167 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Abbasid Revolution, Abdallahi ibn Muhammad, Abraham, Abu Sa‘id al-Khudri, Abul A'la Maududi, Ahl al-Bayt, Ahmadiyya, Ahmed Hulusi, Ahmed ibn Abi Mahalli, Al-Andalus, Al-Bayhaqi, Al-Farazdaq, Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, Al-Masih ad-Dajjal, Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain, Al-Qa'im (person), Al-Sakhawi, Al-Suyuti, Ali, Ali Ibn Ibrahim Qomi, Almohad Caliphate, Antioch, As-Saffah, Baghdad, Bahá'í calendar, Bahá'í Faith, Bahá'í World Centre, Bahá'u'lláh, Battle of Badr, Battle of Omdurman, Bay'ah, Báb, Bábism, Bihar al-Anwar, Black Stone, British Army, Caliphate, Christian, Constantinople, Demographics of Sudan, Dhu al-Qidah, Druze, Earth, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Execution by firing squad, Glossary of Islam, God in Islam, Grand Mosque seizure, Greenwood Publishing Group, ..., Habibur Rahman Kandhalvi, Hadith, Hadith studies, Haifa, Hajji, Hassan ibn Thabit, Himyarite Kingdom, History of Sudan (1821–1885), Husayn ibn Ali, Ibn Babawayh, Ibn Kathir, Ibn Khaldun, Ibn Tumart, Iraq, Islam, Islamic eschatology, Islamic revival, Isma'ilism, ISO 233, Israel, Ja'far al-Sadiq, Jami` at-Tirmidhi, Jarir ibn Atiyah, Javed Ahmad Ghamidi, Jesus, Jesus in Islam, Jews, JSTOR, Juhayman al-Otaybi, Kaaba, Kanz al-Ummal, Kaysanites, Khartoum, Kufa, List of Mahdi claimants, Mahdavia, Mahdaviat, Mahdist State, Mahdist War, Mail carrier, Manifestation of God, Mecca, Medina, Messiah, Messiah Foundation International, Messiah in Judaism, Mina, Saudi Arabia, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, Moses, Muawiyah I, Muhammad, Muhammad Ahmad, Muhammad al-Baqir, Muhammad al-Bukhari, Muhammad al-Mahdi, Muhammad ibn Abdullah al-Aftah, Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah, Muhammad ibn Ali al-Hadi, Muhammad ibn Isma'il, Muhammad ibn Qasim (al-Alawi), Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni, Muhammad Jaunpuri, Mukhtar al-Thaqafi, Musa al-Kadhim, Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Naim ibn Hammad, Nation of Islam, New Testament, Occultation (Islam), Oneworld Publications, Pakistanis, Panegyric, Peter Holt (historian), Plague (disease), Polytheism, Presidencies and provinces of British India, Prophets and messengers in Islam, Psalms, Qadi, Qom, Quran, Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi, Saadi dynasty, Samarra, Second Coming, Second Fitna, Sevener, Shafi‘i, Sharh al-Mawahib al-Ladunniyyah, Shia Islam, Shrine of the Báb, Sibt ibn al-Jawzi, South Arabian, Stoning of the Devil, Sudan, Sufism, Sufyani, Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik, Sunan Abu Dawood, Sunni Islam, SUNY Press, Syria, Syria (region), Tabriz, The Twelve Imams, Torah, Twelver, Umar II, Umayyad Caliphate, Umm Salama, Ummah, Wallace Fard Muhammad, Waqifite Shia, Wilferd Madelung, Yahya ibn Umar, Yale University Press. Expand index (117 more) » « Shrink index
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Abbasid Revolution refers to the overthrow of the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE), the second of the four major Caliphates in early Islamic history, by the third, the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258 CE).
Abdullah Ibn-Mohammed Al-Khalifa or Abdullah al-Khalifa or Abdullahi al-Khalifa, also known as "The Khalifa" (c.; 1846 – November 25, 1899) was a Sudanese Ansar ruler who was one of the principal followers of Muhammad Ahmad.
Abraham (Arabic: إبراهيم Ibrahim), originally Abram, is the common patriarch of the three Abrahamic religions.
Sa'id ibn Malik Sinan al-Khazraji al-Khudri (سعد بن مالك بن سنان الخزرجي الخدري) (kunya: Abu Sa'id) was an Ansari from the original inhabitants of Medina and one of the younger companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Syed Abul A'la Maududi Chishti (ابو الاعلی مودودی – alternative spellings of last name Maudoodi, Mawdudi, also known as Abul Ala Maududi; –) was a Muslim philosopher, jurist, journalist and imam.
Ahl al-Bayt (أهل البيت, اهلِ بیت), also Āl al-Bayt, is a phrase meaning, literally, "People of the House" or "Family of the House".
Ahmadiyya (officially, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated: al-Jamā'ah al-Islāmiyyah al-Aḥmadiyyah; احمدیہ مسلم جماعت) is an Islamic religious movement founded in Punjab, British India, in the late 19th century.
Ahmed Hulusi (born 1945 in Istanbul, Turkey) is an Islamic author from Turkey, whose works focus on philosophical and religious ideas.
Ahmed ibn Abi Mahalli (1559–1613), born in Sijilmasa, was an imam and the (Sufi) leader of a revolt (1610–13) against the reigning Saadi dynasty in the south of Morocco in which he proclaimed himself as mahdi.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
Abū Bakr Aḥmad ibn Ḥusayn Ibn 'Alī ibn Mūsa al-Khosrojerdi al-Bayhaqi (Arabic), البيهقي also known as Imām al-Bayhaqi was born 994 CE/384 AH in the small town of Khosrowjerd near Sabzevar, then known as Bayhaq, in Khurasan.
Hammam ibn Ghalib (همام بن غالب; born c. 641; died 728–730), most commonly known as Al-Farazdaq (الفرزدق) or Abu Firas, was an Arab poet.
Abū ʿAlī Manṣūr (13 August 985 – 13 February 1021), better known by his regnal title al-Ḥākim bi-Amr Allāh (الحاكم بأمر الله; literally "Ruler by God's Command"), was the sixth Fatimid caliph and 16th Ismaili imam (996–1021).
Al-Masih ad-Dajjal (المسيح الدجّال, "the false messiah, liar, the deceiver") is an evil figure in Islamic eschatology.
Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain (المستدرك على الصحيحين; Al-Mustadrak 'ala al-Sahîhayn) is a five volume hadith collection written by Hakim al-Nishapuri (Nishapur is located in Iran).
Al-Qāʾim (القائم "He Who Arises") is a messiah-like figure in Shia Islam, sometimes referred to as the Mahdi, but distinctly of a Shiʿa tradition.
Shams al-Din Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Rahman al-Sakhawi (شمس الدين محمد بن عبدالرحمن السخاوي, 1428/831 AH - 1497/902 AH) was a reputable Shafi'i Muslim hadith scholar and historian who was born in Cairo.
Abū al-Faḍl ‘Abd al-Raḥmān ibn Abī Bakr ibn Muḥammad Jalāl al-Dīn al-Khuḍayrī al-Suyūṭī (جلال الدين عبد الرحمن بن أبي بكر بن محمد الخضيري السيوطي; 1445–1505 AD) was an Egyptian religious scholar, juristic expert and teacher, and one of the most prolific writers of the Middle Ages of Persian origin, whose works deal with Islamic theology.
Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam.
Abu al-Hasan Ali Ibn Ibrāhim al-Qummi was a 10th century Shi'a commentator and jurist of Persian origin.
The Almohad Caliphate (British English:, U.S. English:; ⵉⵎⵡⴻⵃⵃⴷⴻⵏ (Imweḥḥden), from Arabic الموحدون, "the monotheists" or "the unifiers") was a Moroccan Berber Muslim movement and empire founded in the 12th century.
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
Abu al-‘Abbās ‘Abdu'llāh ibn Muhammad al-Saffāḥ, or Abul `Abbas as-Saffaḥ (أبو العباس عبد الله بن محمد السفّاح) (b. 721/722 AD – d. 10 June 754) was the first caliph of the Abbasid caliphate, one of the longest and most important caliphates (Islamic dynasties) in Islamic history.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
The Bahá'í calendar, also called the Badíʿ calendar (Badíʿ means wondrous or unique), is a solar calendar with years composed of 19 months of 19 days each (361 days) plus an extra period of "Intercalary Days".
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
The Bahá'í World Centre is the name given to the spiritual and administrative centre of the Bahá'í Faith.
Bahá'u'lláh (بهاء الله, "Glory of God"; 12 November 1817 – 29 May 1892 and Muharram 2, 1233 - Dhu'l Qa'dah 2, 1309), born Mírzá Ḥusayn-`Alí Núrí (میرزا حسینعلی نوری), was the founder of the Bahá'í Faith.
The Battle of Badr (غزوة بدر), fought on Tuesday, 13 March 624 CE (17 Ramadan, 2 AH in the Islamic calendar) in the Hejaz region of western Arabia (present-day Saudi Arabia), was a key battle in the early days of Islam and a turning point in Muhammad's struggle with his opponents among the Quraish in Mecca.
At the Battle of Omdurman (2 September 1898), an army commanded by the British General Sir Herbert Kitchener defeated the army of Abdullah al-Taashi, the successor to the self-proclaimed Mahdi, Muhammad Ahmad.
Bayʿah (بَيْعَة, Pledge of allegiance"), in Islamic terminology, is an oath of allegiance to a leader.
The Báb, born Siyyid `Alí Muhammad Shírází (سيد علی محمد شیرازی; October 20, 1819 – July 9, 1850) was the founder of Bábism, and one of the central figures of the Bahá'í Faith.
Bábism (بابیه, Babiyye), also known as the Bayání Faith (Persian:, Bayání), is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion which professes that there is one incorporeal, unknown, and incomprehensible GodBrowne, E.G., p. 15 who manifests his will in an unending series of theophanies, called Manifestations of God (Arabic). It has no more than a few thousand adherents according to current estimates, most of whom are concentrated in Iran.
Biḥār al-Anwār (بحار الأنوار, meaning "Seas of Lights") is a comprehensive collection of traditions (ahadith) compiled by the Shi'i Muslim scholar Mulla Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi, known as 'Allama Majlisi (d. 1110/1698).
The Black Stone (ٱلْحَجَرُ ٱلْأَسْوَد,, "Black Stone") is a rock set into the eastern corner of the Kaaba, the ancient building located in the center of the Grand Mosque in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Sudan, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
Dhu'l-Qi'dah, Dhu'l-Qa'dah, or alternatively Zulqida (ذو القعدة, also transliterated) is the eleventh month in the Islamic calendar.
The Druze (درزي or, plural دروز; דרוזי plural דרוזים) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Western Asia who self-identify as unitarians (Al-Muwaḥḥidūn/Muwahhidun).
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is an encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies published by Brill.
Execution by firing squad, in the past sometimes called fusillading (from the French fusil, rifle), is a method of capital punishment, particularly common in the military and in times of war.
The following list consists of notable concepts that are derived from both Islamic and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in the Arabic language.
In Islam, God (Allāh, contraction of الْإِلٰه al-ilāh, lit. "the god") is indivisible, the God, the absolute one, the all-powerful and all-knowing ruler of the universe, and the creator of everything in existence within the universe.
The Grand Mosque seizure occurred during November and December 1979 when extremist insurgents calling for the overthrow of the House of Saud took over Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
Allama Ḥabīburraḥmān Ṣiddīqī Kāndhalvī was an Islamic scholar and author from Pakistan.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Hadith studies (علم الحديث ʻilm al-ḥadīth "knowledge of hadith", also science of hadith, or science of hadith criticism) consist of several religious disciplines used in the study and evaluation of the Islamic hadith — i.e. the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval of the Islamic prophet Muhammad by Muslim scholars.
Haifa (חֵיפָה; حيفا) is the third-largest city in Israel – after Jerusalem and Tel Aviv– with a population of in.
Hajji (sometimes spelled Hadji, Haji, Alhaji, Al hage, Al hag or El-Hajj) is a title which is originally given to a Muslim person who has successfully completed the Hajj to Mecca.
Hassan ibn Thabit (حسان بن ثابت) (born c. 563, Medina died 674) was an Arabian poet and one of the Sahaba, or companions of Muhammad, hence he was best known for his poems in defense of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Ḥimyarite Kingdom or Ḥimyar (مملكة حِمْيَر, Mamlakat Ḥimyar, Musnad: 𐩢𐩣𐩺𐩧𐩣, ממלכת חִמְיָר) (fl. 110 BCE–520s CE), historically referred to as the Homerite Kingdom by the Greeks and the Romans, was a kingdom in ancient Yemen.
The History of Sudan under Muhammad Ali and his successors traces the period from Muhammad Ali Pasha's invasion of Sudan in 1820 until the fall of Khartoum in 1885 to Muhammad Ahmad, the self-proclaimed Mahdi.
Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (الحسين ابن علي ابن أبي طالب; 10 October 625 – 10 October 680) (3 Sha'aban AH 4 (in the ancient (intercalated) Arabic calendar) – 10 Muharram AH 61) (his name is also transliterated as Husayn ibn 'Alī, Husain, Hussain and Hussein), was a grandson of the Islamic ''Nabi'' (نَـبِي, Prophet) Muhammad, and son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam), and Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah.
Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn 'Ali ibn Babawaih al-Qummi (Persian: ابو جعفر محمد بن علي بن بابويه القمي; c. 923-991), referred to as Ibn Babawayh or Al-Shaykh al-Saduq (the truthful scholar) was a Persian Shi'ite Islamic scholar whose work, entitled Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih, forms part of The Four Books of the Shi'ite Hadith collection.
Ismail ibn Kathir (ابن كثير (Abridged name); Abu al-Fida' 'Imad Ad-Din Isma'il bin 'Umar bin Kathir al-Qurashi Al-Busrawi (إسماعيل بن عمر بن كثير القرشي الدمشقي أبو الفداء عماد الدين) – 1373) was a highly influential historian, exegete and scholar during the Mamluk era in Syria.
Ibn Khaldun (أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي.,; 27 May 1332 – 17 March 1406) was a fourteenth-century Arab historiographer and historian.
Abu Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn Tumart (Berber: Amghar ibn Tumert, أبو عبد الله محمد ابن تومرت, ca. 1080–1130 or 1128), a Muslim Berber religious scholar, teacher and political leader, came from southern Morocco.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islamic eschatology is the branch of Islamic theology concerning the end of the world, and the "Day of resurrection" after that, known as Yawm al-Qiyāmah (يوم القيامة,, "the Day of Resurrection") or Yawm ad-Dīn (يوم الدين,, "the Day of Judgment").
Islamic revival (تجديد, lit. "regeneration, renewal"; also الصحوة الإسلامية, "Islamic awakening") refers to a revival of the Islamic religion.
Ismāʿīlism (الإسماعيلية al-Ismāʿīliyya; اسماعیلیان; اسماعيلي; Esmāʿīliyān) is a branch of Shia Islam.
The international standard ISO 233 establishes a system for Arabic and Syriac transliteration (Romanization).
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq (جعفر بن محمد الصادق; 700 or 702–765 C.E.), commonly known as Jaʿfar al-Sadiq or simply al-Sadiq (The Truthful), was the sixth Shia Imam and a major figure in the Hanafi and Maliki schools of Sunni jurisprudence.
Jami' at-Tirmidhi (جامع الترمذي, Jāmi‘ at-Tirmidhī), also known as Sunan at-Tirmidhi (سُـنَن الترمذي, Sunan at-Tirmidhī), is one of the Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadith collections).
Jarir ibn Atiyah al-Khatfi Al-Tamimi (جرير بن عطية الخطفي التميمي) was an Arab poet and satirist.
Javed Ahmad Ghamidi (جاوید احمد غامدی) (born 1952) is a Pakistani Islamic modernist theologist Quran scholar and exegete, and educationist.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
In Islam, ʿĪsā ibn Maryam (lit), or Jesus, is understood to be the penultimate prophet and messenger of God (Allah) and al-Masih, the Arabic term for Messiah (Christ), sent to guide the Children of Israel with a new revelation: al-Injīl (Arabic for "the gospel").
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
JSTOR (short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995.
Juhayman ibn Muhammad ibn Sayf al-Otaybi (جهيمان بن محمد بن سيف العتيبي 16 September 1936 – 9 January 1980) was a Saudi religious extremist and former Saudi Arabian army man who in 1979 led the Grand Mosque seizure of the Masjid al Haram in Mecca, Islam's holiest site, to protest against the Saudi monarchy and the House of Saud.
The Kaaba (ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة, "The Cube"), also referred as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah (ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة الْـمُـشَـرًّفَـة, the Holy Ka'bah), is a building at the center of Islam's most important mosque, that is Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـد الْـحَـرَام, The Sacred Mosque), in the Hejazi city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
Treasure of the Doers of Good Deeds (Kanz al-‘Ummāl fī sunan al-aqwāl wa'l af‘āl) is an Islamic hadith collection, collected by the Islamic scholar Ala al-Din Ali ibn Abd-al-Malik Husam al-Din al-Muttaqi al-Hindi (1472 CE/AH 888 - 1567 CE/AH 975).
The Kaysanites were a Shi'i sect of Islam that reportedly formed from the followers of Al-Mukhtar.
Khartoum is the capital and largest city of Sudan.
Kufa (الْكُوفَة) is a city in Iraq, about south of Baghdad, and northeast of Najaf.
In Muslim eschatology, the Mahdi is a Messianic figure who, it is believed, will appear on Earth before the Day of Judgment, and will rid the world of wrongdoing, injustice and tyranny.
Mahdavia (مهدوي. mahdawi) or Mahdavism, is a Mahdiist Muslim sect founded by Syed Muhammad Jaunpuri in India in the late 15th century.
Mahdaviat (مهدويت) is a religious term in Shia translating to "Mahdiism" or "belief in the Mahdi".
The Mahdist State, also known as Mahdist Sudan or the Sudanese Mahdiyya, was a religious and political movement launched in 1881 by Muammad Ahmad bin Abdullah (later Muhammad al-Mahdi) against the Khedivate of Egypt, which had ruled the Sudan since 1821.
The Mahdist War (الثورة المهدية ath-Thawra al-Mahdī; 1881–99) was a British colonial war of the late 19th century which was fought between the Mahdist Sudanese of the religious leader Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah, who had proclaimed himself the "Mahdi" of Islam (the "Guided One"), and the forces of the Khedivate of Egypt, initially, and later the forces of Britain.
A mail carrier, mailman, mailwoman, postal carrier, postman, postwoman, or letter carrier (in American English), sometimes colloquially known as a postie (in Australia, New Zealand, Scotland, and other parts of the United Kingdom), is an employee of a post office or postal service, who delivers mail and parcel post to residences and businesses.
The Manifestation of God is a concept in the Bahá'í Faith that refers to what are commonly called prophets.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.
In Abrahamic religions, the messiah or messias is a saviour or liberator of a group of people.
Messiah Foundation International (مہدی فاونڈیشن انٹرنیشنل) (or MFI) is a spiritual organisation formally established in 2002 to promote the Goharian Philosophy of Divine Love.
The messiah in Judaism is a savior and liberator of the Jewish people.
Mina (also known as the Tent City) is a neighborhood of Mecca in Makkah Province, in western Saudi Arabia.
Mirzā Ghulām Ahmad (13 February 1835 – 26 May 1908) was an Indian religious leader and the founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam.
Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.
Muawiyah I (Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān; 602 – 26 April 680) established the Umayyad dynasty of the caliphate, and was the second caliph from the Umayyad clan, the first being Uthman ibn Affan.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah (محمد أحمد ابن عبد الله; 12 August 1844 – 22 June 1885) was a religious leader of the Samaniyya order in Sudan who, on 29 June 1881, proclaimed himself the Mahdi, the messianic redeemer of the Islamic faith.
Muḥammad al-Baqir, full name Muhammad bin 'Ali bin al-Husayn bin Ali bin Abi Talib, also known as Abu Ja'far or simply al-Baqir (the one who opens knowledge) (677-733) was the fifth Shia imam, succeeding his father Zayn al-Abidin and succeeded by his son Ja'far al-Sadiq.
Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Ismā‘īl ibn Ibrāhīm ibn al-Mughīrah ibn Bardizbah al-Ju‘fī al-Bukhārī (أبو عبد الله محمد بن اسماعيل بن ابراهيم بن المغيرة بن بردزبه الجعفي البخاري‎; 19 July 810 – 1 September 870), or Bukhārī (بخاری), commonly referred to as Imam al-Bukhari or Imam Bukhari, was a Persian Islamic scholar who was born in Bukhara (the capital of the Bukhara Region (viloyat) of Uzbekistan).
Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Mahdī (محمد بن الحسن المهدي), also known as Imam Zaman (امام زمان), is believed by Twelver Shī‘a Muslims to be the Mahdī, an eschatological redeemer of Islam and ultimate savior of humankind and the final Imām of the Twelve Imams who will emerge with Isa (Jesus Christ) in order to fulfill their mission of bringing peace and justice to the world.
Muhammad ibn Abdullah al-Aftah ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq was a figure whose existence is contested: a portion of the Fathite Shia Muslims (followers of Abdullah al-Aftah ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq), believed that Muhammad was the son of Imam Abdullah al-Aftah (died 766 CE), whom they believed to be the Imam after his father Ja'far al-Sadiq.
Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib, also known as Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah (15 AH – 81 AH; AD 636 – 700) and surnamed Abu'l-Qasim was an early Muslim leader.
Muhammad ibn Ali ibne-Muhammed Nakî‘yyî’l-Hâdî was the son of Ali al-Hadi and the brother of Hasan al-Askari, the 10th and 11th Twelver Shia Imams respectively.
Muhammad ibn Ismāʿīl alias Maymūn Al-Qaddāḥ was the son of Isma'il ibn Jafar and an Ismāʿīlī Imam.
Muhammad ibn Qasim was an Alawite Imam.
Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Ya'qub ibn Ishaq al-Kulayni al-Razi (Persian: شیخ ابوجعفر محمّد بن یعقوب بن اسحاق رازی; c. 250 AH/864 CE - 329 AH/941 CE).
Syed Muhammad Jaunpuri (سید محمد جونپورى) (September 9, 1443 – April 23, 1505 AD), claimed to be Imam Mahdi at Mecca in the Hijri year 901, and is revered as such by Mahdavia.
al-Mukhtār ibn Abī ‘Ubaydah al-Thaqafī (المختار بن أبي عبيدة الثقفي) (also spelled Mukhtar bin Abu Ubaid), (born c. 622, al-Ṭaʾif, Arabia —died March 687, Kūfah, Iraq), was an early Islamic revolutionary based in Kufa, Iraq who led an abortive rebellion against the Umayyad Caliphs in vengeance for the death of Husayn ibn 'Ali at the Battle of Karbala.
Mūsá ibn Ja‘far al-Kāzim (موسى بن جعفر الكاظم), also called Abūl-Hasan, Abū Abd Allah, Abū Ibrāhīm, and al-Kāzim (the one who controls his anger), was the seventh Shiite Imam after his father Ja'far al-Sadiq.
Abū al-Ḥusayn ‘Asākir ad-Dīn Muslim ibn al-Ḥajjāj ibn Muslim ibn Ward ibn Kawshādh al-Qushayrī an-Naysābūrī (أبو الحسين عساكر الدين مسلم بن الحجاج بن مسلم بن وَرْد بن كوشاذ القشيري النيسابوري; after 815 – May 875) or Muslim Nīshāpūrī (مسلم نیشاپوری), commonly known as Imam Muslim, was a Persian Islamic scholar, particularly known as a muhaddith (scholar of hadith).
Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal is a collection of Hadith collected by the Islamic scholar Ahmad ibn Hanbal, to whom the Hanbali fiqh (legislation) is attributed.
Abū ‘Abd Allāh Nu‘aym bin Ḥammād al-Khuzā‘ī al-Marwazī (أبو عبد الله نعيم بن حماد الخزاعي المروزي; 13 Jumada al-Awwal 228 AH / 18 February 843 AD in Samarra) was a traditionist from Marw al-Rudh and was later based in Egypt and Baghdad.
The Nation of Islam, abbreviated as NOI, is an African American political and religious movement, founded in Detroit, Michigan, United States, by Wallace D. Fard Muhammad on July 4, 1930.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
The Occultation (غيبة Ghaybah) in Shia Islam refers to a belief that the messianic figure, or Mahdi, who in Shi'i thought is an infallible male descendant of the founder of Islam, Muhammad, was born but disappeared, and will one day return and fill the world with justice and peace.
Oneworld Publications is a British independent publishing firm founded in 1986 by Novin Doostdar and Juliet Mabey originally to publish accessible non-fiction by experts and academics for the general market.
A panegyric is a formal public speech, or (in later use) written verse, delivered in high praise of a person or thing, a generally highly studied and undiscriminating eulogy, not expected to be critical.
Peter Malcolm Holt, FBA (28 November 1918 – 2 November 2006) was a historian of the Middle East and Sudan in particular.
Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.
Polytheism (from Greek πολυθεϊσμός, polytheismos) is the worship of or belief in multiple deities, which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
Prophets in Islam (الأنبياء في الإسلام) include "messengers" (rasul, pl. rusul), bringers of a divine revelation via an angel (Arabic: ملائكة, malāʾikah);Shaatri, A. I. (2007).
The Book of Psalms (תְּהִלִּים or, Tehillim, "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms or "the Psalms", is the first book of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament.
A qadi (قاضي; also cadi, kadi or kazi) is the magistrate or judge of the Shariʿa court, who also exercises extrajudicial functions, such as mediation, guardianship over orphans and minors, and supervision and auditing of public works.
Qom (قم) is the eighth largest city in Iran.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi (ریاض احمد گوھر شاہی) born 25 November 1941) is a spiritual leader and founder of the spiritual movements RAGS International (now known as Messiah Foundation International) and Anjuman Serfaroshan-e-Islam. He is the author of a number of Urdu books on topics relating to spirituality, the most successful among these being Deen-e-Ilahi "The Religion of God" (2000), which was republished by Balboa Press, a division of Hay House and translated into English and other languages by Messiah Foundation International in 2012. RAGS International was renamed to Messiah Foundation International in 2000. MFI claims that Shahi is the Mehdi, Messiah, and Kalki Avatar. Shahi disappeared from public view in 2001. There have been claims that he died in that year or in 2003, but these are unconfirmed.
The Saadi dynasty or Saadian dynasty (السعديون as-saʿadiūn; ⵉⵙⵄⴷⵉⵢⵏ Isɛdiyen) was an arab Moroccan dynasty, which ruled Morocco from 1549 to 1659.
Sāmarrāʾ (سَامَرَّاء) is a city in Iraq.
The Second Coming (sometimes called the Second Advent or the Parousia) is a Christian and Islamic belief regarding the future (or past) return of Jesus Christ after his incarnation and ascension to heaven about two thousand years ago.
The Second Fitna was a period of general political and military disorder that afflicted the Islamic empire during the early Umayyad dynasty, following the death of the first Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I. Historians date its start variously as 680 AD and its end as being somewhere between 685 and 692.
al-Ismāʿīliyya al-khāliṣa / al-Ismāʿīliyya al-wāqifa or Seveners (سبعية) was a branch of Ismā'īlī Shīʻa.
The Shafi‘i (شافعي, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam.
Sharh al-Mawahib al-Ladunniyyah is an eight volumes collection authored by Islamic scholar Muhammad al-Zurqani, a commentary of Al-Qastallani's Al-Muwahib al-Ladunniyyah.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
The Shrine of the Báb is a structure in Haifa, Israel where the remains of the Báb, founder of the Bábí Faith and forerunner of Bahá'u'lláh in the Bahá'í Faith, have been buried; it is considered to be the second holiest place on Earth for Bahá'ís, after the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh in Acre.
Shams al-din Abu al-Muzaffar Yusuf ibn Kizoghlu (c. 581AH/1185–654AH/1256), famously known as Sibṭ ibn al-Jawzi (سبط بن الجوزي) was a notable preacher and historian.
The term South Arabian covers South Semitic languages spoken on the southern Arabian peninsula, i.e. or those originating or those which evolved from languages in South Arabia.
The Stoning of the Devil (رمي الجمرات, "stoning of the ") is part of the annual Islamic Hajj pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
The Sufyani (Arabic: السفياني) is a character from Islamic eschatology.
Sulayman bin Abd al-Malik (سليمان بن عبد الملك) (c. 674 – 22 September 717) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 715 until 717.
Sunan Abu Dawud (Sunan Abī Dāwūd) is one of the Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadith collections), collected by Abu Dawood.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The State University of New York Press (or SUNY Press), is a university press and a Center for Scholarly Communication.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The historic region of Syria (ash-Shām, Hieroglyphic Luwian: Sura/i; Συρία; in modern literature called Greater Syria, Syria-Palestine, or the Levant) is an area located east of the Mediterranean sea.
Tabriz (تبریز; تبریز) is the most populated city in Iranian Azerbaijan, one of the historical capitals of Iran and the present capital of East Azerbaijan province.
The Twelve Imams are the spiritual and political successors to the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the Twelver or Athnā‘ashariyyah branch of Shia Islam, including that of the Alawite and the Alevi sects.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
Twelver (translit; شیعه دوازدهامامی) or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.
Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz or Omar ibn Abd al-Aziz (2 November 682 (26th Safar, 63 AH) – February 720 (16th Rajab, 101 AH)) (ʿUmar ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 717 to 720.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
Hind bint Abi Umayya (هند بنت أبي أمية), also known as Hind al-Makhzumiyah, Hind bint Suhayl or Umm Salama (أم سلمة هند بنت أبي أمية) Umme Salma went through trials and tribulations following her conversion to Islam (c. 596 AD – 64 AH) was one of Muhammad's wives.
(أمة) is an Arabic word meaning "community".
Wallace D. Fard, also known as Wallace Fard Muhammad (Arabic: ولي فرض محمد) (born February 26, 1877 - Unknown), was a co-founder of the Nation of Islam.
The Waqifite Shia were a Shia sect who accepted the Imamate of Musa al-Kadhim, but refused to accept the Imamate of his successor Ali ar-Ridha.
Wilferd Ferdinand Madelung (born 26 December 1930) is a scholar of Islam.
Yahya ibn Umar ibn Yahya ibn Husayn ibn Zayd ibn Ali Zayn al-Abidin ibn Al-Husayn ibn Ali al-Murtada was an Alid Imam.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
El Mahdi, Guided One, Hadith about the Mahdi, Imam e Zamana, Imam of the Time, Mah'di, Mah'dī, Mahadi, Mahdi Moeud Ajjalallah, Mahdiism, Mahdism, Mahdist (follower), Mahdí, Mahdī, Masum, Traditions about Mahdi, Traditions of Prophet of Islam with regard to Mahdi, مهدي.