179 relations: A. K. Warder, Abhayagiri vihāra, Abhidharma, Abhidharma-samuccaya, Afghanistan, Akshobhya, Amaravathi (village), Andhra Pradesh, Amitābha, Amulet, Anatta, Arhat, Aryadeva, Asanga, Avatamsaka Sutra, Āgama (Buddhism), Ātman (Buddhism), Śūnyatā, Śūraṅgama Samādhi Sūtra, Śrāvaka, Śrīmālādevī Siṃhanāda Sūtra, Bangladesh, Bhāviveka, Bhūmi (Buddhism), Bhikkhu, Bhikkhuni, Bhutan, Bodhi, Bodhicitta, Bodhisattva, Brahmi script, Buddha-nature, Buddhahood, Buddhism, Buddhist devotion, Buddhist holidays, Buddhist logico-epistemology, Buddhist philosophy, Cakrasaṃvara Tantra, Cambodia, Central Asia, Chan Buddhism, Chandrakirti, China, Chinese Buddhist canon, Chinese language, Creator in Buddhism, Damien Keown, Dāna, Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, Dhammakaya Movement, ..., Dharma, Dharmaguptaka, Dharmakāya, Dhāraṇī, Dhyāna in Buddhism, Dignāga, Dukkha, Dzogchen, Early Buddhist schools, East Asia, Exegesis, Faith in Buddhism, Four Noble Truths, Gandhara, Gautama Buddha, Gāndhārī language, Gelug, Golden Light Sutra, Guhyasamāja Tantra, Heart Sutra, Hinayana, Hindu pilgrimage sites, History of Buddhism, Huvishka, Immanence, Indonesia, Iran, Jaggayyapeta, Japan, Japanese language, Japanese Zen, Joseph Kitagawa, Kathavatthu, Kleshas (Buddhism), Korea, Korean Seon, Krishna River, Kshanti, Kushan Empire, Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra, Laos, Lokaksema (Buddhist monk), Longer Sukhāvatīvyūha Sūtra, Lotus Sutra, Luminous mind, Luoyang, Mañjuśrī-mūla-kalpa, Madhyamaka, Mahavihara, Mahayana sutras, Mahāsāṃghika, Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra, Mahāyānasaṃgraha, Malaysia, Maldives, Manjushri, Mathura, Mūlamadhyamakakārikā, Metaphysics, Mongolia, Mulasarvastivada, Myanmar, Nagarjuna, Nagarjunakonda, Nepal, Nianfo, Nichiren Buddhism, Nikāya, Nirvana, Noble Eightfold Path, Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance, Oxford University Press, Pakistan, Pāramitā, Phenomenology of religion, Prajñā (Buddhism), Prajnaparamita, Prakrit, Pratītyasamutpāda, Pratyekabuddha, Pratyekabuddhayāna, Pure land, Pure Land Buddhism, Ratnagotravibhāga, Rebirth (Buddhism), Rhinoceros Sutra, Saṃsāra, Samadhi, Sandhinirmocana Sutra, Sanskrit, Sarvastivada, Sautrāntika, Schøyen Collection, Schools of Buddhism, Shaiva Siddhanta, Shaivism, Shingon Buddhism, Silk Road transmission of Buddhism, Singapore, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka, Sutra, Taiwan, Tendai, Thailand, The Monist, Theravada, Three Turnings of the Wheel of Dharma, Tiantai, Tibetan Buddhism, Trapusa and Bahalika, Trikaya, Tripiṭaka, True self and false self, Ugraparipṛcchā Sūtra, Upaya, Vajrayana, Varanasi, Vasubandhu, Vīrya, Vietnam, Vimalakirti Sutra, Vinaya, Walpola Rahula, Xuanzang, Yijing (monk), Yogachara, Zen. Expand index (129 more) » « Shrink index
Anthony Kennedy Warder (September 8, 1924 - January 8, 2013) was a British scholar of Indology, mostly in Buddhist studies and related fields, such as the Pāḷi and Sanskrit languages.
Abhayagiri Vihāra was a major monastery site of Mahayana, Theravada and Vajrayana Buddhism that was situated in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka.
Abhidharma (Sanskrit) or Abhidhamma (Pali) are ancient (3rd century BCE and later) Buddhist texts which contain detailed scholastic reworkings of doctrinal material appearing in the Buddhist sutras, according to schematic classifications.
Abhidharma-samuccaya (Sanskrit; Tibetan Wylie: mngon pa kun btus; English: Compendium of Abhidharma) is a Buddhist text composed by Asanga.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
In Vajrayana Buddhism, Akshobhya (अक्षोभ्य, Akṣobhya, "Immovable One") is one of the Five Wisdom Buddhas, a product of the Adibuddha, who represents consciousness as an aspect of reality.
Amaravathi is a village in Guntur district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
Amitābha, also known as Amida or Amitāyus, is a celestial buddha according to the scriptures of Mahayana Buddhism.
An amulet is an object that is typically worn on one's person, that some people believe has the magical or miraculous power to protect its holder, either to protect them in general or to protect them from some specific thing; it is often also used as an ornament though that may not be the intended purpose of it.
In Buddhism, the term anattā (Pali) or anātman (Sanskrit) refers to the doctrine of "non-self", that there is no unchanging, permanent self, soul or essence in living beings.
Theravada Buddhism defines arhat (Sanskrit) or arahant (Pali) as "one who is worthy" or as a "perfected person" having attained nirvana.
Āryadeva (fl. 3rd century CE), was a disciple of Nagarjuna and author of several important Mahayana Madhyamaka Buddhist texts.
Asaṅga (Romaji: Mujaku) (fl. 4th century C.E.) was a major exponent of the Yogacara tradition in India, also called Vijñānavāda.
The (Sanskrit; alternatively, the) is one of the most influential Mahayana sutras of East Asian Buddhism.
In Buddhism, an āgama (आगम Prakrit/Sanskrit) is used as "sacred scriptures".
Ātman, attā or attan in Buddhism is the concept of self, and is found in Buddhist literature's discussion of the concept of non-self (Anatta).
Śūnyatā (Sanskrit; Pali: suññatā), pronounced ‘shoonyataa’, translated into English most often as emptiness and sometimes voidness, is a Buddhist concept which has multiple meanings depending on its doctrinal context.
The Śūraṅgama Samādhi Sūtra (Sanskrit) is an early Mahayana sutra of Indian origin which focuses on the transcendental nature, supernatural powers, and transformational feats bestowed upon the meditation practitioner by the state of meditation called the "Śūraṅgama Samādhi" or the "Samādhi of the Heroic Progression.".
Śrāvaka (Sanskrit) or Sāvaka (Pali) means "hearer" or, more generally, "disciple".
The Śrīmālādevī Siṃhanāda Sūtra (Lion’s Roar of Queen Śrīmālā) is one of the main early Mahāyāna Buddhist texts belonging to the Tathāgatagarbha sūtras that teaches the doctrines of Buddha-nature and "One Vehicle" through the words of the Indian queen Śrīmālā.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
Bhāviveka, also called Bhavya or Bhāvaviveka (c. 500 – c. 578) was a sixth century Madhyamaka Buddhist.
Bhūmi (Sanskrit; भूमि) is the 32 and 33 place (10 and 11 in simple count) on the outgoing's process of Mahayana awakening.
A bhikkhu (from Pali, Sanskrit: bhikṣu) is an ordained male monastic ("monk") in Buddhism.
A bhikkhunī (Pali) or bhikṣuṇī (Sanskrit) is a fully ordained female monastic in Buddhism.
Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan (Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in South Asia.
Bodhi (Sanskrit: बोधि; Pali: bodhi) in Buddhism traditionally is translated into English with the term enlightenment, although its literal meaning is closer to "awakening".
In Buddhism, bodhicitta, "enlightenment-mind", is the mind that strives toward awakening, empathy, and compassion for the benefit of all sentient beings.
In Buddhism, Bodhisattva is the Sanskrit term for anyone who has generated Bodhicitta, a spontaneous wish and compassionate mind to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings. Bodhisattvas are a popular subject in Buddhist art.
Brahmi (IAST) is the modern name given to one of the oldest writing systems used in Ancient India and present South and Central Asia from the 1st millennium BCE.
Buddha-nature or Buddha Principle refers to several related terms, most notably tathāgatagarbha and buddhadhātu.
In Buddhism, buddhahood (buddhatva; buddhatta or italic) is the condition or rank of a buddha "awakened one".
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Devotion, a central practice in Buddhism, refers to commitment to religious observances or to an object or person, and may be translated with Sanskrit or Pāli terms like saddhā, gārava or pūjā.
This is a list of holidays celebrated within the Buddhist tradition.
Buddhist logico-epistemology is a term used in Western scholarship for pramāṇa-vada (doctrine of proof) and Hetu-vidya (science of causes).
Buddhist philosophy refers to the philosophical investigations and systems of inquiry that developed among various Buddhist schools in India following the death of the Buddha and later spread throughout Asia.
The Cakrasaṃvara Tantra (चक्रसंवर तन्त्र) or Khorlo Déchok is considered to be of the mother class of the Anuttarayoga Tantra in Vajrayana Buddhism.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Chan (of), from Sanskrit dhyāna (meaning "meditation" or "meditative state"), is a Chinese school of Mahāyāna Buddhism.
Chandrakirti was a Buddhist scholar of the Madhyamaka school and a noted commentator on the works of Nagarjuna and those of his main disciple, Aryadeva, authoring two influential works, Prasannapadā and Madhyamakāvatāra.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Chinese Buddhist Canon refers to the total body of Buddhist literature deemed canonical in Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese Buddhism.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Buddhist thought consistently rejects the notion of a creator deity.
Damien Keown (born 1951) is a prominent bioethicist and authority on Buddhist bioethics.
Dāna (Devanagari: दान) is a Sanskrit and Pali word that connotes the virtue of generosity, charity or giving of alms in Indian philosophies.
The Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta (Pali; Sanskrit: Dharmacakrapravartana Sūtra; English: The Setting in Motion of the Wheel of the Dharma Sutta or Promulgation of the Law Sutta) is a Buddhist text that is considered by Buddhists to be a record of the first teaching given by Gautama Buddha after he attained enlightenment.
The Dhammakaya Movement or Dhammakaya tradition is a Thai Buddhist tradition which was started by Luang Pu Sodh Candasaro in the early 20th century.
Dharma (dharma,; dhamma, translit. dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions – Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.
The Dharmaguptaka (Sanskrit) are one of the eighteen or twenty early Buddhist schools, depending on the source.
The dharmakāya (Sanskrit, "truth body" or "reality body") is one of the three bodies (trikaya) of a buddha in Mahayana Buddhism.
A (Devanagari: धारणी) is a Sanskrit term for a type of ritual speech similar to a mantra.
In Buddhism, Dhyāna (Sanskrit) or Jhāna (Pali) is a series of cultivated states of mind, which lead to a "state of perfect equanimity and awareness (upekkhii-sati-piirisuddhl)." It is commonly translated as meditation, and is also used in Hinduism and Jainism.
Dignāga (a.k.a. Diṅnāga, c. 480 – c. 540 CE) was an Indian Buddhist scholar and one of the Buddhist founders of Indian logic (hetu vidyā).
Dukkha (Pāli; Sanskrit: duḥkha; Tibetan: སྡུག་བསྔལ་ sdug bsngal, pr. "duk-ngel") is an important Buddhist concept, commonly translated as "suffering", "pain", "unsatisfactoriness" or "stress".
Dzogchen or "Great Perfection", Sanskrit: अतियोग, is a tradition of teachings in Tibetan Buddhism aimed at discovering and continuing in the natural primordial state of being.
The early Buddhist schools are those schools into which the Buddhist monastic saṅgha initially split, due originally to differences in vinaya and later also due to doctrinal differences and geographical separation of groups of monks.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
Exegesis (from the Greek ἐξήγησις from ἐξηγεῖσθαι, "to lead out") is a critical explanation or interpretation of a text, particularly a religious text.
In Buddhism, faith (italic, italic) refers to a serene commitment to the practice of the Buddha's teaching and trust in enlightened or highly developed beings, such as Buddhas or bodhisattvas (those aiming to become a Buddha).
The Four Noble Truths refer to and express the basic orientation of Buddhism in a short expression: we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, which are dukkha, "incapable of satisfying" and painful.
Gandhāra was an ancient kingdom situated along the Kabul and Swat rivers of Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
Gāndhārī is a modern name (first used by scholar Harold Walter Bailey in 1946) for the Prakrit language of Kharoṣṭhi texts dating to between the third century BCE and fourth century CE found in the northwestern region of Gandhāra, but it was also heavily used in Central Asia and even appears in inscriptions in Luoyang and Anyang.
The Gelug (Wylie: dGe-Lugs-Pa) is the newest of the schools of Tibetan Buddhism.
The Golden Light Sutra or (IAST: Suvarṇaprabhāsottamasūtrendrarājaḥ), also known by the Old Uygur title Altun Yaruq, is a Buddhist text of the Mahayana branch of Buddhism.
The Guhyasamāja Tantra (Sanskrit: Guhyasamājatantra; Tibetan: Gsang ’dus rtsa rgyud (Toh 442); Tantra of the Secret Community) is one of the most important scriptures of Tantric Buddhism.
The Heart Sūtra (Sanskrit or Chinese 心經 Xīnjīng) is a popular sutra in Mahāyāna Buddhism.
"Hīnayāna" is a Sanskrit term literally meaning the "inferior vehicle".
In religion and spirituality, a pilgrimage is a long journey or search of great moral significance.
The history of Buddhism spans from the 5th century BCE to the present.
Huvishka (Kushan: Οοηϸκι, "Ooishki") was the emperor of the Kushan Empire from the death of Kanishka (assumed on the best evidence available to be in 140 CE) until the succession of Vasudeva I about forty years later.
The doctrine or theory of immanence holds that the divine encompasses or is manifested in the material world.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Jaggayyapeta is a census town in Krishna district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Zen is the Japanese variant of Chan Buddhism, a Mahayana school that strongly emphasizes dhyana concentration-meditation.
Joseph Mitsuo Kitagawa (March 8, 1915–October 7, 1992) was an eminent Japanese American scholar in religious studies.
Kathāvatthu (Pāli) (abbrev. Kv, Kvu), translated as "Points of Controversy", is a Buddhist scripture, one of the seven books in the Theravada Abhidhamma Pitaka.
Kleshas (kleśa; किलेस kilesa; ཉོན་མོངས། nyon mongs), in Buddhism, are mental states that cloud the mind and manifest in unwholesome actions.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
Seon Buddhism (Korean: 선; IPA) is the transformative facture of Chan Buddhism tradition and creed in Korea.
The Krishna River is the fourth-biggest river in terms of water inflows and river basin area in India, after the Ganga, Godavari and Brahmaputra.
Kshanti (Sanskrit) or khanti (Pāli) is patience, forbearance and forgiveness.
The Kushan Empire (Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; Κυϸανο, Kushano; कुषाण साम्राज्य Kuṣāṇa Samrajya; BHS:; Chinese: 貴霜帝國; Kušan-xšaθr) was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century.
The Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra (Sanskrit) is a prominent Mahayana Buddhist sūtra.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
Lokakṣema (flourished 147-189) was a Buddhist monk of Central Asian origin who travelled to China during the Han Dynasty and translated Buddhist texts into Chinese, and, as such, is an important figure in Chinese Buddhism.
The Longer Sukhāvatīvyūha Sūtra (or Infinite Life Sutra) is one of the two Indian Mahayana sutras which describe the pure land of Amitābha.
The Lotus Sūtra (Sanskrit: सद्धर्मपुण्डरीक सूत्र, literally "Sūtra on the White Lotus of the Sublime Dharma") is one of the most popular and influential Mahayana sutras, and the basis on which the Tiantai, Tendai, Cheontae, and Nichiren schools of Buddhism were established.
Luminous mind (also, "brightly shining mind," "brightly shining citta") (Sanskrit prakṛti-prabhāsvara-citta, Pali pabhassara citta) is a term attributed to the Buddha in the Nikayas.
Luoyang, formerly romanized as Loyang, is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River in the west of Henan province.
The Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa or Mañjuśrī-mūla-kalpa is a text of the Kriyā-tantra class.
Madhyamaka (Madhyamaka,; also known as Śūnyavāda) refers primarily to the later schools of Buddhist philosophy founded by Nagarjuna (150 CE to 250 CE).
Mahavihara is the Sanskrit and Pali term for a great vihara (Buddhist monastery) and is used to describe a monastic complex of viharas.
The Mahayana sutras are a broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that various traditions of Mahayana Buddhism accept as canonical.
The Mahāsāṃghika (Sanskrit "of the Great Sangha") was one of the early Buddhist schools.
The Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra or Nirvana Sutra is a Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit text which is one of the Tathāgatagarbha sūtras of Mahāyāna Buddhism.
The Mahāyānasaṃgraha (MSg, The Mahāyāna Compendium/Summary, Traditional Chinese: 攝大乘論; Tibetan: theg pa chen po bsdus pa) is a key work of the Yogācāra school of Buddhist philosophy, attributed to Asanga (c. 310–390 CE).
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
The Maldives (or; ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ Dhivehi Raa'jey), officially the Republic of Maldives, is a South Asian sovereign state, located in the Indian Ocean, situated in the Arabian Sea.
Mañjuśrī is a bodhisattva associated with prajñā (insight) in Mahayana Buddhism.
Mathura is a city in the North Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
The Mūlamadhyamakakārikā (Sanskrit) or Fundamental Verses on the Middle Way, is a key text of the Madhyamaka-school, written by Nagarjuna.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
The Mūlasarvāstivāda (Sanskrit: मूलसर्वास्तिवाद) was one of the early Buddhist schools of India.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Nāgārjuna (c. 150 – c. 250 CE) is widely considered one of the most important Mahayana philosophers.
Nagarjunakonda (IAST: Nāgārjunikoṇḍa, meaning Nagarjuna Hill) is a historical town, now an island located near Nagarjuna Sagar in Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Nianfo (Japanese:,, Phật) is a term commonly seen in Pure Land Buddhism.
Nichiren Buddhism is a branch of Mahayana Buddhism based on the teachings of the 13th century Japanese Buddhist priest Nichiren (1222–1282) and is one of the "Kamakura Buddhism" schools.
Nikāya is a Pāḷi word meaning "volume".
(निर्वाण nirvāṇa; निब्बान nibbāna; णिव्वाण ṇivvāṇa) literally means "blown out", as in an oil lamp.
The Noble Eightfold Path (ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo, āryāṣṭāṅgamārga) is an early summary of the path of Buddhist practices leading to liberation from samsara, the painful cycle of rebirth.
The Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance (OCRT) is a group in Kingston, Ontario dedicated to the promotion of religious tolerance through their website, ReligiousTolerance.org.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Pāramitā (Sanskrit, Pali) or pāramī (Pāli) is "perfection" or "completeness".
The phenomenology of religion concerns the experiential aspect of religion, describing religious phenomena in terms consistent with the orientation of worshippers.
Prajñā (Sanskrit) or paññā (Pāli) "wisdom" is insight in the true nature of reality, namely primarily anicca (impermanence), dukkha (dissatisfaction or suffering), anattā (non-self) and śūnyatā (emptiness).
Prajñāpāramitā means "the Perfection of (Transcendent) Wisdom" in Mahāyāna Buddhism.
The Prakrits (प्राकृत; pāuda; pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages formerly spoken in India.
Pratītyasamutpāda (प्रतीत्यसमुत्पाद pratītyasamutpāda; पटिच्चसमुप्पाद paṭiccasamuppāda), commonly translated as dependent origination, or dependent arising, is the principle that all dharmas ("phenomena") arise in dependence upon other dharmas: "if this exists, that exists; if this ceases to exist, that also ceases to exist".
A pratyekabuddha or paccekabuddha (Sanskrit and Pali, respectively), literally "a lone buddha", "a buddha on their own" or "a private buddha", is one of three types of enlightened beings according to some schools of Buddhism.
Pratyekabuddhayāna (Sanskrit) is a Buddhist term that refers to the path, or vehicle, of a pratyekabuddha ("solitary awakened one", pra(tye)- of pra(na), eka-one, buddha-enlightened).
A pure land is the celestial realm or pure abode of a buddha or bodhisattva in Mahayana Buddhism.
Pure Land Buddhism (浄土仏教 Jōdo bukkyō; Korean:; Tịnh Độ Tông), also referred to as Amidism in English, is a broad branch of Mahayana Buddhism and one of the most widely practiced traditions of Buddhism in East Asia.
The Ratnagotravibhāga (Sanskrit, abbreviated as RgV) and its vyākhyā commentary (abbreviated RgVV), also known as the Uttaratantraśāstra, are a compendium of the tathāgatagarbha literature.
Rebirth in Buddhism refers to its teaching that the actions of a person lead to a new existence after death, in endless cycles called saṃsāra.
The Rhinoceros Sutra (Khaggavisāṇa-sutta; Khaḍgaviṣāṇa-gāthā; Khargaviṣaṇa-sutra or Khargaviṣaṇa-gasa) is a very early Buddhist text advocating the merit of solitary asceticism for pursuing enlightenment as opposed to practicing as a householder or in a community of monastics.
Saṃsāra is a Sanskrit word that means "wandering" or "world", with the connotation of cyclic, circuitous change.
Samadhi (Sanskrit: समाधि), also called samāpatti, in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism and yogic schools refers to a state of meditative consciousness.
The Ārya-saṃdhi-nirmocana-sūtra (Sanskrit;; Gongpa Ngédrel) or Noble sūtra of the Explanation of the Profound Secrets is a Mahāyāna Buddhist text and the most important sutra of the Yogācāra school.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
The Sarvāstivāda (Sanskrit) were an early school of Buddhism that held to the existence of all dharmas in the past, present and future, the "three times".
The Sautrāntika were an early Buddhist school generally believed to be descended from the Sthavira nikāya by way of their immediate parent school, the Sarvāstivādins.
The Schøyen Collection is the largest private manuscript collection in the world, mostly located in Oslo and London.
The Schools of Buddhism are the various institutional and doctrinal divisions of Buddhism that have existed from ancient times up to the present.
Shaiva siddhanta,(IAST: Śaiva siddhānta), provides the normative rites, cosmology and theological categories of Agamic and Vedic Shaivam combined.
Shaivism (Śaivam) (Devanagari: शैव संप्रदाय) (Bengali: শৈব) (Tamil: சைவம்) (Telugu: శైవ సాంప్రదాయం) (Kannada:ಶೈವ ಸಂಪ್ರದಾಯ) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism that reveres Shiva as the Supreme Being.
is one of the major schools of Buddhism in Japan and one of the few surviving Vajrayana lineages in East Asia, originally spread from India to China through traveling monks such as Vajrabodhi and Amoghavajra.
Buddhism entered Han China via the Silk Road, beginning in the 1st or 2nd century CE.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
A sutra (Sanskrit: IAST: sūtra; Pali: sutta) is a religious discourse (teaching) in text form originating from the spiritual traditions of India, particularly Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
is a Mahayana Buddhist school established in Japan in the year 806 by a monk named Saicho also known as.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Monist: An International Quarterly Journal of General Philosophical Inquiry is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal in the field of philosophy.
Theravāda (Pali, literally "school of the elder monks") is a branch of Buddhism that uses the Buddha's teaching preserved in the Pāli Canon as its doctrinal core.
The Three Turnings of the Wheel (of Dharma) refers to a framework for understanding the sutra stream of the teachings of the Buddhism originally devised by the Yogachara school.
Tiantai is a school of Buddhism in China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam that reveres the Lotus Sutra as the highest teaching in Buddhism.
Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhist doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia.
Trapusa and Bahalika (alternatively Bhallika) are attributed to be the first two lay disciples of the Buddha.
The Trikāya doctrine (Sanskrit, literally "three bodies") is a Mahayana Buddhist teaching on both the nature of reality and the nature of Buddhahood.
The Tripiṭaka (Sanskrit) or Tipiṭaka (Pali), is the traditional term for the Buddhist scriptures.
True self (also known as real self, authentic self, original self and vulnerable self) and false self (also known as fake self, idealized self, superficial self and pseudo self) are psychological concepts often used in connection with narcissism.
The Ugraparipṛcchā Sūtra (The inquiry of Ugra) is an early Indian sutra which is particularly important for understanding the beginnings of Mahayana Buddhism.
Upaya (Sanskrit:, expedient means, pedagogy) is a term used in Mahayana Buddhism to refer to an aspect of guidance along the Buddhist Paths to liberation where a conscious, voluntary action is driven by an incomplete reasoning about its direction.
Vajrayāna, Mantrayāna, Tantrayāna, Tantric Buddhism and Esoteric Buddhism are the various Buddhist traditions of Tantra and "Secret Mantra", which developed in medieval India and spread to Tibet and East Asia.
Varanasi, also known as Benares, Banaras (Banāras), or Kashi (Kāśī), is a city on the banks of the Ganges in the Uttar Pradesh state of North India, south-east of the state capital, Lucknow, and east of Allahabad.
Vasubandhu (Sanskrit) (fl. 4th to 5th century CE) was a very influential Buddhist monk and scholar from Gandhara.
Vīrya (Sanskrit; Pāli: viriya) is a Buddhist term commonly translated as "energy", "diligence", "enthusiasm", or "effort".
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Vimalakīrti Nirdeśa Sūtra (विमलकीर्तिनिर्देशसूत्र), (འཕགས་པ་དྲི་མ་མེད་པར་གྲགས་པས་བསྟན་པ་ཞེས་བྱ་བ་མདོ།) or Vimalakīrti Sūtra is a Mahayana Buddhist sutra.
The Vinaya (Pali and Sanskrit, literally meaning "leading out", "education", "discipline") is the regulatory framework for the sangha or monastic community of Buddhism based on the canonical texts called the Vinaya Pitaka.
Walpola Rahula (1907–1997) was a Sri Lankan Buddhist monk, scholar and writer.
Xuanzang (fl. c. 602 – 664) was a Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveller, and translator who travelled to India in the seventh century and described the interaction between Chinese Buddhism and Indian Buddhism during the early Tang dynasty.
Yijing (635–713 CE) was a Tang dynasty Chinese Buddhist monk originally named Zhang Wenming.
Yogachara (IAST:; literally "yoga practice"; "one whose practice is yoga") is an influential school of Buddhist philosophy and psychology emphasizing phenomenology and ontology through the interior lens of meditative and yogic practices.
Zen (p; translit) is a school of Mahayana Buddhism that originated in China during the Tang dynasty as Chan Buddhism.