141 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Abu Nasr Muhammad, Abu'l-Fadl Bayhaqi, Afghanistan, Ajmer, Al-Biruni, Al-Qadir, Amir Suri, Anandapala, Annexation, Balkh Province, Bathinda, Battle of Dandanaqan, Battle of Ghazni (998), Battle of Peshawar (1001), Bhera, Bhima I, Buddhism, Buyid dynasty, Caliphate, Caspian Sea, Chandela, Citadel, Da'i, Delhi, Dinar, Doab, Elephant, Emir, Fatimid Caliphate, Ferdowsi, Gakhars, Gandhara, Gazi Saiyyed Salar Sahu, Georgia (country), Gharchistan, Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud, Ghaznavi (missile), Ghaznavids, Ghazni, Ghor Province, Ghurid dynasty, Given name, Greater Khorasan, Gujarat, Gwalior, Hamadan, Herat Province, Hindu, Indian subcontinent, ..., Indus River, Iran, Iranian Plateau, Isfahan, Isma'il Muntasir, Isma'ilism, Ismail of Ghazni, Ispahsalar, Jainism, Jami' al-tawarikh, Jat people, Jayapala, Jizya, Jyotirlinga, Kabul Shahi, Kafiristan, Kalinjar Fort, Kandahar Province, Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, Kannauj, Kara-Khanid Khanate, Kashmir, Kathiawar, Khalaf ibn Ahmad, Khwarezm, Kunya (Arabic), Kutch district, Lahore, Lashkargah, Lingam, Malaria, Malik Ayaz, Mamluk, Mas'ud I of Ghazni, Mathura, Mausoleum, Mawdud of Ghazni, Meenakshi Jain, Meerut, Merv, Mohammad Habib, Mosque, Muhammad ibn Suri, Muhammad of Ghazni, Muhammad of Ghor, Muharram, Multan, Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent, Nagarkot, Nisba (onomastics), Nishapur, North India, Nuh II, Oghuz Turks, Pakistan, Persian literature, Persian people, Peshawar, Punjab, Questia Online Library, Rajasthan, Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, Rey, Iran, Romila Thapar, Sabuktigin, Saffarid dynasty, Samanid Empire, Samarkand, Seljuq dynasty, Shafique Virani, Shahnameh, Short-range ballistic missile, Sindh, Sistan, Soil fertility, Somnath temple, Sultan, Sunni Islam, Suzerainty, Tarikh Yamini, Temple, Thanesar, Thar Desert, The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians, Turkic peoples, Tus, Iran, Ujjain, Vassal, Wazirabad, Yamuna, Zabulistan. Expand index (91 more) » « Shrink index
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abu Nasr Muhammad (died 1015 or 1016) was the ruler of Gharchistan from an unknown date to the 990s.
Abu’l-Fadl Muḥammad ibn Ḥusayn Bayhaqī (ابوالفضل محمد بن حسین بیهقی; died September 21, 1077), better known as Abu'l-Fadl Bayhaqi (ابوالفضل بیهقی; also spelled Beyhaqi), was a Persian secretary, historian and author.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Ajmer (अजमेर) is one of the major cities in the Indian state of Rajasthan and the centre of the eponymous Ajmer District.
Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/ابوریحان بیرونی Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī; New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī) (973–1050), known as Al-Biruni (البيروني) in English, was an IranianD.J. Boilot, "Al-Biruni (Beruni), Abu'l Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad", in Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden), New Ed., vol.1:1236–1238.
Al-Qadir (947 – 29 November 1031) (القادر) was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 991 to 1031.
Amīr Sūrī (Persian: امیر سوري) was the king of the Ghurid dynasty from the 9th-century to the 10th-century.
Anandapala or Anantpala was a ruler of the Hindu Shahi dynasty in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Annexation (Latin ad, to, and nexus, joining) is the administrative action and concept in international law relating to the forcible transition of one state's territory by another state.
Balkh (Pashto and بلخ, Balx) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the north of the country.
Bathinda (also known as Tabar-e-Hind or Tabarhindh meaning the Gateway to India) is a city and Municipal Corporation in Southern part of Punjab, India.
The Battle of Dandanaqan was fought in 1040 between the Seljuqs and the Ghaznavid Empire.
The Battle of Ghazni was fought in 998 between the rival Ghaznavid forces of Amir Ismail and the rebel forces of his older brother Mahmud of Ghazni.
Battle of Peshawar, was fought on 27 November 1001 between the Ghaznavid army of Sultan Mahmud bin Sebuktigin (Mahmud of Ghazni) and the Hindu Shahi army of Jayapala, near Peshawar.
Bhera (بھیرہ, Punjabi: بهيره) is a city and tehsil of Sargodha District, Punjab province of Pakistan.
Bhima I (r. c. 1022–1064 CE) was an Indian king who ruled parts of present-day Gujarat.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
The Buyid dynasty or the Buyids (آل بویه Āl-e Buye), also known as Buwaihids, Bowayhids, Buyahids, or Buyyids, was an Iranian Shia dynasty of Daylamite origin.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
The Chandelas of Jejakabhukti were a royal dynasty in Central India.
A citadel is the core fortified area of a town or city.
A da'i (dā‘īy) is generally someone who engages in da'wah, the act of inviting people to Islam.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
The dinar is the principal currency unit in several countries which were formerly territories of the Ottoman Empire, and was used historically in several more.
Doab (from dō, "two" + āb, "water" or "river") is a term used in India and Pakistan for the "tongue," or water-richAugust 2010,, Society for Promotion of Wastelands Development,, page vi.
Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea.
An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.
The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.
Abu ʾl-Qasim Firdowsi Tusi (c. 940–1020), or Ferdowsi (also transliterated as Firdawsi, Firdusi, Firdosi, Firdausi) was a Persian poet and the author of Shahnameh ("Book of Kings"), which is the world's longest epic poem created by a single poet, and the national epic of Greater Iran.
The Gakhars (also Gakkhar or Ghakhar or Ghakkar) are a clan found predominantly in Pakistan.
Gandhāra was an ancient kingdom situated along the Kabul and Swat rivers of Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Ghazi Saiyyed Salar Sahu or Ghazi Saiyed Salar Dawood or Sahu Bin Ataullah Alavi or Salar Sahu (غازى سيد سالار ساھو) was commander in the army of Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi who came to the South Asia in the early 11th century.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Gharchistan, also known as Gharjistan was a medieval region on the north bank of the Murghab River, lying to the east of Herat and north of Hari River.
Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud or Ghazi Miyan (1014 – 1034 CE) was a semi-legendary Ghaznavid army general, said to have been the nephew of Sultan Mahmud.
The Ghaznavi (Urdu:غزنوی; official codename: Hatf–III Ghaznavi), is a hypersonic surface to surface short range ballistic missile designed and developed by the National Development Complex, in service with the Pakistan Army's strategic command since 2004.
The Ghaznavid dynasty (غزنویان ġaznaviyān) was a Persianate Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin, at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Iran, Afghanistan, much of Transoxiana and the northwest Indian subcontinent from 977 to 1186.
Ghazni (Pashto/Persian) or Ghaznai, also historically known as Ghaznin or Ghazna, is a city in Afghanistan with a population of nearly 150,000 people.
Ghōr (Pashto/غور), also spelled Ghowr or Ghur, is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan.
The Ghurids or Ghorids (سلسله غوریان; self-designation: شنسبانی, Shansabānī) were a dynasty of Eastern Iranian descent from the Ghor region of present-day central Afghanistan, presumably Tajik, but the exact ethnic origin is uncertain, and it has been argued that they were Pashtun.
A given name (also known as a first name, forename or Christian name) is a part of a person's personal name.
Khorasan (Middle Persian: Xwarāsān; خراسان Xorāsān), sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia and Afghanistan.
Gujarat is a state in Western India and Northwest India with an area of, a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population in excess of 60 million.
Gwalior is a major and the northern-most city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh and one of the Counter-magnet cities.
Hamadān or Hamedān (همدان, Hamedān) (Old Persian: Haŋgmetana, Ecbatana) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran.
Herat (persian/Dari: هرات) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the western part of the country.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian Plateau or the Persian Plateau is a geological formation in Western Asia and Central Asia.
Isfahan (Esfahān), historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about south of Tehran.
Isma'il (surnamed Muntasir, "Victorious") (died 1005) was an individual who attempted to resurrect the Samanid state in Transoxiana and eastern Iran (1000–1005).
Ismāʿīlism (الإسماعيلية al-Ismāʿīliyya; اسماعیلیان; اسماعيلي; Esmāʿīliyān) is a branch of Shia Islam.
Ismail of Ghazni (اسماعیل غزنوی) was the emir of Ghazna, reigning for 7 months, from 5 August 997 until 998.
Ispahsālār (اسپهسالار) or sipahsālār (سپهسالار; "army commander"), in Arabic rendered as isfahsalār (إسفهسلار) or iṣbahsalār (إصبهسلار), was a title used in much of the Islamic world during the 10th–15th centuries, to denote the senior-most military commanders but also as a generic general officer rank.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
The Jāmiʿ al-tawārīkh, (جامع التواريخ. Compendium of Chronicles, Судрын чуулган, جامعالتواریخ.) is a work of literature and history, produced in the Mongol Ilkhanate in Persia.
The Jat people (also spelled Jatt and Jaat) are a traditionally agricultural community in Northern India and Pakistan.
Jayapala, was the ruler of the Hindu Shahi dynasty from 964 to 1001 CE.
Jizya or jizyah (جزية; جزيه) is a per capita yearly tax historically levied on non-Muslim subjects, called the dhimma, permanently residing in Muslim lands governed by Islamic law.
A Jyotirlinga or Jyotirlingam, is a devotional representation of the Supreme God Shiva.
The Kabul Shahi dynasties also called ShahiyaSehrai, Fidaullah (1979).
Kāfiristān, or Kāfirstān (کافرستان), is a historical region that covered present-day Nuristan Province in Afghanistan and its surroundings.
Kalinjar (कालिंजर) is a fortress-city in the Bundelkhand region of central India.
Kandahar (کندھار; قندهار) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the southern part of the country next to Pakistan.
Kangra is a city and a municipal council in Kangra district now in Indian state of Himachal Pradesh.
Kannauj also spelt Kanauj, is a city, administrative headquarters and a municipal board or Nagar Palika Parishad in Kannauj district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
The Kara-Khanid Khanate was a Turkic dynasty that ruled in Transoxania in Central Asia, ruled by a dynasty known in literature as the Karakhanids (also spelt Qarakhanids) or Ilek Khanids.
Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.
Kathiawar (also written Kathiawad or Kattywar) is a peninsula in western India and part of the Saurashtra region.
Abu Ahmad Wali 'l-Dawla Khalaf ibn Ahmad (November 937 – March 1009) was the Saffarid amir of Sistan from 963 until 1002.
Khwarezm, or Chorasmia (خوارزم, Xvârazm) is a large oasis region on the Amu Darya river delta in western Central Asia, bordered on the north by the (former) Aral Sea, on the east by the Kyzylkum desert, on the south by the Karakum desert, and on the west by the Ustyurt Plateau.
A kunya (كنية, kunyah) is a teknonym in Arabic names, the name of an adult derived from his or her eldest child.
Kutch district (also spelled as Kachchh) is a district of Gujarat state in western India.
Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.
Lashkargāh (لښکرګاه; لشکرگاه), historically called Bost or Boost (بست، بوست), is a city in southwestern Afghanistan and the capital of Helmand Province.
Lingam (Sanskrit: लिंगम्,, lit. "sign, symbol or mark"; also linga, Shiva linga), is an abstract or aniconic representation of the Hindu deity Shiva, used for worship in temples, smaller shrines, or as self-manifested natural objects.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Malik Ayaz, son of Aymāq Abu'n-Najm, was a slave from Georgia who rose to the rank of officer and general in the army of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni (also known as Mahmud Ghaznavi).
Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.
Mas'ud I of Ghazni (مسعود غزنوی), known as Amīr-i Shahīd (امیر شهید; "the martyr king") (998 – 17 January 1040), was sultan of the Ghaznavid Empire from 1030 to 1040.
Mathura is a city in the North Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or people.
Shahāb-ud-Dawla Mawdūd (شهابالدوله مودود; died 1050), known as Mawdud of Ghazni (مودود غزنوی), was a sultan of the Ghaznavids from 1041-50.
Meenakshi Jain is an Indian political scientist and historian.
Meerut (IAST: Meraṭha), is a city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
Merv (Merw, Мерв, مرو; مرو, Marv), formerly Achaemenid Persian Satrapy of Margiana, and later Alexandria (Margiana) (Ἀλεξάνδρεια) and Antiochia in Margiana (Ἀντιόχεια τῆς Μαργιανῆς), was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road, located near today's Mary in Turkmenistan.
Mohammad Habib was an Indian historian of medieval India.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
Muhammad ibn Suri (Persian: محمد بن سوری, died 1011) was the king of the Ghurid dynasty from the 10th-century to 1011.
Muhammad of Ghazni (محمد غزنوی) (died 1041) was sultan of the Ghaznavid Empire briefly in 1030, and then later from 1040 to 1041.
Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori (معز الدین محمد غوری), born Shihab ad-Din (1149 – March 15, 1206), also known as Muhammad of Ghor, was Sultan of the Ghurid Empire along with his brother Ghiyath ad-Din Muhammad from 1173 to 1202 and as the sole ruler from 1202 to 1206.
Muḥarram (مُحَرَّم) is the first month of the Islamic calendar.
Multan (Punjabi, Saraiki, مُلتان), is a Pakistani city and the headquarters of Multan District in the province of Punjab.
Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 12th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into modern Afghanistan and Pakistan as early as the time of the Rajput kingdoms in the 8th century.
Nagarkot is a former Village Development Committee located 32 km east of Kathmandu, Nepal in Bhaktapur District in the Bagmati Zone and as of 2015 part of Nagarkot Municipality.
In Arabic names, a nisba (also spelled nesba, sometimes nesbat; نسبة, "attribution") is an adjective indicating the person's place of origin, tribal affiliation, or ancestry, used at the end of the name and occasionally ending in the suffix -iyy(ah).
Nishapur or Nishabur (نیشابور, also Romanized as Nīshāpūr, Nišâpur, Nişapur, Nīshābūr, Neyshābūr, and Neeshapoor, from Middle Persian: New-Shabuhr, meaning "New City of Shapur", "Fair Shapur", or "Perfect built of Shapur") is a city in Razavi Khorasan Province, capital of the Nishapur County and former capital of Province Khorasan, in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains.
North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India.
Nuh II (نوح, died 23 July 997) was amir of the Samanids (976–997).
The Oghuz, Oguz or Ghuzz Turks were a western Turkic people who spoke the Oghuz languages from the Common branch of Turkic language family.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Persian literature (ادبیات فارسی adabiyāt-e fārsi), comprises oral compositions and written texts in the Persian language and it is one of the world's oldest literatures.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
Peshawar (پېښور; پشاور; پشور) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
Questia is an online commercial digital library of books and articles that has an academic orientation, with a particular emphasis on books and journal articles in the humanities and social sciences.
Rajasthan (literally, "Land of Kings") is India's largest state by area (or 10.4% of India's total area).
Rashīd al-Dīn Ṭabīb (رشیدالدین طبیب), also known as Rashīd al-Dīn Faḍlullāh Hamadānī (رشیدالدین فضلالله همدانی, 1247–1318), was a statesman, historian and physician in Ilkhanate-ruled Iran.
Rey or Ray (شهر ری, Šahr-e Rey, “City of Ray”), also known as Rhages (Ῥάγαι, or Europos (Ευρωπός) Rhagai; Rhagae or Rhaganae) and formerly as Arsacia, is the capital of Rey County in Tehran Province of Iran, and the oldest existing city in the province.
Romila Thapar (born 30 November 1931) is an Indian historian whose principal area of study is ancient India.
Abu Mansur Sabuktigin (ابو منصور سبکتگین) (ca 942 – August 997), also spelled as Sabuktagin, Sabuktakin, Sebüktegin and Sebük Tigin, was the founder of the Ghaznavid dynasty, ruling from 367 A.H/977 A.D to 387 A.H/997A.D.C.E. Bosworth, in Encyclopaedia Iranica.
The Saffarid dynasty (سلسله صفاریان) was a Muslim Persianate dynasty from Sistan that ruled over parts of eastern Iran, with its capital at Zaranj (a city now in southwestern Afghanistan).
The Samanid Empire (سامانیان, Sāmāniyān), also known as the Samanian Empire, Samanid dynasty, Samanid Emirate, or simply Samanids, was a Sunni Iranian empire, ruling from 819 to 999.
Samarkand (Uzbek language Uzbek alphabet: Samarqand; سمرقند; Самарканд; Σαμαρκάνδη), alternatively Samarqand, is a city in modern-day Uzbekistan and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Central Asia.
The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.
The Shahnameh, also transliterated as Shahnama (شاهنامه, "The Book of Kings"), is a long epic poem written by the Persian poet Ferdowsi between c. 977 and 1010 CE and is the national epic of Greater Iran.
A short-range ballistic missile (SRBM) is a ballistic missile with a range of about or less.
Sindh (سنڌ; سِندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country.
Sīstān (Persian/Baloch/Pashto: سیستان), known in ancient times as Sakastan (Persian/Baloch/Pashto: ساكاستان; "the land of the Saka"), is a historical and geographical region in present-day eastern Iran (Sistan and Baluchestan Province), southern Afghanistan (Nimruz, Kandahar) and the Nok Kundi region of Balochistan (western Pakistan).
Soil fertility refers to the ability of a soil to sustain agricultural plant growth, i.e. to provide plant habitat and result in sustained and consistent yields of high quality.
The Somnath temple located in Prabhas Patan near Veraval in Saurashtra on the western coast of Gujarat, is believed to be the first among the twelve jyotirlinga shrines of Shiva.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).
The Tarikh i Yamini, or Kitab i Yamini, written in Arabic in an embellished, flowery rhetorical rhymed prose, is a history of the reigns of Sebuktigin and Mahmud up to 1020.
A temple (from the Latin word templum) is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice.
Thanesar (sometimes called Thaneswar and, archaically, Sthanishvara) is a historic town and an important Hindu pilgrimage centre on the banks of the Ghaggar river in the state of Haryana in northern India.
The Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert, is a large arid region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent that covers an area of and forms a natural boundary between India and Pakistan.
The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians is a book comprising translations of medieval Persian chronicles based on the work of Henry Miers Elliot.
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Tus (fa or fa Tus or Tuws), also spelled as Tous, Toos or Tūs, is an ancient city in Razavi Khorasan Province in Iran near Mashhad.
Ujjain is the largest city in Ujjain district of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.
A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.
Wazirabad (Urdu/وزِيرآباد) is an industrial city located in Gujranwala District, Punjab, Pakistan.
The Yamuna (Hindustani: /jəmʊnaː/), also known as the Jumna, (not to be mistaken with the Jamuna of Bangladesh) is the longest and the second largest tributary river of the Ganges (Ganga) in northern India.
Zabulistan (Persian/Pashto: زابلستان; Zabul + -stan), originally known as "Zavolistan", is a historical region roughly corresponding to today's Zabul Province in southern Afghanistan.
Mahmood Ghaznawi, Mahmood Ghaznvi, Mahmood of Ghazni, Mahmoud Ghaznavi, Mahmoud of Ghazni, Mahmud Gaznavi, Mahmud Gazni, Mahmud Ghaznavi, Mahmud Ghaznawi, Mahmud Ghazni, Mahmud Of Ghazna, Mahmud Of Ghazni, Mahmud of Ghazna, Mahmud of Ghaznavi, Mahmud of Ghaznavid, Mahmud of Ghaznawi, Mahmud the Gazanavi, Mehmed of Ghaznavid, Mehmood Ghaznavi, Mehmood of Ghazna, Mehmood of Ghazni, Mehmud Ghaznavi, Sultan Mahmood, Sultan Mahmood Ghaznawi, Sultan Mahmud (Persia), Sultan mehmood.