208 relations: Abbey, Achaemenid Empire, Advertising mail, Airmail, Argentina, Artistamp, Augustus, Australia Post, Balloon, Bank, Barid, Bible, Black Chamber, Bologna, British Raj, Bulk mail, Caliphate, Calligraphy, Canada Post, Cancellation (mail), Censorship, Chapar Khaneh, Charitable organization, Charlemagne, Chile, Church (building), Cistercians, Civil and political rights, Collecting, Colombian Constitution of 1991, Constitution of Brazil, Constitution of Mexico, Courier, Credit card, Cursus publicus, Customs, Cyrus the Great, Darśana, Darius I, Debt of developing countries, Demography, Diocletian, Direct marketing, Dog sled, Dynasties in Chinese history, EBay, Egypt, Email, Envelope, Epistle, ..., Epistolary novel, EPPML, Esther, European Convention on Human Rights, Express mail, Fair trade, Fax, Franking, Franks, Gaul, Genghis Khan, Hakha, Hammurabi, Han dynasty, Hendon, Herodotus, History of Iran, Hobby, Holy Roman Emperor, Homing pigeon, Hybrid mail, India, International reply coupon, Internet, Internet slang, Islam, ISO 216, James A. Farley Building, Jargon, Jodhpur, Kingdom of Mysore, Knights Templar, Kublai Khan, Legal monopoly, Leibniz Institute of European History, Letter (message), Letter (paper size), Letter bomb, Letter box, Li (unit), List of postal entities, Lodgement (finance), London Review of Books, Magazine, Maharaja, Mail, Mail art, Mail bag, Mail carrier, Mail forwarding, Mail train, Mail truck, Male, Malware, Marco Polo, Maurya Empire, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Medes, Message in a bottle, Middle Ages, Middle English, Military mail, Ming dynasty, Missus dominicus, Monastery, Mongol Empire, Mule, Mulready stationery, New Testament, New Zealand Post, Newspaper, Official mail, Old Testament, Online auction, Online post office, Online shopping, Optional information line, ORM-D, Ox, Package delivery, Packstation, Parcel (package), Passport, Paul the Apostle, Penny Black, Personal identification number, Pharaoh, Philately, Pigeon post, Pneumatic tube, Post box, Post office, Post, Iran, Post-it Note, Post-office box, Postage meter, Postage rate, Postage stamp, Postal card, Postal code, Postal, telegraph and telephone service, Postcard, POSTNET, Qing dynasty, Railway post office, Registered mail, Restaurant, Retail, Retronym, Rocket, Rocket mail, Rome, Rowland Hill, Royal Mail, Rubber stamp, Sargon II, Savings account, Scribe, Shang dynasty, Shipping insurance, Shrink wrap, Signature, Smithsonian Institution, SMS, Snail mail, Social networking service, South India, Stamp collecting, State monopoly, Submarine, Tang dynasty, Telegraphy, Telephone, Teleprinter, Telex, Terrorism, Thurn und Taxis, Thurn-und-Taxis Post, Typeface, Uniform Penny Post, United Kingdom, United States Patent and Trademark Office, United States Postal Service, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Universal Postal Union, University, Utility, Wadiyar dynasty, Windsor, Berkshire, Wrapper (philately), Writing, X-ray, Xenophon, Xerxes I, Xia dynasty, Yam (route), Yuan dynasty, ZIP Code. Expand index (158 more) » « Shrink index
An abbey is a complex of buildings used by members of a religious order under the governance of an abbot or abbess.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Advertising mail, also known as direct mail (by its senders), junk mail (by its recipients), mailshot or admail, is the delivery of advertising material to recipients of postal mail.
Airmail (or air mail) is a mail transport service branded and sold on the basis of at least one leg of its journey being by air.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
The term artistamp (a portmanteau of the words "artist" and "stamp") or artist's stamp refers to a postage stamp-like art form used to depict or commemorate any subject its creator chooses.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
The Australian Postal Corporation (formerly Commission), operating as Australia Post, is the government-owned corporation that provides postal services in Australia.
A balloon is a flexible bag that can be inflated with a gas, such as helium, hydrogen, nitrous oxide, oxygen, air or water.
A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit.
The barīd (بريد, often translated as Postal Service) was the state-run courier service of the Umayyad and later Abbasid Caliphates.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
The Black Chamber, also known as The Cipher Bureau, was the United States' first peacetime cryptanalytic organization, and a forerunner of the National Security Agency.
Bologna (Bulåggna; Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
Bulk mail broadly refers to mail that is mailed and processed in bulk at reduced rates.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Calligraphy (from Greek: καλλιγραφία) is a visual art related to writing.
Canada Post Corporation (Société Canadienne des Postes), known more simply as Canada Post (Postes Canada), is a Crown corporation which functions as the primary postal operator in Canada.
A cancellation (or cancel for short; French: "oblitération") is a postal marking applied on a postage stamp or postal stationery to deface the stamp and prevent its re-use.
Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information, on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient" as determined by government authorities.
"Chapar Khaneh" (چاپارخانه,, courier-house) is a Persian term for the postal service used during the Achaemenid era.
A charitable organization or charity is a non-profit organization (NPO) whose primary objectives are philanthropy and social well-being (e.g. charitable, educational, religious, or other activities serving the public interest or common good).
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
A church building or church house, often simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities, particularly for worship services.
A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (abbreviated as OCist, SOCist ((Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis), or ‘’’OCSO’’’ (Ordo Cisterciensis Strictioris Observantiae), which are religious orders of monks and nuns. They are also known as “Trappists”; as Bernardines, after the highly influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux (though that term is also used of the Franciscan Order in Poland and Lithuania); or as White Monks, in reference to the colour of the "cuccula" or white choir robe worn by the Cistercians over their habits, as opposed to the black cuccula worn by Benedictine monks. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however, education and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of many monasteries. A reform movement seeking to restore the simpler lifestyle of the original Cistercians began in 17th-century France at La Trappe Abbey, leading eventually to the Holy See’s reorganization in 1892 of reformed houses into a single order Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (OCSO), commonly called the Trappists. Cistercians who did not observe these reforms became known as the Cistercians of the Original Observance. The term Cistercian (French Cistercien), derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more closely the Rule of Saint Benedict. The best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, who were the first three abbots. Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order. By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Eastern Europe. The keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict. Rejecting the developments the Benedictines had undergone, the monks tried to replicate monastic life exactly as it had been in Saint Benedict's time; indeed in various points they went beyond it in austerity. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, especially agricultural work in the fields, a special characteristic of Cistercian life. Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. Additionally, in relation to fields such as agriculture, hydraulic engineering and metallurgy, the Cistercians became the main force of technological diffusion in medieval Europe. The Cistercians were adversely affected in England by the Protestant Reformation, the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII, the French Revolution in continental Europe, and the revolutions of the 18th century, but some survived and the order recovered in the 19th century.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
The hobby of collecting includes seeking, locating, acquiring, organizing, cataloging, displaying, storing, and maintaining items that are of interest to an individual collector.
The Constitution of Colombia (Constitución Política de Colombia), better known as the Constitution of 1991, is the current governing document of the Republic of Colombia.
The Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil (Constituição da República Federativa do Brasil) is the supreme law of Brazil.
The Constitution of Mexico, formally the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States (Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is the current constitution of Mexico.
A courier is a company that delivers messages, packages, and mail.
A credit card is a payment card issued to users (cardholders) to enable the cardholder to pay a merchant for goods and services based on the cardholder's promise to the card issuer to pay them for the amounts so paid plus the other agreed charges.
The cursus publicus (Latin: "the public way"; δημόσιος δρόμος, dēmósios drómos) was the state-run courier and transportation service of the Roman Empire, later inherited by the Byzantine Empire.
Customs is an authority or agency in a country responsible for collecting tariffs and for controlling the flow of goods, including animals, transports, personal, and hazardous items, into and out of a country.
Cyrus II of Persia (𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش Kuruš;; c. 600 – 530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great  and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire.
Darśana (Sanskrit: दर्शन, lit. view, sight) is the auspicious sight of a deity or a holy person.
Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: rtl Dāryuš;; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
The debt of developing countries refers to the external debt incurred by governments of developing countries, generally in quantities beyond the governments' ability to repay.
Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement") is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.
Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.
Direct marketing is a form of advertising where organizations communicate directly to customers through a variety of media including cell phone text messaging, email, websites, online adverts, database marketing, fliers, catalog distribution, promotional letters, and targeted television, newspaper, and magazine advertisements, as well as outdoor advertising.
A dog sled or dog sleigh is a sled pulled by one or more sled dogs used to travel over ice and through snow.
The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese History.
eBay Inc. is a multinational e-commerce corporation based in San Jose, California that facilitates consumer-to-consumer and business-to-consumer sales through its website.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Electronic mail (email or e-mail) is a method of exchanging messages ("mail") between people using electronic devices.
An envelope is a common packaging item, usually made of thin flat material.
An epistle (Greek ἐπιστολή, epistolē, "letter") is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of people, usually an elegant and formal didactic letter.
An epistolary novel is a novel written as a series of documents.
EPPML (Extensible Postal Product Model and Language) is a conceptual model for the interactions between parties of a postal communication system.
Esther, born Hadassah, is the eponymous heroine of the Book of Esther.
The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) (formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) is an international treaty to protect human rights and political freedoms in Europe.
Express mail is an accelerated mail delivery service for which the customer pays a surcharge and receives faster delivery.
Fair trade is a social movement whose stated goal is to help producers in developing countries achieve better trading conditions.
Fax (short for facsimile), sometimes called telecopying or telefax (the latter short for telefacsimile), is the telephonic transmission of scanned printed material (both text and images), normally to a telephone number connected to a printer or other output device.
Franking refers to any devices, markings, or combinations thereof ("franks") applied to mails of any class which qualifies them to be postally serviced.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
Hakha (formerly rendered Haka) is the capital of Chin State in Burma.
Hammurabi was the sixth king of the First Babylonian Dynasty, reigning from 1792 BC to 1750 BC (according to the Middle Chronology).
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Hendon is a London suburb in the Borough of Barnet, northwest of Charing Cross.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.
A hobby is a regular activity that is done for enjoyment, typically during one's leisure time.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
The homing pigeon is a variety of domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica) derived from the rock pigeon, selectively bred for its ability to find its way home over extremely long distances.
Hybrid mail is mail that is delivered using a combination of electronic and physical delivery.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
An international reply coupon (IRC) is a coupon that can be exchanged for one or more postage stamps representing the minimum postage for an unregistered priority airmail letter of up to twenty grams sent to another Universal Postal Union (UPU) member country.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
Internet slang (Internet shorthand, cyber-slang, netspeak, or chatspeak) refers to various kinds of slang used by different people on the Internet.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
ISO 216 specifies international standard (ISO) paper sizes used in most countries in the world today, although not in Canada, the United States, Mexico, or the Dominican Republic.
The James A. Farley Building is the main United States Postal Service building in New York City.
Jargon is a type of language that is used in a particular context and may not be well understood outside that context.
Jodhpur is the second largest city in the Indian state of Rajasthan and officially the second metropolitan city of the state.
The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom in southern India, traditionally believed to have been founded in 1399 in the vicinity of the modern city of Mysore.
The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici), also known as the Order of Solomon's Temple, the Knights Templar or simply as Templars, were a Catholic military order recognised in 1139 by papal bull Omne Datum Optimum of the Holy See.
Kublai (Хубилай, Hubilai; Simplified Chinese: 忽必烈) was the fifth Khagan (Great Khan) of the Mongol Empire (Ikh Mongol Uls), reigning from 1260 to 1294 (although due to the division of the empire this was a nominal position).
A legal monopoly, statutory monopoly, or de jure monopoly is a monopoly that is protected by law from competition.
The Leibniz Institute of European History (IEG) in Mainz, Germany, is an independent, public research institute that carries out and promotes historical research on the foundations of Europe in the early and late Modern period.
A letter is one person's written message to another pertaining to some matter of common concern.
Letter or ANSI Letter is a paper size commonly used as home or office stationery in the United States, Canada, Chile, Mexico, the Dominican Republic and the Philippines.
A letter bomb, also called parcel bomb, mail bomb, package bomb, note bomb, message bomb, gift bomb, present bomb, delivery bomb, surprise bomb, postal bomb, or post bomb, is an explosive device sent via the postal service, and designed with the intention to injure or kill the recipient when opened.
A letter box, letterbox, letter plate, letter hole, mail slot or mailbox is a receptacle for receiving incoming mail at a private residence or business.
The li (lǐ, or 市里, shìlǐ), also known as the Chinese mile, is a traditional Chinese unit of distance.
This is a list of postal entities by country.
In Ireland a lodgement is an amount lodged to a bank account or paid into a bank account via a "lodgement slip" or "paying in" slip.
The London Review of Books (LRB) is a British journal of literary essays.
A magazine is a publication, usually a periodical publication, which is printed or electronically published (sometimes referred to as an online magazine).
Mahārāja (महाराज, also spelled Maharajah, Moharaja) is a Sanskrit title for a "great ruler", "great king" or "high king".
The mail or post is a system for physically transporting postcards, letters, and parcels.
Mail art (also known as postal art and correspondence art) is a populist artistic movement centered on sending small scale works through the postal service.
A mail bag or mailbag is a generic term for a type of bag used for collecting, carrying, categorizing, and classifying different types of postal material, depending on its priority, destination, and method of transport.
A mail carrier, mailman, mailwoman, postal carrier, postman, postwoman, or letter carrier (in American English), sometimes colloquially known as a postie (in Australia, New Zealand, Scotland, and other parts of the United Kingdom), is an employee of a post office or postal service, who delivers mail and parcel post to residences and businesses.
Post offices and other mail service providers typically offer a mail forwarding service, commonly known as hybrid mail or virtual post office box services, to redirect mail addressed to one location to another address – usually for a given period.
Many countries have had dedicated railway services for the delivery of postal mail.
A mail truck, mail van, or mail lorry is a delivery vehicle that is used to distribute mail.
A male (♂) organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm.
Malware (a portmanteau for malicious software) is any software intentionally designed to cause damage to a computer, server or computer network.
Marco Polo (1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer, born in the Republic of Venice.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519) was King of the Romans (also known as King of the Germans) from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death, though he was never crowned by the Pope, as the journey to Rome was always too risky.
The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. At around 1100 to 1000 BC, they inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Hamadan (Ecbatana) region. Their emergence in Iran is thought to have occurred between 800 BC and 700 BC, and in the 7th century the whole of western Iran and some other territories were under Median rule. Its precise geographical extent remains unknown. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is unknown. The Medes had an ancient Iranian religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zoroaster spread into western Iran.
A message in a bottle is a form of communication in which a printed, typed, or handwritten message is sealed in a container (typically a bottle) and released into a conveyance medium (typically a body of water).
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
Military mail, as opposed to civilian mail, refers to the postal services provided by armed forces that allow serving members to send and receive mail.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
A missus dominicus (plural missi dominici), Latin for "envoy of the lord " or palace inspector, also known in Dutch as Zendgraaf (German: Sendgraf), meaning "sent Graf", was an official commissioned by the Frankish king or Holy Roman Emperor to supervise the administration, mainly of justice, in parts of his dominions too remote for frequent personal visits.
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
A mule is the offspring of a male donkey (jack) and a female horse (mare).
Mulready stationery describes the postal stationery letter sheets and envelopes that were introduced as part of the British Post Office postal reforms of 1840.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
New Zealand Post is a state-owned enterprise responsible for providing postal service in New Zealand.
A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events.
Official mail is mail sent from, or by, an authorized department of government, governmental agency or international organizationHorning (1970), pp.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
An online auction is an auction which is held over the internet.
An online post office is a commercial mail receiving agency that implements the concept of hybrid mail, enabling conventional mail to become electronic, or electronic correspondence to be printed and mailed at a remote location.
Online shopping is a form of electronic commerce which allows consumers to directly buy goods or services from a seller over the Internet using a web browser.
An optional information line (OEL) is a line above the postal address on mail in the United States.
ORM-D is a marking for mail or shipping in the United States that identifies other regulated materials for domestic transport only.
An ox (plural oxen), also known as a bullock in Australia and India, is a bovine trained as a draft animal or riding animal.
Package delivery or parcel delivery is the delivery of shipping containers, parcels, or high value mail as single shipments.
Packstation is a service run by DHL Parcel Germany, a business unit of Deutsche Post's Mail division, in Germany and elsewhere (e.g. in Italy).
A parcel is a package bearing the name and address of the recipient in order to be routed through the services of a postal service or by express package delivery service to the recipient.
A passport is a travel document, usually issued by a country's government, that certifies the identity and nationality of its holder primarily for the purpose of international travel.
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.
The Penny Black was the world's first adhesive postage stamp used in a public postal system.
A personal identification number (PIN, pronounced "pin"; is often spoken out loud "PIN number" by mistake) is a numeric or alpha-numeric password or code used in the process of authenticating or identifying a user to a system and system to a user.
Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.
Philately is the study of stamps and postal history and other related items.
Pigeon post is the use of homing pigeons to carry messages.
Pneumatic tubes (or capsule pipelines; also known as pneumatic tube transport or PTT) are systems that propel cylindrical containers through networks of tubes by compressed air or by partial vacuum.
A post box (British English; also written postbox), also known as a collection box, mailbox, letter box or drop box (American English) is a physical box into which members of the public can deposit outgoing mail intended for collection by the agents of a country's postal service.
A post office is a customer service facility forming part of a national postal system.
Post (پست) is a village in Beradust Rural District, Sumay-ye Beradust District, Urmia County, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran.
A Post-it Note (or sticky note) is a small piece of paper with a re-adherable strip of glue on its back, made for temporarily attaching notes to documents and other surfaces.
A post-office box or post office box (commonly referred to as a P.O. box or a postal box) is a uniquely addressable lockable box located on the premises of a post office station.
A postage meter or franking machine is a mechanical device used to create and apply physical evidence of postage (or franking) to mailed matter.
Postage rate is amount of money charged by a governmental postal service to ship and deliver mail.
A postage stamp is a small piece of paper that is purchased and displayed on an item of mail as evidence of payment of postage.
Postal cards are postal stationery with an imprinted stamp or indicium signifying the prepayment of postage.
A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, Eircode, PIN Code or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes including spaces or punctuation, included in a postal address for the purpose of sorting mail.
A postal, telegraph, and telephone service (or PTT) is a government agency responsible for postal mail, telegraph, and telephone services.
A postcard or post card is a rectangular piece of thick paper or thin cardboard intended for writing and mailing without an envelope.
POSTNET (Postal Numeric Encoding Technique) is a barcode symbology used by the United States Postal Service to assist in directing mail.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
In the United States, a railway post office, commonly abbreviated as RPO, was a railroad car that was normally operated in passenger service as a means to sort mail en route, in order to speed delivery.
Registered mail is a mail service offered by postal services in many countries, which allows the sender proof of mailing via a mailing receipt and, upon request, electronic verification that an article was delivered or that a delivery attempt was made.
A restaurant, or an eatery, is a business which prepares and serves food and drinks to customers in exchange for money.
Retail is the process of selling consumer goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit.
A retronym is a newer name for an existing thing that differentiates the original form or version from a more recent one.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
Rocket mail is the delivery of mail by rocket or missile.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Sir Rowland Hill, KCB, FRS (3 December 1795 – 27 August 1879) was an English teacher, inventor and social reformer.
Royal Mail plc (Post Brenhinol; a' Phuist Rìoghail) is a postal service and courier company in the United Kingdom, originally established in 1516.
Rubber stamping, also called stamping, is a craft in which some type of ink made of dye or pigment is applied to an image or pattern that has been carved, molded, laser engraved or vulcanized, onto a sheet of rubber.
Sargon II (Assyrian Šarru-ukīn (LUGAL-GI.NA 𒈗𒄀𒈾).; Aramaic סרגן; reigned 722–705 BC) was an Assyrian king.
A savings account is a deposit account held at a retail bank that pays interest but cannot be used directly as money in the narrow sense of a medium of exchange (for example, by writing a cheque).
A scribe is a person who serves as a professional copyist, especially one who made copies of manuscripts before the invention of automatic printing.
The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.
Shipping insurance is a service which may reimburse senders whose parcels are lost, stolen, and/or damaged in transit.
Shrink wrap, also shrink film, is a material made up of polymer plastic film.
A signature (from signare, "to sign") is a handwritten (and often stylized) depiction of someone's name, nickname, or even a simple "X" or other mark that a person writes on documents as a proof of identity and intent.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
SMS (short message service) is a text messaging service component of most telephone, internet, and mobile-device systems.
Snail mail and smail (from snail + mail) — named after the snail with its slow speed — is a retronym that refers to letters and missives carried by conventional postal delivery services.
A social networking service (also social networking site, SNS or social media) is a web application that people use to build social networks or social relations with other people who share similar personal or career interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections.
South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.
Stamp collecting is the collecting of postage stamps and related objects.
In economics, a government monopoly (or public monopoly) is a form of coercive monopoly in which a government agency or government corporation is the sole provider of a particular good or service and competition is prohibited by law.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Telegraphy (from Greek: τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message.
A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly.
A teleprinter (teletypewriter, Teletype or TTY) is an electromechanical typewriter that can be used to send and receive typed messages through various communications channels, in both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint configurations.
The telex network was a public switched network of teleprinters similar to a telephone network, for the purposes of sending text-based messages.
Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.
The Princely House of Thurn and Taxis (Fürstenhaus Thurn und Taxis) is a family of German nobility that is part of the Briefadel.
The Thurn-und-Taxis Post was a private company and the successor to the Imperial Reichspost of the Holy Roman Empire.
In typography, a typeface (also known as font family) is a set of one or more fonts each composed of glyphs that share common design features.
The Uniform Penny Post was a component of the comprehensive reform of the Royal Mail, the UK's official postal service, that took place in the 19th century.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is an agency in the U.S. Department of Commerce that issues patents to inventors and businesses for their inventions, and trademark registration for product and intellectual property identification.
The United States Postal Service (USPS; also known as the Post Office, U.S. Mail, or Postal Service) is an independent agency of the United States federal government responsible for providing postal service in the United States, including its insular areas and associated states.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
The Universal Postal Union (UPU, Union postale universelle), established by the Treaty of Bern of 1874, is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that coordinates postal policies among member nations, in addition to the worldwide postal system.
A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.
Within economics the concept of utility is used to model worth or value, but its usage has evolved significantly over time.
The Wadiyar (alternatively spelt Wodeyer or Odeyer) dynasty was a Hindu dynasty in Indian subcontinent that ruled the Kingdom of Mysore from 1399 to 1950, with a brief interruption in the late 1700s.
Windsor is a historic market town and unparished area in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead in Berkshire, England.
In philately a wrapper is a form of postal stationery which pays the cost of the delivery of a newspaper or a periodical.
Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion with signs and symbols.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Xenophon of Athens (Ξενοφῶν,, Xenophōn; – 354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.
Xerxes I (𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠 x-š-y-a-r-š-a Xšayaṛša "ruling over heroes", Greek Ξέρξης; 519–465 BC), called Xerxes the Great, was the fourth king of kings of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia.
The Xia dynasty is the legendary, possibly apocryphal first dynasty in traditional Chinese history.
Yam (Өртөө, Örtöö, checkpoint) was a supply point route messenger system employed and extensively used and expanded by Genghis Khan and used by subsequent Great Khans and Khans.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
ZIP Codes are a system of postal codes used by the United States Postal Service (USPS) since 1963.
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