322 relations: Abbas Amirifar, Abdelaziz Bouteflika, Abdolreza Mesri, Agriculture in Iran, Ahmad Fardid, Ahmad Vahidi, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani presidential campaign, 2013, Al Jazeera, ALBA, Ali Akbar Javanfekr, Ali Akbar Mehrabian, Ali al-Ridha, Ali Khamenei, Ali Kordan, Ali Larijani, Ali Nikzad, Ali Saeedlou, Alireza Ali-Ahmadi, Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran, Amirkabir University of Technology, Amol, Andrew Sullivan, Anti-Western sentiment, Antisemitism, Aradan, Iran, Ardabil Province, Asia Times, Assembly of Experts, Ayatollah, Azam Farahi, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Barack Obama, Barcelona Centre for International Affairs, Basij, BBC News, Bolivia, Capital flight, Capitalism, CBS, Charity (virtue), Christianity, CNN, Communications in Iran, Conservatism, Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Construction industry of Iran, Dan Meridor, Davoud Ahmadinejad, Davoud Danesh-Jafari, ..., Dentistry, Deutsche Welle, Developed country, Developing country, Die Welt des Islams, Doctorate, EA WorldView, Ecuador, Electoral fraud, Electoral history of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Elevator, Energy in Iran, Esfandiar Rahim Mashaei, Evin Prison, Expediency Discernment Council, Ezāfe, Facebook, Fars News Agency, Fatemeh Ajorlou, Fatwa, Financial Times, Foreign policy of the Mahmoud Ahmadinejad administration, France, Garmsar, Gasoline, Gholam-Ali Haddad-Adel, Gholam-Hossein Elham, Gholam-Hossein Mohseni-Eje'i, Gholam-Hossein Nozari, Gooya, Gorgan, Group of 15, Guardian Council, Haaretz, Haghani Circle, Hamid Baghaei, Hamid Behbahani, Hamid Mowlana, Hamid-Reza Haji Babaee, Haram, Hassan Rouhani, Heydar Moslehi, Hijab, Hindustan Times, Holocaust denial, Honorific, Hooman Majd, Hossein Fadaei, Hossein Saffar Harandi, Hossein Taheri, Hugo Chávez, Human rights, Human Rights Watch, Imam Reza shrine, Imamah (Shia), Industry of Iran, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Conference to Review the Global Vision of the Holocaust, International Crisis Group, Iran, Iran hostage crisis, Iran University of Science and Technology, Iran–Iraq War, Iranian Cultural Revolution, Iranian legislative election, 2000 (Tehran, Rey, Shemiranat and Eslamshahr), Iranian legislative election, 2012, Iranian legislative election, 2016, Iranian local elections, 2003, Iranian presidential election, 2005, Iranian presidential election, 2009, Iranian presidential election, 2013, Iranian presidential election, 2017, Iranian Principlists, Iranian Revolution, Iranian rial, Iranian toman, Islamic City Council of Tehran, Islamic Consultative Assembly, Islamic Republic News Agency, Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting, Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, Islamic Society of Engineers, Israel, J. Harold Ellens, Jalal Al-e-Ahmad, Jesus, Jinn, Juan Cole, Judaism, Kamran Bagheri Lankarani, Kamran Daneshjoo, Katajun Amirpur, Khoy, Kurdistan Province, Library of Congress, List of current Iran governors-general, List of mayors of Tehran, Mahdi, Mahinda Rajapaksa, Mahmoud Abbas, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and Israel, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and the 1979 hostage crisis, Mahmoud Bahmani, Majid Namjoo, Maku, Iran, Management and Planning Organization of Iran, Manouchehr Mottaki, Margin of error, Marzieh Vahid-Dastjerdi, Mashhad, Masoud Mir-Kazemi, Masoud Zaribafan, Master of Science, Medicine, Mehdi Ghazanfari, Meir Javedanfar, Member of parliament, Ministry of Commerce (Iran), Ministry of Cooperatives (Iran), Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance, Ministry of Defence and Armed Forces Logistics (Iran), Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance (Iran), Ministry of Education (Iran), Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Iran), Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Ministry of Intelligence, Ministry of Interior (Iran), Ministry of Justice (Iran), Ministry of Petroleum (Iran), Mir-Hossein Mousavi, Missile, Moderate, Mohamed ElBaradei, Mohamed Morsi, Mohammad Abbasi, Mohammad Aliabadi, Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf, Mohammad Fazel Lankarani, Mohammad Hosseini (politician), Mohammad Jahromi, Mohammad Khatami, Mohammad Khoshchehreh, Mohammad Mehdi Zahedi, Mohammad Reza Rahimi, Mohammad Saeedikia, Mohammad Soleimani, Mohammad-Ali Rajai, Mohammad-Ali Ramin, Mohammad-Hassan Malekmadani, Mohammad-Hossein Moghimi, Mohammad-Reza Bahonar, Mohammad-Reza Eskandari, Mohammad-Taqi Mesbah-Yazdi, Mohammed Sharif Malekzadeh, Mojtaba Khamenei, Morteza Bakhtiari, Mostafa Mohammad-Najjar, Mostafa Pourmohammadi, Muhammad, Muhammad al-Mahdi, Name recognition, Narmak, National Council of Churches, National Democratic Institute, Navvab Safavi, Nepotism, Newspaper, Non-Aligned Movement, Non-governmental organization, Nuclear fuel cycle, Nuclear program of Iran, Nuclear weapon, Office for Strengthening Unity, OPEC, Operation Fath 1, Opinion polls about 9/11 conspiracy theories, Palestinians, Parvin Ahmadinejad, Parviz Davoodi, Parviz Fattah, Peak oil, People's Mujahedin of Iran, Persian language, Pharmacy, Pilgrimage, Politics of Iran, Polygamy, Presidency of George W. Bush, President of Iran, Press TV, Principlism, Public transport, Qom, Quds Day, Quran, Racial quota, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Raj`a, Reformism, Reza Sheykholeslam, Reza Taghipour, Roozonline, RT (TV network), Ruhollah Khomeini, Russia, Saddam Hussein, Sadegh Mahsouli, Sadeq Khalilian, Sanctions against Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sayyid, Science and technology in Iran, Semnan Province, September 11 attacks, Shamseddin Hosseini, Shia Islam, Slang, Socialism, Society of Devotees of the Islamic Revolution, Sousan Keshavarz, Subsidy, Supreme Audit Court of Iran, Supreme leader, Supreme Leader of Iran, Supreme National Security Council, Surname, Tallit, Taxation in Iran, Tehran, Tehran City Council election, 1999, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Term limit, The Atlantic, The Boston Globe, The Christian Science Monitor, The Daily Telegraph, The Economist, The Guardian, The Jerusalem Post, The New Republic, The Times of India, Time (magazine), Town square, Traffic engineering (transportation), Transport in Iran, Travel visa, Trustee, Two-round system, United Kingdom, United Nations, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations Security Council, United Nations Security Council veto power, United States, United States dollar, University of Maryland School of Public Policy, University of Oxford, University of Tehran, Uranium, USA Today, Venezuela, Vulgarism, West Azerbaijan Province, Western media, Western world, World Mayor, YEKTA Front, 2006 Iranian sumptuary law controversy, 2007 Gasoline Rationing Plan in Iran, 2009 Iranian presidential election protests, 2017–18 Iranian protests, 9/11 conspiracy theories. 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Hojjatoleslam Abbas Amirifar is the prayer leader of Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and head of the presidential cultural committee.
Abdelaziz Bouteflika, GColIH (عبد العزيز بوتفليقة ‘Abd al-‘Azīz Būtaflīqa; born 2 March 1937) is an Algerian politician who has been the fifth President of Algeria since 1999.
Abdolreza Mesri (born 1956 in Kermanshah) is an Iranian politician.
Roughly one-third of Iran's total surface area is suited for farmland, but because of poor soil and lack of adequate water distribution in many areas, most of it is not under cultivation.
Seyyed Ahmad Fardid (سید احمد فردید) (Born in 1912, Yazd – 16 August 1994, Tehran), born Ahmad Mahini Yazdi, was a prominent Iranian philosopher and an inspiring and dedicated professor of Tehran University.
Ahmad Vahidi (احمد وحیدی, born 27 June 1958) is an Iranian military commander of the Revolutionary Guards.
Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (Akbar Hāshemī Rafsanjānī or Hashemi Bahramani; 25 August 1934 – 8 January 2017) was an influential Iranian politician, writer and one of the founding fathers of the Islamic Republic who was the fourth President of Iran from 3 August 1989 until 3 August 1997.
Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (اکبر هاشمی رفسنجانی,, Hashemi Bahramani هاشمی بهرمانی) served as the fourth president of Iran from 1989 until 1997.
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
ALBA or ALBA-TCP, formally the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América) or the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America - Peoples’ Trade Treaty (Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América - Tratado de Comercio de los Pueblos), is an intergovernmental organization based on the idea of the social, political and economic integration of the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.
Ali Akbar Javanfekr (born 12 June 1959) is a senior Iranian politician and the presidential advisor for press affairs and as of 19 December 2010, He is the Managing-Director of IRNA since 1 November 2010 On 20 November 2011, he was sentenced to a year in prison on charges of "publishing materials contrary to Islamic norms", this was later uphold by the court.
Ali Akbar Mehrabian (علیاكبر محرابيان, born 1970) is an Iranian politician who was minister of industries and mines from 2 November 2007 to 3 August 2011 and master's degree in economic science from Tehran University.
'Alī ibn Mūsā ar-Riḍā (علي ابن موسى الرّضا), also called Abu al-Hasan, Ali al-Reza (29 December 765 – 23 August 818) or in Iran (Persia) as Imam Reza (امام رضا), was a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad and the eighth Shi'ite Imam, after his father Musa al-Kadhim, and before his son Muhammad al-Jawad.
Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei (سید علی حسینی خامنهای,; born 17 July 1939) is a ''marja'' and the second and current Supreme Leader of Iran, in office since 1989.
Ali Kordan (23 October 1958 – 22 November 2009) was an Iranian conservative politician who served in the Revolutionary Guards, the judiciary and as deputy oil minister, before becoming interior minister of Iran in 2008 for just 90 days.
Ali Larijani (علی لاریجانی,; born 3 June 1957) is an Iranian conservative politician, philosopher and former military officer who has been Speaker of the Parliament of Iran since 2008.
Ali Nikzad (علی نیکزاد, born 1961) is an Iranian conservative politician and academic and a former cabinet minister.
Ali Saeedlou (علی سعیدلو) (born 10 October 1952 in Tabriz) is an Iranian politician who was the Head of Physical Education Organization from 2009 to 2011.
Alireza Ali Ahmadi (born 11 May 1959 in Isfahan) is an Iranian politician and former Minister of Education from 2006 to 2009.
The Alliance of Builders or Developers of Islamic Iran (ائتلاف آبادگران ایران اسلامی; E'telāf-e Ābādgarān-e Īrān-e Eslāmī), usually shortened to Abadgaran (آبادگران), was an Iranian conservative political federation of parties and organizations.
Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT) (Persian: دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر Dāneshgāh-e San'ati-ye Amirkabir), formerly called the Tehran Polytechnic, is a public research university located in Tehran, Iran.
Amol (آمل –;; also Romanized as Āmol and Amul) is a city and the administrative center of Amol County, Mazandaran Province, Iran.
Andrew Michael Sullivan (born 10 August 1963) is an English-born American author, editor, and blogger.
Anti-Western sentiment, also known as Anti-Atlanticism refers to broad opposition or hostility to the people, culture, values, or policies of the Western World.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
Aradan (آرادان, also Romanized as Ārādān; also known as Ardān and Āzādān) is the capital of Aradan County, Semnan Province, Iran.
Ardabil Province (استان اردبیل; اردبیل اوستانی) is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran.
Asia Times is a Hong Kong-based Philippine English-language news website covering politics, economics, business and culture "from an Asian perspective specially Philippine".
The Assembly of Experts (Majles-e Khobregān-e Rahbari) —also translated as the Assembly of Experts of the Leadership or as the Council of Experts— is the deliberative body empowered to designate and dismiss the Supreme Leader of Iran.
Ayatullah (or; āyatullāh from llāh "Sign of God") is a high-ranking title given to Usuli Twelver Shī‘ah clerics.
Azam al-Sadat Farahi (اعظمالسادات فراحی) is an Iranian teacher who is married to Iranian former president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.
Babol University of Medical Sciences (BUMS) (دانشگاه علوم پزشکی بابل), is a medical sciences university in the city of Babol, Mazandaran province, Iran.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
CIDOB, acronym of the Barcelona Centre for International Affairs, is a Spanish think-tank based in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, dedicated to research and divulge contents of the different areas of international relations and development studies.
The Basij (بسيج, lit. "The Mobilization"), Niruyeh Moghavemat Basij (نیروی مقاومت بسیج, "Mobilisation Resistance Force"), full name Sāzmān-e Basij-e Mostaz'afin (سازمان بسیج مستضعفین, "The Organization for Mobilization of the Oppressed"), is one of the five forces of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
Capital flight, in economics, occurs when assets or money rapidly flow out of a country, due to an event of economic consequence.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
CBS (an initialism of the network's former name, the Columbia Broadcasting System) is an American English language commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of CBS Corporation.
In Christian theology charity, Latin caritas, is understood by Thomas Aquinas as "the friendship of man for God", which "unites us to God".
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
Iran’s telecommunications industry is almost entirely state-owned, dominated by the Telecommunication Company of Iran (TCI).
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran was adopted by referendum on 2 and 3 December 1979, and went into force replacing the Constitution of 1906.
The construction industry of Iran is divided into two main sections.
Dan Meridor (דן מרידור, born 23 April 1947) is an Israeli politician and minister.
Davoud Ahmadinejad (13 March 1950 in Aradan, Iran – 4 October 2017 in Tehran, Iran) was an Iranian politician and older brother of former Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and Parvin Ahmadinejad.
Davoud Danesh-Jafari is an Iranian politician and economist who was minister of economy and finance affairs of Iran.
Dentistry is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity, commonly in the dentition but also the oral mucosa, and of adjacent and related structures and tissues, particularly in the maxillofacial (jaw and facial) area.
Deutsche Welle ("German wave" in German) or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Die Welt des Islams or the International Journal for the Study of Modern Islam is an academic journal on Islam and the Muslim world published by Brill.
A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher") or doctoral degree (from the ancient formalism licentia docendi) is an academic degree awarded by universities that is, in most countries, a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession.
EA WorldView is a news blog specializing in news coverage and expert analysis of Iran, Syria, the wider Middle East, and Russia.
Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Electoral fraud, election manipulation, or vote rigging is illegal interference with the process of an election, whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both.
This is a summary of the electoral history of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, an Iranian Principlist politician who was President of Iran (2005-2013) and Mayor of Tehran (2003–2005).
An elevator (US and Canada) or lift (UK, Australia, Ireland, New Zealand, and South Africa, Nigeria) is a type of vertical transportation that moves people or goods between floors (levels, decks) of a building, vessel, or other structure.
Energy in Iran describes energy and electricity production, consumption, import and export in Iran.
Esfandiar Rahim Mashaei (اسفندیار رحیممشایی; born 16 November 1960) is an Iranian politician and former intelligence officer.
Evin Prison (Zendān-e-Evin) is a prison located in the Evin neighborhood of Tehran, Iran.
The Expediency Discernment Council of the System (مجمع تشخیص مصلحت نظام Majma' Taškhīs Maṣlaḥat Nezām) is an administrative assembly appointed by the Supreme Leader and was created upon the revision to the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran on 6 February 1988.
Ezāfe (اضافه), also written as izafet, izafe, izafat, izāfa, and izofa (Tajik: изофа izofa), is a grammatical particle found in some Iranian languages and Urdu that links two words together; in the Persian language it consists of the unstressed vowel -e or -i (-ye or -yi after vowels) between the words it connects and often approximately corresponds in usage to the English preposition of.
Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California.
The Fars News Agency is a news agency in Iran.
Fatemeh Ajorlou (born c. 1966) is a conservative female member of the Iranian parliament (Majlis) representing Karaj, near Tehran.
A fatwā (فتوى; plural fatāwā فتاوى.) in the Islamic faith is a nonbinding but authoritative legal opinion or learned interpretation that the Sheikhul Islam, a qualified jurist or mufti, can give on issues pertaining to the Islamic law.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
The foreign policy of the Mahmoud Ahmadinejad administration was the policy initiatives towards other states by the former President of Iran, as different from past and also future of the Iranian foreign policy.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Garmsar (گرمسار, also Romanized as Garmsār is a city in and the capital of Garmsar County, Semnan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 38,891, in 10,951 families. Garmsar is located about southeast of Tehran. It lies on the edge of Dasht-e Kavir, Iran's largest desert. Many people in the city commute to Tehran due to its proximity. Ghasre Bahram, The Stone Way, Stonvand Castle, the Sar Darre Mountains, and Kavir Desert National Park are tourist attractions located in the area.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
Gholam Ali Haddad-Adel (غلامعلی حداد عادل, born 4 May 1945) is an Iranian philosopher, politician and former chairman of the Parliament.
Gholam-Hossein Elham (غلامحسین الهام, born 1959) is an Iranian politician who held several posts during the term of the former President Mahmoud Ahmedinejad.
Gholam-Hossein Mohseni-Eje'i (غلامحسین محسنی اژهای,; born 1956) is an Iranian conservative politician, judge and prosecutor who currently serves as the second-highest official in the Judicial system of Iran.
Gholam Hossein Nozari (born 1954) is a conservative Iranian politician who served as oil minister from 2007 to 2009.
Gooya (گویا) is a Persian-language website started by Belgium-based journalist Farshad Bayan in 1998.
Gorgan (گرگان; formerly Astrabad or Astarabad (استرآباد)) is the capital city of Golestan Province, Iran.
The Group of 15 (G-15)The adopts the "G-15" orthography (with a hyphen) in order to distinguish an abbreviated reference to this group -- contrasts with other similarly named entities.
The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی, Shūra-ye negahbān-e qānūn-e āsāsī) is an appointed and constitutionally mandated 12-member council that wields considerable power and influence in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Haaretz (הארץ) (lit. "The Land ", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretz – חדשות הארץ, – "News of the Land ") is an Israeli newspaper.
Haghani school (also Haqqani) is a Shi'i school of thought in Iran based in the holy city of Qom and headed by Ayatollah Mohammad Taghi Mesbah Yazdi, an influential theologian.
Hamid Baghaei (حميد بقایی) is an Iranian politician and former intelligence officer who is considered one of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's closest confidants.
Hamid Behbahani (حمید بهبهانی, born 7 August 1935) is an Iranian academic and politician who served as minister of roads and transportation from 2 August 2008 to 1 February 2011 when he was impeached by the Parliament of Iran.
Hamid Mowlana (حمید مولانا., Hamid Molana, born in Tabriz, East Azerbaijan, Iran) is an Iranian-American author and academic.
Hamid-Reza Haji Babaee (حمیدرضا حاجیبابایی, born 1 May 1959) is an Iranian politician who was Minister of Education from 2009 to 2013.
Haram (حَرَام) is an Arabic term meaning "forbidden".
Hassan Rouhani (حسن روحانی,, Standard Persian:; born Hassan Fereydoun (حسن فریدون) on 12 November 1948) is an Iranian politician serving as the current and seventh President of Iran since 3 August 2013.
Heydar Moslehi (born 1957 in Isfahan) is an Iranian cleric and politician who served as the minister of intelligence from 2009 to 2013.
A hijab (حجاب, or (dialectal)) is a veil worn by some Muslim women in the presence of any male outside of their immediate family, which usually covers the head and chest.
Hindustan Times is an Indian English-language daily newspaper founded in 1924 with roots in the Indian independence movement of the period ("Hindustan" being a historical name for India).
Holocaust denial is the act of denying the genocide of Jews in the Holocaust during World War II.
An honorific is a title that conveys esteem or respect for position or rank when used in addressing or referring to a person.
Hooman Majd, born 1957 in Tehran, is an Iranian-American journalist, author, and commentator who writes on Iranian affairs.
Hossein Fadaei (حسین فدایی) is an Iranian conservative politician and former member of the Parliament of Iran representing Tehran, Rey, Shemiranat and Eslamshahr.
Mohammad-Hossein Saffar-Harandi (born 29 September 1953) is an Iranian politician who was minister of culture and Islamic guidance of Iran from 21 August 2005 until 23 July 2009 when he resigned after opposed the appointment of Esfandiar Rahim Mashaei as vice president.
Hossein Taheri (1941 – 17 August 2010) was the governor of East Azerbaijan Province from 1990 to 1995 under President Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani.Before that he was Vice Minister of Interior from 1987 to 1989.
Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (28 July 1954 – 5 March 2013) was a Venezuelan politician who was President of Venezuela from 1999 to 2013.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
The Imam Reza shrine (حرم امام رضا) in Mashhad, Iran is a complex which contains the mausoleum of Imam Reza, the eighth Imam of Twelver Shiites.
In Shia Islam, the imamah (إمامة) is the doctrine that the figures known as imams are rightfully the central figures of the ummah; the entire Shi'ite system of doctrine focuses on the imamah.
According to a report by The Economist, Iran has been ranked 39th for producing $23 billion of industrial products in 2008.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
The International Conference to Review the Global Vision of the Holocaust was a two-day conference that opened on December 11, 2006, in Tehran, Iran.
The International Crisis Group (ICG; also simply known as the Crisis Group) is a transnational non-profit, non-governmental organization founded in 1995 that carries out field research on violent conflict and advances policies to prevent, mitigate or resolve conflict.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iran hostage crisis was a diplomatic standoff between Iran and the United States of America.
The Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST) (دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران) is a research institution and university of engineering and science in Iran.
The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.
The Cultural Revolution (1980–1983) (انقلاب فرهنگی.) was a period following the Iranian Revolution, when the academia of Iran was purged of Western and non-Islamic influences (even traditionalist unpolitical Islamic doctrines) to bring it in line with the revolutionary and Political Islam.
This is an overview of the Iranian legislative election, 2000 in Tehran, Rey, Shemiranat and Eslamshahr electoral district.
The parliamentary election for the 9th Islamic Consultative Assembly, or Majlis, were held in Iran on Friday, 2 March 2012 with a second round on 4 May 2012 in those 65 districts where no candidate received 25% or more of the votes cast.
Parliamentary elections were held in Iran on 26 February 2016 to elect members of the Islamic Consultative Assembly for all seats in the 10th parliament in the Islamic Republic era and the 34th since the Persian Constitutional Revolution.
Iranian City and Village Councils elections, 2003 took place in February 2003, the second time local elections for city and village councils had taken place since being introduced in 1999, and 905 city and 34,205 village councils were up for election.
Iran's ninth presidential election took place in two rounds, the first on 17 June 2005, the run-off on 24 June.
Iran's tenth presidential election was held on 12 June 2009, with incumbent Mahmoud Ahmadinejad running against three challengers.
Presidential elections were held in Iran on 14 June 2013.
Presidential elections were held in Iran on 19 May 2017, the twelfth such election in Iran.
The Principlists (Osul-Garâyân, also interchangeably known as the Iranian Conservatives Open access material licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
The Iranian rial (ریال ایران Riâl Irân; ISO 4217 code IRR) is the currency of Iran.
The Iranian toman (fa, pronounced; from Mongolian tümen "unit of ten thousand", see Tumen (unit)) is a superunit of the official currency of Iran, the rial.
The Islamic City Council of Tehran (شورای اسلامی شهر تهران) is the directly elected council that presides over the city of Tehran, elects the Mayor of Tehran in a mayor–council government system, and budgets of the Municipality of Tehran.
The Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majles-e Showrā-ye Eslāmī), also called the Iranian Parliament, the Iranian Majlis (or Majles, مجلس), is the national legislative body of Iran.
The Islamic Republic News Agency (خبرگزاری جمهوری اسلامی), or IRNA, is the official news agency of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) (صدا و سيمای جمهوری اسلامی ايران, Sedā va Sīmā-ye Jomhūri-ye Eslāmi-ye Īrān, lit. Voice and Vision of the Islamic Republic of Iran), formerly called National Iranian Radio and Television until the Iranian revolution of 1979, is an Iranian media corporation which hold the monopoly of domestic radio and television services in Iran, is also among the largest media organizations in Asian and Pacific region, and a regular member of Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union.
The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) (lit or Sepâh for short) is a branch of Iran's Armed Forces founded after 1979 Revolution on 22 April 1979 by order of Ayatollah Khomeini.IISS Military Balance 2006, Routledge for the IISS, London, 2006, p. 187 Whereas the regular military (or Artesh) defends Iran's borders and maintains internal order, according to the Iranian constitution, the Revolutionary Guard (pasdaran) is intended to protect the country's Islamic Republic system. The Revolutionary Guards state that their role in protecting the Islamic system is preventing foreign interference as well as coups by the military or "deviant movements". The Revolutionary Guards have roughly 125,000 military personnel including ground, aerospace and naval forces. Its naval forces are now the primary forces tasked with operational control of the Persian Gulf. GlobalBearings.net, 15 December 2011. It also controls the paramilitary Basij militia which has about 90,000 active personnel.Abrahamian, Ervand, History of Modern Iran, Columbia University Press, 2008 pp. 175–76 Its media arm is Sepah News. Since its origin as an ideologically driven militia, the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution has taken a greater role in nearly every aspect of Iranian society. Its expanded social, political, military and economic role under President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's administration—especially during the 2009 presidential election and post-election suppression of protest—has led many Western analysts to argue that its political power has surpassed even that of the Shia clerical system. The Chief Commander of the Guardians since 2007 is Mohammad Ali Jafari, who was preceded by Yahya Rahim Safavi from 1997.
The Islamic Society of Engineers (ISE) (جامعهٔ اسلامی مهندسین, Jāme'-e eslāmī-ye mohandisīn) is a principlist political organization of engineers in Iran.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Jalal Al-e-Ahmad (جلال آلاحمد; December 2, 1923 – September 9, 1969) was a prominent Iranian novelist, short-story writer, translator, philosopher, socio-political critic, sociologist as well as an anthropologist who was "one of the earliest and most prominent of contemporary Iranian ethnographers".
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Jinn (الجن), also romanized as djinn or anglicized as genies (with the more broad meaning of spirits or demons, depending on source)Tobias Nünlist Dämonenglaube im Islam Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015 p. 22 (German) are supernatural creatures in early Arabian and later Islamic mythology and theology.
John Ricardo I. "Juan" Cole (born October 23, 1952) is an American academic and commentator on the modern Middle East and South Asia.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Kamran Bagheri Lankarani (کامران باقری لنکرانی) is an Iranian physician and politician who was Minister of Health and Medical Education from 2005 until 2009.
Kamran Daneshjoo (کامران دانشجو; born 2 February 1956) is an Iranian university professor who was Minister of Science from 2009 to 2013.
Katajun Amirpur (Persian: کتایون امیرپور.; born 1971) is a German-Iranian professor of Islamic Studies at Hamburg University.
Khoy (خوی; خوی; also Romanized as Khoy and Khoi), is a city and capital of Khoy County, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran.
Kurdistan Province (استان کردستان, Ostān-e Kordestān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
This is current list of Iranian provincial governors-general in the cabinet of Hassan Rouhani.
The Mayor of Tehran is an elected politician who, along with the Tehran’s City Council of 21 members, is accountable for the strategic government of Tehran.
The Mahdi (مهدي, ISO 233:, literally "guided one") is an eschatological redeemer of Islam who will appear and rule for five, seven, nine or nineteen years (according to differing interpretations)Martin 2004: 421 before the Day of Judgment (literally "the Day of Resurrection") and will rid the world of evil.
Percy Mahendra Rajapaksa, MP (පර්සි මහේන්ද්ර රාජපක්ෂ; born 18 November 1945), more commonly known as Mahinda Rajapaksa (මහින්ද රාජපක්ෂ, மஹிந்த ராஜபக்ஷ) is a Sri Lankan politician who served as the sixth President of Sri Lanka from 19 November 2005 to 9 January 2015.
Mahmoud Abbas (مَحْمُود عَبَّاس,; born 15 November 1935), also known by the kunya Abu Mazen (أَبُو مَازِن), is the President of the State of Palestine and Palestinian National Authority. He has been the Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) since 11 November 2004, and Palestinian president since 15 January 2005 (Palestinian National Authority since 15 January 2005, and State of Palestine since 8 May 2005). Abbas is a member of the Fatah party and was elected Chairman of Fatah in 2009. Abbas was elected on 9 January 2005 to serve as President of the Palestinian National Authority until 15 January 2009, but extended his term until the next election in 2010, citing the PLO constitution, and on December 16, 2009 was voted into office indefinitely by the PLO Central Council. As a result, Fatah's main rival, Hamas, initially announced that it would not recognize the extension or view Abbas as the rightful president. The Jerusalem Post (9 January 2009) Yet, Abbas is internationally recognized and Hamas and Fatah conducted numerous negotiations in the following years, leading to an agreement in April 2014 over a Unity Government, which lasted until October 2016, and therefore to the recognition of his office by Hamas. Abbas was also chosen as the President of the State of Palestine by the Palestine Liberation Organization's Central Council on 23 November 2008, a position he had held unofficially since 8 May 2005. Abbas served as the first Prime Minister of the Palestinian Authority from March to September 2003. Before being named prime minister, Abbas led the PLO Negotiations Affairs Department.
Exchanges between Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and Israel have demonstrated a strained relationship.
On June 29, 2005, shortly after Mahmoud Ahmadinejad won the Iranian presidential election, several major news outlets publicized allegations that he gunned down several Americans in the 1979–1981 Iran Hostage Crisis.
Mahmoud Bahmani (born 2 January 1947 in Savojbolagh) is an Iranian politician and economist.
Majid Namjoo (مجيد نامجو) is an Iranian politician who was the minister of energy from 24 August 2009 to 15 August 2013.
Maku (ماكو, ماكي - Makı; also Romanized as Mākū) is a city in the West Azerbaijan Province, Iran & the capital of Maku County.
The Management and Planning Organization of Iran (MPO) is one of the largest governmental establishments in Iran.
Manouchehr Mottaki (منوچهر متکی; born 12 May 1953) is an Iranian politician and diplomat.
The margin of error is a statistic expressing the amount of random sampling error in a survey's results.
Marzieh Vahid-Dastjerdi (مرضیه وحید دستجردی, born 11 February 1959) is an Iranian university professor and former parliamentarian, who was Iran's minister of health and medical education.
Mashhad (مشهد), also spelled Mashad or Meshad, is the second most populous city in Iran and the capital of Razavi Khorasan Province.
Masoud Mir Kazemi (مسعود میرکاظمی; born 1960) is an Iranian conservative politician who was member of the Parliament of Iran from Tehran district during 2012 until 2016.
Masoud Zaribafan (مسعود زريبافان) is an Iranian conservative politician.
A Master of Science (Magister Scientiae; abbreviated MS, M.S., MSc, M.Sc., SM, S.M., ScM, or Sc.M.) is a master's degree in the field of science awarded by universities in many countries, or a person holding such a degree.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Mehdi Ghazanfari (مهدی غضنفری, born 16 November 1960) is an Iranian politician who was Minister of Industries and Business from 3 August 2011 to 15 August 2013 and Minister of Commerce in the second cabinet of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad from 9 August 2009 to 3 August 2011.
Meir Javedanfar is an Iranian-born Israeli Middle East commentator.
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.
The Ministry of Commerce of Iran was the main organ of the Government in charge of the regulation and implementation of policies applicable to domestic and foreign trade.
The Ministry of Cooperatives (وزارت تعاون) established in 1991 was an Iranian government body responsible for the oversight of Cooperative business in Iran.
The Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance (وزارت فرهنگ و ارشاد اسلامی also known as Ershad ارشاد) is the ministry of Culture of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The Ministry of Defence and Armed Forces Logistics (MODAFL; وزارت دفاع و پشتیبانی نیروهای مسلح) is the defence ministry of the Islamic Republic of Iran, reestablished in 1989.
The Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance's functions are.
The Ministry of Education (وزارت آموزش و پرورش ایران) established in 1964, is an Iranian government body responsible for the oversight of K-12 education in Iran.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (وزارت امور خارجه Vezārat-e Omūr-e Khārejeh) is an Iranian government ministry headed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs, who is a member of cabinet.
The Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME) has executive responsibility for health and medical education within the Iranian government.
The Ministry of Intelligence of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Persian: وِزارَتِ اِطّلاعات جُمهوریِ اِسلامیِ ایران Vezarat-e Ettela'at Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Iran) is the primary intelligence agency of the Islamic Republic of Iran and a member of the Iran Intelligence Community.
The Ministry of Interior (وزارت کشور) of the Islamic Republic of Iran is in charge of performing, supervising and reporting elections, policing, and other responsibilities related to an interior ministry.
Established in 1906, the Minister of Justice is responsible for prosecuting government cases.
The Ministry of Petroleum (MOP) (وزارت نفت Vezârat-e Naft) manages the oil industry, the producer of oil and petrochemical products.
Mir-Hossein Mousavi Khameneh (Mīr-Hoseyn Mūsavī Khāmené,; born 2 March 1942) is an Iranian reformist politician, artist and architect who served as the seventy-ninth and last Prime Minister of Iran from 1981 to 1989.
In modern language, a missile is a guided self-propelled system, as opposed to an unguided self-propelled munition, referred to as a rocket (although these too can also be guided).
Moderate is a general term for people who fall in the center category of the left–right political spectrum.
Mohamed Mustafa ElBaradei (محمد مصطفى البرادعى,,; born 17 June 1942) is an Egyptian law scholar and diplomat who was the last Vice-President of Egypt serving on an interim basis from 14 July 2013 until his resignation on 14 August 2013.
Mohamed MorsiThe spellings of his first and last names vary.
Mohammad Abbasi (محمد عباسی, born 28 February 1958) is an Iranian politician who is the former minister of youth affairs and sports.
Mohammad Aliabadi (محمد علیآبادی; born 2 December 1956 in Arak) is former Vice President and Head of Physical Education Organization of Iran.
Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf (محمدباقر قالیباف, born 23 August 1961) is an Iranian conservative politician and former military officer who held office as the Mayor of Tehran from 2005 to 2017.
Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Fazel Lankarani (1931 in Qom, Iran — June 16, 2007 in Qom, Iran) was an Islamic Iranian cleric.
Mohammad Hosseini (born 1961) is an Iranian politician who served as minister of culture in the second cabinet of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.
Mohammad Jahromi or Ali Naghi Jahromi (born 1958) is a former Iranian governor and politician who served as minister of labor and social affairs from 2005 to 2009.
Seyyed Mohammad Khatami (سید محمد خاتمی,; born 14 October 1943) is an Iranian scholar, Shia theologian, and reformist politician.
Mohammad Khoshchehreh is an Iranian economist and politician.
Mohammad Mehdi Zahedi (born 1953 in Kerman) is an Iranian politician and was the former minister of science and technology in Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's first cabinet from 2005 to 2009.
Mohammad Reza Rahimi (محمدرضا رحيمی, born on 11 January 1949) is an Iranian politician who was first vice president from 13 September 2009 until 3 August 2013.
Mohammad Saeedikia (born 1946) is an Iranian politician who served as government minister in different cabinets, the last of which was minister of housing and urban development from 2005 to 2009.
Mohammad Soleimani (born 1954) is an Iranian politician and former Minister of Communication and Information Technology (2005-2009).
Mohammad-Ali Rajai (محمدعلی رجائی; 15 June 1933 – 30 August 1981) was the second President of Iran from 2 to 30 August 1981 after serving as prime minister under Abolhassan Banisadr.
Mohammad-Ali Ramin (born 1954 in Dezful, Iran) is an Iranian politician, political analyst and writer who served as the Vice Minister of Culture and a presidential advisor under President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.
Mohammad-Hassan Malekmadani (محمدحسن ملکمدنی) is an Iranian politician who served as the mayor in Isfahan and Tehran.
Mohammad-Hossein Moghimi (محمدحسین مقیمی) is an Iranian politician who currently holds office as Governor of Tehran Province.
Mohammad-Reza Bahonar (محمدرضا باهنر, born 2 February 1952) is an Iranian principlist politician who was member of the Parliament of Iran for 28 years.
Mohammad Reza Eskandari was the Minister of Agriculture of the Islamic Republic of Iran from 2005 to 2009.
Taqī Miṣbāḥ (تقی مصباح; born Taqī Givečī, تقی گیوهچی), commonly known as Muḥammad–Taqī Miṣbāḥ Yazdī (محمدتقی مصباح یزدی, born 31 January 1934) is an Iranian Twelver Shi'i cleric and principlist political activist who unofficially leads Front of Islamic Revolution Stability.
Mohammad-Sharif Malekzadeh born in the city of Zabol (Sistan & Baluchestan Province), is a top advisor of the Grand Ayatollah Sayed Mahmoud Shahroodi in the field of executive affaires, and the former chief of Iran’s Cultural Heritage, Handcraft and Tourism Organization until the end of Mahmood Ahmadinejad’s government in 2013.
Sayyed Mojtaba Hosseini Khamenei (سید مجتبی حسینی خامنهای; born 8 September 1969) is son of Ali Khamenei, the Supreme Leader of Iran.
Morteza Bakhtiari (born 1952) is an Iranian politician who served as Minister of Justice from 2009 to 2013.
Mostafa Mohammad Najjar (مصطفى محمدنجّار, born 2 December 1956) is an Iranian politician and retired IRGC general.
Mostafa Pourmohammadi (مصطفی پورمحمدی; born 9 March 1960, Qom) is an Iranian prosecutor and politician, who has served at different positions and cabinet posts.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Mahdī (محمد بن الحسن المهدي), also known as Imam Zaman (امام زمان), is believed by Twelver Shī‘a Muslims to be the Mahdī, an eschatological redeemer of Islam and ultimate savior of humankind and the final Imām of the Twelve Imams who will emerge with Isa (Jesus Christ) in order to fulfill their mission of bringing peace and justice to the world.
In politics, name recognition is the number of people who are aware of a politician.
Narmak (نارمک) is a neighbourhood in north-east Tehran, the capital of Iran.
The National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA, usually identified as the National Council of Churches (NCC), is the largest ecumenical body in the United States.
The National Democratic Institute (NDI), or National Democratic Institute for International Affairs, is a non-partisan, non-profit organization that works with partners in developing countries to increase the effectiveness of democratic institutions.
Sayyid Mojtaba Mir-Lohi (سيد مجتبی میرلوحی), more commonly known as Navvab Safavi (نواب صفوی), was an Iranian Shia cleric and founder of the Fada'iyan-e Islam group.
Nepotism is based on favour granted to relatives in various fields, including business, politics, entertainment, sports, religion and other activities.
A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events.
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.
The nuclear fuel cycle, also called nuclear fuel chain, is the progression of nuclear fuel through a series of differing stages.
The nuclear program of Iran has included several research sites, two uranium mines, a research reactor, and uranium processing facilities that include three known uranium enrichment plants.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
The Office for Strengthening Unity (also Office for Consolidating Unity, Daftar-e Tahkim-e Vahdat), is an Iranian student organization created in 1979, and has been described as "the country's most well-known student organization," and "Iran's leading prodemocracy student group".
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC,, or OPEP in several other languages) is an intergovernmental organization of nations, founded in 1960 in Baghdad by the first five members (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela), and headquartered since 1965 in Vienna, Austria.
Operation Fath 1 (عملیات فتح 1, meaning "conquest"), or Operation Wahdat (the Kurdish code-name), was a joint Iranian and Iraqi Kurdish military operation conducted by Iran's IRGC special forces and Iraqi Kurdish partisans of Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) in 11 and 12 October 1986 in Kirkuk area of northern Iraq during the Iran–Iraq War.
Since the September 11 attacks, doubts have been raised about the mainstream account of events.
The Palestinian people (الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī), also referred to as Palestinians (الفلسطينيون, al-Filasṭīniyyūn, פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian Arabs (العربي الفلسطيني, al-'arabi il-filastini), are an ethnonational group comprising the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the centuries, including Jews and Samaritans, and who today are largely culturally and linguistically Arab.
Parvin Ahmadinejad (پروين احمدینژاد; born 3 February 1962) is an Iranian politician.
Parviz Davoodi (پرویز داوودی; born 5 February 1952 in Tehran) is an Iranian hardline conservative politician.
Seyed Parviz Fattah (سید پرویز فتاح) is an Iranian conservative politician, former member of Revolutionary Guard and former minister of energy in Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's first cabinet from 2005 to 2009.
Peak oil is the theorized point in time when the maximum rate of extraction of petroleum is reached, after which it is expected to enter terminal decline.
The People's Mojahedin Organization of Iran or the Mojahedin-e Khalq (Sāzmān-e mojāhedin-e khalq-e irān, abbreviated MEK, PMOI or MKO), commonly known in Iran as Munafiqin ("hypocrites"), is an Iranian political–militant organization in exile that advocates the violent overthrow of the current government in Iran, while claiming itself as the replacing government in exile.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing and dispensing drugs.
A pilgrimage is a journey or search of moral or spiritual significance.
The politics of Iran take place in a framework of a theocracy in a format of syncretic politics that is guided by Islamic ideology.
Polygamy (from Late Greek πολυγαμία, polygamía, "state of marriage to many spouses") is the practice of marrying multiple spouses.
The presidency of George W. Bush began at noon EST on January 20, 2001, when George W. Bush was inaugurated as 43rd President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 2009.
The President of Iran (Persian: رییسجمهور ایران Rayis Jomhur-e Irān) is the head of state of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Press TV (stylised as PRESSTV) is a 24-hour English- and French-language news and documentary network affiliated with Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB).
Principlism is a system of ethics based on the four moral principles of: 1.
Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, or mass transit) is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public, typically managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, and that charge a posted fee for each trip.
Qom (قم) is the eighth largest city in Iran.
Quds Day (Jerusalem Day; Quds is the Arabic name for Jerusalem), officially called International Quds Day (روز جهانی قدس), is an annual event held on the last Friday of Ramadan that was initiated by the Islamic Republic of Iran in 1979 to express support for the Palestinians and oppose Zionism and Israel.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Racial quotas in employment and education are numerical requirements for hiring, promoting, admitting and/or graduating members of a particular racial group.
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a broadcasting organization that broadcasts and reports news, information, and analysis to countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East where it says that "the free flow of information is either banned by government authorities or not fully developed".
Raj`a (alternatively rjaa, raja'a, raj'at) in Islamic terminology, refers to the Second Coming, or the return to life of a given past historical figure after that person's physical death.
Reformism is a political doctrine advocating the reform of an existing system or institution instead of its abolition and replacement.
Reza Sheykholeslam (رضا شیخالاسلام) is an Iranian politician who is the former Minister of Cooperatives, Labour and Social Welfare.
Reza Taghipour (born 1957, in Maragheh) is an Iranian conservative politician who was the Minister of Communications from 2009 to 2012.
Rooz (روز, literally day) is a Persian and English news website.
RT (formerly Russia Today) is a Russian international television network funded by the Russian government.
Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini (سید روحالله موسوی خمینی; 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian Shia Islam religious leader and politician.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.
Sadegh Mahsouli (صادق محصولی, born 9 March 1959) is an Iranian politician who was Minister of Interior from 2008 to 2009 and Minister of Welfare and Social Security from 2009 to 2011.
Sadeq Khalilian (born 1959) is an Iranian economist, academic and politician who served as agriculture minister from 2009 to 2013 in the government headed by Mahmoud Ahmedinejad.
Following the Iranian Revolution of 1979 and the resulting hostage crisis, the United States imposed an asset freeze and trade embargo against Iran.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Sayyid (also spelt Syed, Saiyed,Seyit,Seyd, Said, Sayed, Sayyed, Saiyid, Seyed and Seyyed) (سيد,; meaning "Mister"; plural سادة) is an honorific title denoting people (سيدة for females) accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali (combined Hasnain), sons of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and son-in-law Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib).
Iran has made considerable advances in science and technology through education and training, despite international sanctions in almost all aspects of research during the past 30 years.
Semnan Province (استان سمنان, Ostān-e Semnān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
Shamseddin Hosseini (born 1967) is an Iranian politician, who served as the minister of economic affairs and finance from 2008 to 2013.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Slang is language (words, phrases, and usages) of an informal register that members of special groups like teenagers, musicians, or criminals favor (over a standard language) in order to establish group identity, exclude outsiders, or both.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
The Society of Devotees of the Islamic Revolution (Jam`iyat-e Isargaran-e Enqelab-e Eslami) is a conservative Iranian political party.
Sousan Keshavarz was the 2009 nominee of Iran's President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad as Minister of Education.
A subsidy is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (or institution, business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy.
The Supreme Audit Court of Iran (SAC) (Persian: دیوان محاسبات کشور) is a government agency of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
A supreme leader typically refers to the person among a number of leaders of a state, organization or other such group who has been given or is able to exercise the mostor complete authority over it.
The Supreme Leader of Iran (rahbar-e mo'azzam-e irān), also called the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution (رهبر معظم انقلاب اسلامی), officially in Iran, called the Supreme Leadership Authority (مقام معظم رهبری), is the head of state and highest ranking political and religious authority in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Supreme National Security Council (SNSC; شورای عالی امنیت ملی Showrāye Āliye Amniyate Mellī) is the national security council of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the current secretary of the Supreme National Security Council of which is Rear Admiral Upper Half Ali Shamkhani.
A surname, family name, or last name is the portion of a personal name that indicates a person's family (or tribe or community, depending on the culture).
A tallit (טַלִּית talit in Modern Hebrew; tālēt in Sephardic Hebrew and Ladino; tallis in Ashkenazic Hebrew and Yiddish) (pl. tallitot, talleisim, tallism in Ashkenazic Hebrew and Yiddish; ṭālēth/ṭelāyōth in Tiberian Hebrew) is a fringed garment traditionally worn by religious Jews.
The fiscal year begins on March 21 and ends on March 20 of the next year according to Iranian calendar.
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
An election to the Islamic City Council of Tehran took place on 26 February 1999, along with the local elections nationwide.
Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) (دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران) is the largest, "most distinguished", and most highly-ranked medical university of Iran.
A term limit is a legal restriction that limits the number of terms an officeholder may serve in a particular elected office.
The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.
The Boston Globe (sometimes abbreviated as The Globe) is an American daily newspaper founded and based in Boston, Massachusetts, since its creation by Charles H. Taylor in 1872.
The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Jerusalem Post is a broadsheet newspaper based in Jerusalem, founded in 1932 during the British Mandate of Palestine by Gershon Agron as The Palestine Post.
The New Republic is a liberal American magazine of commentary on politics and the arts, published since 1914, with influence on American political and cultural thinking.
The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
A town square is an open public space commonly found in the heart of a traditional town used for community gatherings.
Traffic engineering is a branch of civil engineering that uses engineering techniques to achieve the safe and efficient movement of people and goods on roadways.
Iran has a long paved road system linking most of its towns and all of its cities.
A visa (from the Latin charta visa, meaning "paper which has been seen") is a conditional authorization granted by a country to a foreigner, allowing them to enter, remain within, or to leave that country.
Trustee (or the holding of a trusteeship) is a legal term which, in its broadest sense, is a synonym for anyone in a position of trust and so can refer to any person who holds property, authority, or a position of trust or responsibility for the benefit of another.
The two-round system (also known as the second ballot, runoff voting or ballotage) is a voting method used to elect a single winner, where the voter casts a single vote for their chosen candidate.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United Nations Security Council "veto power" refers to the power of the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, and United States) to veto any "substantive" resolution.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The Maryland School of Public Policy is one of 14 schools at the University of Maryland, College Park.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
The University of Tehran (دانشگاه تهران), also known as Tehran University and UT, is Iran's oldest modern university.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
In the study of language and literary style, a vulgarism is an expression or usage considered non-standard or characteristic of uneducated speech or writing.
West Azerbaijan Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Western media is the mass media of the Western world.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
World Mayor is a biennial award organized by The City Mayors Foundation since 2004.
The Front of Comrades for the Effectiveness and Transformation of Islamic Iran (جبهه یاران کارآمدی و تحول ایران اسلامی), known by the backronym YEKTA Front (جبهه یکتا, meaning Unique) is an Iranian principlist political group, formed in 2015.
On May 19, 2006, the National Post of Canada published pieces by Amir Taheri alleging that the Iranian parliament had passed a sumptuary law mandating a national dress code for all Iranians, Muslim and non-Muslim alike.
2007 Gasoline Rationing Plan in Iran was launched by president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's cabinet to reduce that country's fuel consumption.
Protests against the 2009 Iranian presidential election results (اعتراضات علیه نتایج انتخابات ریاست جمهوری سال ۱۳۸۸) (a disputed victory by Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad), in support of opposition candidates Mir-Hossein Mousavi and Mehdi Karroubi, occurred in major cities nationwide from 2009 into early 2010.
A series of public protests occurred in various cities throughout Iran beginning on 28 December 2017 and continuing into 2018.
There are many conspiracy theories that attribute the planning and execution of the September 11 attacks against the United States to parties other than, or in addition to, al-Qaeda including that there was advance knowledge of the attacks among high-level government officials.
Achmadinijad, Achmedinajad, Achmedinnijad, Ahmadi Nejad, Ahmadi Nezhad, Ahmadi nejad, Ahmadi-Nejad, Ahmadinajad, Ahmadinejad, Ahmadinezhad, Ahmajenidad, Ahmedinajad, Ahmedinejad, Ahmedinnajad, Criticism of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Mahmad ahmadinejad, Mahmood Ahmadinejad, Mahmood Ahmadinezhad, Mahmoud Ahmadenijad, Mahmoud Ahmadi Nejad, Mahmoud Ahmadi-Najad, Mahmoud Ahmadi-Nejad, Mahmoud Ahmadinejead, Mahmoud Ahmadinezhad, Mahmoud Ahmedinajad, Mahmoud Ahmedinejad, Mahmoud Ahmedinijab, Mahmoud Ahmenidijad, Mahmoud Sabaghian, Mahmoud Saborjhian, Mahmoud Sabourjian, Mahmoud Saburjian, Mahmoud ahmadinejad, Mahmud Ahmadi-Nejad, Mahmud Ahmadinejad, Mahmud Ahmadinezhad, Mahoud Ahmadinejad, Mamood achmedinajad, Mamoud achmedinajad, President Ahmadinejad, محمود احمدی نژاد, محمود احمدینژاد.