactively advocated diplomatic, philosophical, and non-military resolution of major territorial or ideological disputes through nonviolent means and methods.
Mahatma Gandhi Road which is also used in its abbreviated form as M. G. Road, named after Mahatma Gandhi.
Louis Fischer (29 February 1896 – 15 January 1970) was a Jewish-American journalist.
Madurai is one of the major cities in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Mahadev Desai (1 January 1892 – 15 August 1942) was an Indian independence activist and writer best remembered as Mahatma Gandhi's personal secretary.
The Mahatma Gandhi District (popularly known as Little India) is an ethnic enclave in Houston, Texas, United States, named after Mahatma Gandhi, consisting predominantly of Indian and Pakistani restaurants including Patel Brothers and shops and having a large Indian/Pakistani population.
The Gandhi Series of banknotes are issued by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) as the legal tender of Indian rupee.
Mahatma: Life of Gandhi, 1869–1948 is a 1968 documentary biography film, detailing the life of Mahatma Gandhi.
Mahatma is Sanskrit for "Great Soul" (महात्मा mahātmā: महा mahā (great) + आत्मं or आत्मन ātman). It is similar in usage to the modern English term saint.
Main Street is a generic phrase used to denote a primary retail street of a village, town or small city in many parts of the world.
Maine Gandhi Ko Nahin Mara (translated as I Did Not Kill Gandhi) is a 2005 Indian drama film, directed by Jahnu Barua and produced by Anupam Kher.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Manilal Mohandas Gandhi (28 October 1892 – 5 April 1956) was the second son of Mahatma Gandhi and Kasturba Gandhi.
Maria Lacerda de Moura (16 May 1887 – 20 March 1945) was a Brazilian anarcha-feminist, individualist anarchist, teacher, journalist, and writer.
Mark Juergensmeyer (born 1940 in Carlinville, Illinois) is an American scholar in religious studies and sociology and a writer best known for his studies of religious violence and global religion.
Martin Buber (מרטין בובר; Martin Buber; מארטין בובער; February 8, 1878 – June 13, 1965) was an Austrian-born Israeli Jewish philosopher best known for his philosophy of dialogue, a form of existentialism centered on the distinction between the I–Thou relationship and the I–It relationship.
Martin Luther King Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1954 until his death in 1968.
In India, there are several days declared as Martyrs' Day (at national level also known as Sarvodaya day).
Me Nathuram Godse Boltoy is a two-act play written in the Marathi language.
In Abrahamic religions, the messiah or messias is a saviour or liberator of a group of people.
Michael N. Nagler (born January 20, 1937) is an American academic and peace activist.
Mint is an Indian financial daily newspaper published by HT Media, a Delhi-based media group which is controlled by the KK Birla family and also publishes Hindustan Times.
Madeleine Slade (Mirabehn) (22 November 1892 – 20 July 1982), daughter of the British Rear-Admiral Sir Edmond Slade, was a British woman who left her home in Britain to live and work with Mohandas Gandhi, the leader of the Indian Independence Movement.
Mitahara (Sanskrit: मिताहार, Mitāhāra) literally means the habit of moderate food.
Modh communities comprise people who use the name and originate from Modhera in Gujarat, India.
Motilal Banarsidass (MLBD) is a leading Indian publishing house on Sanskrit and Indology since 1903, located in Delhi, India.
Motilal Nehru (6 May 1861 – 6 February 1931) was an Indian lawyer, an activist of the Indian Independence Movement and an important leader of the Indian National Congress, who also served as the Congress President twice, 1919–1920 and 1928–1929.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah (محمد علی جناح ALA-LC:, born Mahomedali Jinnahbhai; 25 December 1876 – 11 September 1948) was a lawyer, politician, and the founder of Pakistan.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 (conventional) – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938.
Nadiad is a city and an administrative centre of the Kheda district in the Indian state of Gujarat and the 8th largest city in the state of Gujarat.
Nagpur is the winter capital, a sprawling metropolis, and the third largest city of the Indian state of Maharashtra after Mumbai and Pune.
Nalgonda district is a district in the Telangana state of India.
Narayan Dattatraya Apte (1911 – 15 November 1949) was an Indian activist and entrepreneur who was executed for his role in the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi.
The Natal Indian Congress (NIC) was an organisation that aimed to fight discrimination against Indians in South Africa.
Nathuram Vinayak Godse (19 May 1910 – 15 November 1949) was a right-wing advocate of Hindu nationalism who assassinated Mahatma Gandhi in New Delhi on 30 January 1948.
Navajivan Trust is a publishing house based in Ahmedabad, India.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
New Delhi Television Limited (NDTV) is an Indian television media company founded in 1988 by Radhika Roy, a journalist.
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999.
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of Government of India.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
Nonresistance (or non-resistance) is "the practice or principle of not resisting authority, even when it is unjustly exercised".
Nonviolence is the personal practice of being harmless to self and others under every condition.
Nonviolent resistance (NVR or nonviolent action) is the practice of achieving goals such as social change through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, satyagraha, or other methods, while being nonviolent.
Norman Cranstoun Macleod (1866-1945) was the Chief Justices of the Bombay High Court.
The British honours system is a means of rewarding individuals' personal bravery, achievement, or service to the United Kingdom and the British Overseas Territories.
The Ottoman Caliphate (1517–1924), under the Ottoman dynasty of the Ottoman Empire, was the last Sunni Islamic caliphate of the late medieval and the early modern era.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Parliament of India is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of India.
A partition is a term used in the law of real property to describe an act, by a court order or otherwise, to divide up a concurrent estate into separate portions representing the proportionate interests of the owners of property.
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.
A peace movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or all wars), minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or type of situation, and is often linked to the goal of achieving world peace.
Philip Glass (born January 31, 1937) is an American composer.
Pietermaritzburg (Zulu: umGungundlovu) is the capital and second-largest city in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
Pir or Peer (پیر, literally "old ", "elder") is a title for a Sufi master or spiritual guide.
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
Political Science Quarterly is an American double blind peer-reviewed academic journal covering government, politics, and policy, published since 1886 by the Academy of Political Science.
The Poona Pact refers to an agreement between B. R. Ambedkar and M. K. Gandhi on the reservation of electoral seats for the depressed classes in the legislature of British India government.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
Porbandar is a coastal city in the Indian state of Gujarat, perhaps best known for being the birthplace of Mahatma Gandhi and Sudama (friend of Lord Krishna).
Porbandar State was a princely state during the British Raj ruled by Jethwa dynasty.
Prahlada (Sanskrit:, प्रह्लाद) was a king, the son of Hiranyakashipu and Kayadhu, and the father of Virochana.
Pranami(Meaning: Those who bows on), also known as Dhami, is a Vaishnavism sub-tradition within Hinduism, focussed on god Krishna.
The President of the Republic of South Africa is the head of state and head of government under the Constitution of South Africa.
Pretoria is a city in the northern part of Gauteng, South Africa.
A princely state, also called native state (legally, under the British) or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a vassal state under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj.
India, being a culturally diverse and fervent society, celebrates various holidays and festivals.
Pune, formerly spelled Poona (1857–1978), is the second largest city in the Indian state of Maharashtra, after Mumbai.
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
Pardah or pardah is the term used primarily in South Asia, (from پرده, meaning "curtain") to describe in the South Asian context, the global religious and social practice of female seclusion that is associated with Muslim communities.
Pyarelal Nayyar (1899–1982) was the personal secretary of Mahatma Gandhi in his later years.
The Queen's South Africa Medal is a British campaign medal which was awarded to British and Colonial military personnel, civilians employed in official capacity and war correspondents who served in the Second Boer War in South Africa.
The Quit India Movement or the India August Movement, was a movement launched at the Bombay session of the All-India Congress Committee by Mahatma Gandhi on 8 August 1942, during World War II, demanding an end to British Rule of India.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Rabindranath Tagore FRAS, also written Ravīndranātha Ṭhākura (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali polymath who reshaped Bengali literature and music, as well as Indian art with Contextual Modernism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Raj Ghat is a memorial dedicated to Mahatma Gandhi in Delhi, India.
Rajguru, also spelled as Rajyaguru, is an ancient title and surname of India which means royal priest.
Rajkot (Rājkot) is the fourth-largest city in the state of Gujarat, India, after Ahmedabad, Surat and Vadodara.
Rama or Ram (Sanskrit: राम, IAST: Rāma), also known as Ramachandra, is a major deity of Hinduism.
Ramachandra Guha (born 29 April 1958) is an Indian historian and writer whose research interests include environmental, social, political, contemporary and cricket history.
Ramayana (रामायणम्) is an ancient Indian epic poem which narrates the struggle of the divine prince Rama to rescue his wife Sita from the demon king Ravana.
Ramdas Mohandas Gandhi (2 January 1897 – 14 April 1969) was the third son of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.
Ramjee Singh (born 1927, India) is a former Member of Parliament and vice-chancellor of Jain Vishva Bharati University.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, abbreviated as RSS (Rāṣṭrīya Svayamsēvaka Saṅgha, IPA:, lit. "National Volunteer Organisation" or "National Patriotic Organisation"), is an Indian right-wing, Hindu nationalist, paramilitary volunteer organisation that is widely regarded as the parent organisation of the ruling party of India, the Bharatiya Janata Party.
Colonel Reginald Edward Harry Dyer CB (9 October 1864 – 23 July 1927) was an officer of the British Indian Army who, as a temporary brigadier-general, was responsible for the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in Amritsar (in the province of Punjab).
Religious pluralism is an attitude or policy regarding the diversity of religious belief systems co-existing in society.
The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is India's central banking institution, which controls the monetary policy of the Indian rupee.
Richard Samuel Attenborough, Baron Attenborough, (29 August 1923 – 24 August 2014), was an English actor, filmmaker, entrepreneur, and politician.
Romain Rolland (29 January 1866 – 30 December 1944) was a French dramatist, novelist, essayist, art historian and mystic who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1915 "as a tribute to the lofty idealism of his literary production and to the sympathy and love of truth with which he has described different types of human beings".
The three Round Table Conferences of 1930–32 were a series of conferences organized by the British Government to discuss constitutional reforms in India.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act of 1919, popularly known as the Rowlatt Act and also known as the Black Act, was a legislative act passed by the Imperial Legislative Council in Delhi on March 18, 1919, indefinitely extending the emergency measures of preventive indefinite detention, incarceration without trial and judicial review enacted in the Defence of India Act 1915 during the First World War.
Sabarmati Ashram (also known as Gandhi Ashram, Harijan Ashram, or Satyagraha Ashram) is located in the Sabarmati suburb of Ahmedabad, Gujarat, adjoining the Ashram Road, on the banks of the River Sabarmati, four miles from the town hall.
The Salt March, also known as the Dandi March and the Dandi Satyagraha, was an act of nonviolent civil disobedience in colonial India led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi to produce salt from the seawater in the coastal village of Dandi (now in Gujarat), as was the practice of the local populace until British officials introduced taxation on salt production, deemed their sea-salt reclamation activities illegal, and then repeatedly used force to stop it.
Sambalpur is located in the western part of Odisha, and is one of the largest and oldest cities in the state.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sarojini Naidu; Chattopadhyay, (13 February 1879 – 2 March 1949) was an Indian independence activist and poet.
Sati or suttee is an obsolete funeral custom where a widow immolates herself on her husband's pyre or takes her own life in another fashion shortly after her husband's death.
Satya is the Sanskrit word for truth.
Satyagraha सत्याग्रह; satya: "truth", graha: "insistence" or "holding firmly to") or holding onto truth or truth force – is a particular form of nonviolent resistance or civil resistance. The term satyagraha was coined and developed by Mahatma Gandhi (1869–1948). He deployed satyagraha in the Indian independence movement and also during his earlier struggles in South Africa for Indian rights. Satyagraha theory influenced Martin Luther King Jr.'s and James Bevel's campaigns during the Civil Rights Movement in the United States, and many other social justice and similar movements. Someone who practices satyagraha is a satyagrahi.
Satyagraha (Sanskrit सत्याग्रह, satyāgraha "insistence on truth") is a 1979 opera in three acts for orchestra, chorus and soloists, composed by Philip Glass, with a libretto by Glass and Constance DeJong.
The School Day of Non-violence and Peace (or DENIP, acronym from Catalan-Balearic: Dia Escolar de la No-violència i la Pau), is an observance founded by the Spanish poet Llorenç Vidal Vidal in Majorca in 1964 as a starting point and support for a pacifying and non-violent education of a permanent character.
The Second Boer War (11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902) was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa.
The Self-Realization Fellowship Lake Shrine lies a few blocks from the Pacific Ocean, on Sunset Boulevard in Pacific Palisades, California.
Seven Social Sins is a list that was first uttered in a sermon delivered in Westminster Abbey on March 20, 1925 by an Anglican priest named.
Shrimad Rajchandra (9 November 1867 – 9 April 1901) was a Jain poet, philosopher, scholar and reformer.
A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.
Sion (Marathi: शीव) is a neighbourhood of Mumbai.
Sita (pronounced, Sanskrit: सीता, IAST: Sītā) or Seeta, is the consort of Lord Rama (incarnation of Vishnu) and an avatar of Sri Lakshmi, the Hindu goddess that denotes good sign, good fortune, prosperity, success, and happiness.
A social movement is a type of group action.
The South African Historical Journal is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering research on the Southern African region.
Stanley Wolpert (born December 23, 1927) is an American historian, Indologist, and author on the political and intellectual history of modern India and PakistanDr.
Bantu Stephen Biko (18 December 1946 – 12 September 1977) was a South African anti-apartheid activist.
Subhas Chandra Bose (23 January 1897 – 18 August 1945) was an Indian nationalist whose defiant patriotism made him a hero in India, but whose attempt during World War II to rid India of British rule with the help of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan left a troubled legacy.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sukhdev Thapar (15 May 1907 – 23 March 1931) was an Indian revolutionary.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Sushila Nayyar, also spelled 'Nayar' (1914 – 2000), was the younger sister of Pyarelal Nayyar, personal secretary to Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi and the Gandhis' personal physician.
The Swadeshi movement, part of the Indian independence movement and the developing Indian nationalism, was an economic strategy aimed at removing the British Empire from power and improving economic conditions in India by following the principles of swadeshi and which had some success.
Swami Vivekananda (12 January 1863 – 4 July 1902), born Narendranath Datta, was an Indian Hindu monk, a chief disciple of the 19th-century Indian mystic Ramakrishna.
Swaminarayan (IAST:, 3 April 1781 – 1 June 1830), also known as Sahajanand Swami, was a yogi, and an ascetic whose life and teachings brought a revival of central Hindu practices of dharma, ahimsa and brahmacharya.
Swarāj (स्वराज "self", raj "rule") can mean generally self-governance or "self-rule", and was used synonymously with "home-rule" by Maharishi Dayanand Saraswati and later on by Mahatma Gandhi, but the word usually refers to Gandhi's concept for Indian independence from foreign domination.
Samuel Sydney Silverman (8 October 1895 – 9 February 1968) was a British Labour politician and vocal opponent of capital punishment.
The Tamukkam Palace is a palace located in Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.
Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru, KCSI, PC (8 December 1875 – 20 January 1949) was a prominent Indian freedom fighter, lawyer and politician.
Telangana is a state in the south of India.
Temperance is defined as moderation or voluntary self-restraint.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Indian Express is an English-language Indian daily newspaper.
The Kingdom of God Is Within You (pre-reform Russian: Царство Божіе внутри васъ; post-reform Tsárstvo Bózhiye vnutrí vas) is a non-fiction book written by Leo Tolstoy.
The Making of the Mahatma is a 1996 joint Indian - South African produced film, directed by Shyam Benegal, about the early life of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (also known as Mahatma Gandhi, Great Soul) during his 21 years in South Africa.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Story of My Experiments with Truth is the autobiography of Mohandas K. Gandhi, covering his life from early childhood through to 1921.
The Telegraph is an Indian English daily newspaper founded and continuously published in Kolkata since 7 July 1982.
The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.
The Theosophical Society was an organization formed in 1875 by Helena Blavatsky to advance Theosophy.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Time 100: The Most Important People of the Century is a compilation of the 20th century's 100 most influential people, published in Time magazine in 1999.
Person of the Year (called Man of the Year or Woman of the Year until 1999) is an annual issue of the United States news magazine Time that features and profiles a person, a group, an idea, or an object that "for better or for worse...
The Tirukkural or Thirukkural (திருக்குறள், literally Sacred Verses), or shortly the Kural, is a classic Tamil text consisting of 1,330 couplets or Kurals, dealing with the everyday virtues of an individual.
The Transvaal Colony was the name used to refer to the Transvaal region during the period of direct British rule and military occupation between the end of the Anglo-Boer War in 1902 when the South African Republic was dissolved, and the establishment of the Union of South Africa in 1910.
Trikaranasuddhi, a word in the Sanskrit language, indicates the purity and unity of (1) thought (2) word and (3) deed, or a congruence amongst the trio.
In Hindu tradition Triveni Sangam is the "confluence" of three rivers.
Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.
Tushar Arun Gandhi (born 17 January 1960) is the son of journalist Arun Manilal Gandhi, grandson of Manilal Gandhi and great-grandson of M.K. Gandhi.
Udham Singh (26 December 1899 – 31 July 1940), was a Punjab revolutionary and freedom fighter belonging to the Ghadar Party best known for assassinating Michael O' Dwyer, the former Lieutenant Governor of the Punjab in India, on 13 March 1940.
(أمة) is an Arabic word meaning "community".
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The United Provinces of Agra and Oudh was a province of India under the British Raj, which existed from 1902 to 1947; the official name was shortened by the Government of India Act 1935 to United Provinces (UP), by which the province had been commonly known, and by which name it was also a province of independent India until 1950.
University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
Unto This Last is an essay and book on economy by John Ruskin, first published between August and December 1860 in the monthly journal Cornhill Magazine in four articles.
The Upanishads (उपनिषद्), a part of the Vedas, are ancient Sanskrit texts that contain some of the central philosophical concepts and ideas of Hinduism, some of which are shared with religious traditions like Buddhism and Jainism.
Vaishnavism (Vaishnava dharma) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism along with Shaivism, Shaktism, and Smartism.
Vaishya is one of the four varnas of the Hindu social order in Nepal and India.
Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel (31 October 1875 – 15 December 1950), popularly known as Sardar Patel, was the first Deputy Prime Minister of India.
Varṇa (वर्णः) is a Sanskrit word which means type, order, colour or class.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
The Vegetarian Society is a British registered charity which was established on 30 September 1847 to promote vegetarianism.
Verulam is a town 27 kilometres north of Durban in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa and now part of the eThekwini Metropolitan area.
Vinay Lal is Professor of History and Asian American Studies at UCLA.
Vithalbhai Jhaveri (1916–1985) was an Indian independence activist, filmmaker, photographer, writer and a close associate of Mahatma Gandhi.
Vivisection is surgery conducted for experimental purposes on a living organism, typically animals with a central nervous system, to view living internal structure.
Mudhalvar Mahatma (also known as Welcome Back Gandhi) is a 2014 film directed by A.Balakrishnan.
West Bengal (Paśchimbāṅga) is an Indian state, located in Eastern India on the Bay of Bengal.
White South Africans are South Africans descended from any of the white racial groups of Europe and the Levant who regard themselves, or are not regarded as, not being part of another racial group (for example, as Coloureds).
William Mackintire Salter (1853–1931) was the author of several books on philosophy and a critical and enduring major classic on Nietzsche.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
The World Peace Prize was established in 1989 by the World Peace Corps Mission, an international missionary organisation established in that year by Robert L. Leggett and Dr.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Yerwada Central Jail is a noted high-security jail in Yerwada, Pune, in Maharashtra.
Yoga (Sanskrit, योगः) is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India.
"You're the Top" is a Cole Porter song from the 1934 musical Anything Goes.
Young India was a weekshed - a weekly paper or journal - in English published by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi from 1919 to 1931.
Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת Tsiyyonut after Zion) is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Canaan, the Holy Land, or the region of Palestine).
The Kingdom of Zulu, sometimes referred to as the Zulu Empire or the Kingdom of Zululand, was a monarchy in Southern Africa that extended along the coast of the Indian Ocean from the Tugela River in the south to Pongola River in the north.
The.380 ACP (9×17mm) (Automatic Colt Pistol) is a rimless, straight-walled pistol cartridge developed by firearms designer John Moses Browning.
The 14th Dalai Lama (religious name: Tenzin Gyatso, shortened from Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso; born Lhamo Thondup, 6 July 1935) is the current Dalai Lama.
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