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Index Maize

Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago. [1]

408 relations: Activator (genetics), Adhesive, Africa, African armyworm, Afrikaans, Agricultural economics, Agricultural Research Service, Alfalfa, Alkali, Allergy, Amaranth, Americas, Ammonia, Amortization, Amylomaize, Anaerobic digestion, Anaphylaxis, Andes, Anemophily, Animal feed, Annual plant, Annual Review of Genetics, Anthocyanin, Aphid, Appropriate technology, Archaeology, Asian cuisine, Asthma, Atole, B vitamins, Baby corn, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacteria, Bait (luring substance), Balsas River, Barbara McClintock, Barley, Bean, Bedding (animals), Beer, Biochemistry, Biofuel, Biomass, Blue corn, Bourbon whiskey, Bran, Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation, Breakfast cereal, Burgenland, Bushel, ..., C3 carbon fixation, C4 carbon fixation, Cake, Calcium oxide, Calorie, Canjica (dish), Carbohydrate, Carl Linnaeus, Caryopsis, Cassava, Cell biology, Centimorgan, Cereal, Ceviche, Charles Davenport, Cherry, Chicago Board of Trade, Chicago Tribune, Chicha, Chilaquiles, Christian, Chromosome, Chrysanthemin, Churro, Circadian rhythm, Clavibacter michiganensis, Coarse fishing, Columbian Exchange, Combine harvester, Common ethanol fuel mixtures, Communal work, Conservation Biology (journal), Cooking oil, Corn crib, Corn ethanol, Corn flakes, Corn grey leaf spot, Corn kernel, Corn maze, Corn oil, Corn on the cob, Corn Palace, Corn silk, Corn smut, Corn starch, Corn steep liquor, Corn stover, Corn syrup, Corn tortilla, Cornbread, Corncob, Cornmeal, Crambidae, Croatian kuna, Crop, Crop circle, Crop rotation, Crop Science (journal), Crop wild relative, CSIRO, Cucurbita, Cultivar, Curau, Cyprus, Dehiscence (botany), Dent corn, Detasseling, Developed country, Developmental biology, Diabrotica, Diesel fuel, Dietary fiber, Dihydrokaempferol 4-reductase, DIMBOA, Dog food, Domestication, Donald F. Jones, Drought, Dublin, Ohio, DuPont Pioneer, Ear (botany), Edible protein per unit area of land, Elasmopalpus, Eldana, Enchilada, English language, Epistasis, Essential amino acid, Ethanol, Ethanol fuel, Ethnobotany, European corn borer, Euxesta stigmatias, Fall armyworm, Famine, Fat, Federal government of the United States, Field corn, Field of Corn, Fischer–Tropsch process, Fixed cost, Flavan-4-ol, Flavanonol, Flint corn, Flour, Flour corn, Flower, Fodder, Folate, Food and Agriculture Organization, Forage harvester, Forficula auricularia, Fruit anatomy, Fungus, Futures contract, Garden, Garnish (food), Gasification, Gasoline, Güssing, GenBank, Genetic testing, Genetically modified crops, Genetically modified food, Genetically modified maize, Genetically modified organism, Genetics, Genome, George Beadle, Germplasm, Global Positioning System, Gluten, Glyphosate, Grain drying, Gram, Grazing, Grits, Growing degree-day, Growing season, Guilá Naquitz Cave, Hedge, Helicoverpa zea, Helitron (biology), Herbalism, Herbicide, Hermaphrodite, Heterochromatin, High-fructose corn syrup, Hoe (tool), Hominy, Hot Corn, Hot dog cart, Human genome, Hybrid (biology), Hydrolysis, Hydroxamic acid, Ice cream, Iguala, Illinois, Inbreeding, Independence Day (United States), Indiana, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Inflorescence, International Grains Council, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Introgression, Italy, Jalisco, John Doebley, Larco Museum, Legume, Lima, Limewater, List of maize dishes, List of most valuable crops and livestock products, List of sweetcorn varieties, Livestock, Lutein, Lye, Lysine, Magnesium, Maize dwarf mosaic virus, Maize streak virus, Maize weevil, Makki di roti, Manual labour, Masa, Maya peoples, Mămăligă, Mesoamerica, Mexican cuisine, Mexicans, Mexico, Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, Microorganism, Midwestern United States, Mineral (nutrient), Moche culture, Model organism, Monsanto, Mucous membrane, Multiple fruit, Mush (cornmeal), Mussel, Mutation, MYB (gene), Mythimna separata, Mythimna unipuncta, National Science Foundation, Native Americans in the United States, Natural gas, Niacin, Nikolai Vavilov, Nitrogen fixation, Nixtamalization, No-till farming, Nobel Prize, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, North American Free Trade Agreement, Nshima, Oaxaca, Oaxaca Valley, Obverse and reverse, Octane rating, Olmecs, Organic matter, Ostrinia furnacalis, Ovule, Pamonha, Pantothenic acid, Pap (food), Pathogen, Pea, Pellagra, Pellet stove, Pennsylvania, Peregrinus maidis, Perennial plant, Peru, Phlobaphene, Phosphorus, Photoperiodism, Phytochrome, Plant lipid transfer proteins, Plant stem, Planter (farm implement), Plastic, Ploidy, Poaceae, Pod corn, Polenta, Pollen, Polymorphism (biology), Polyploid, Popcorn, Porridge, Post-harvest losses (grains), Potato, Pozole, Pre-Columbian era, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Propane, Protein, Punjab, Purée, Purple corn, Push–pull agricultural pest management, Quesadilla, Quinoa, Reaper-binder, Rectified spirit, Reference Daily Intake, Research institute, Rhizobia, Rhopalosiphum maidis, Rice, Rochester, Minnesota, Rolling circle replication, Romania, Root system, Rust (fungus), Rye, Sadza, Sagamite, Salad, San Andrés (Mesoamerican site), Sandpit, Seed, Selection methods in plant breeding based on mode of reproduction, Selective breeding, Sheaf (agriculture), Silage, Silo, Snack, Soil, Soil conditioner, Sorghum, Southeastern United States, Southern corn leaf blight, Southwestern corn borer, Soybean, Spain, Species, Stalk borer, Staple food, Starch, StarLink corn recall, Stewart's wilt, Stigma (botany), Stook, Sugarcane, Sweet corn, Taíno, Taíno language, Taco, Tamale, Taxus, Tehuacán, Tehuacán Valley matorral, Temperate climate, Textile, The Washington Post, Thiamine, Three Sisters (agriculture), Ticker symbol, Tobacco pipe, Tonne, Tortilla, Tostada (tortilla), Transposable element, Transubstantiation, Tripsacum, Tripsacum dactyloides, Tryptophan, Ugali, Unit cost, United States Capitol, United States Department of Agriculture, United States Department of Energy, United States Forest Service, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Vegetable, Vintage Books, Water tower, Waxy corn, Weed, Western corn rootworm, Wet-milling, Wheat, Winter wheat, Wood fuel, World War II, Zea (plant), Zea diploperennis, Zeaxanthin, Zein, 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus. Expand index (358 more) »

Activator (genetics)

A transcriptional activator is a protein (transcription factor) that increases gene transcription of a gene or set of genes.

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An adhesive, also known as glue, cement, mucilage, or paste, is any substance applied to one surface, or both surfaces, of two separate items that binds them together and resists their separation.

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Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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African armyworm

The African armyworm (Spodoptera exempta), also called okalombo, kommandowurm, or nutgrass armyworm, is a moth of the family Noctuidae.

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Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.

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Agricultural economics

Agricultural economics is an applied field of economics concerned with the application of economic theory in optimizing the production and distribution of food and fibre—a discipline known as agricultural economics.

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Agricultural Research Service

The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is the principal in-house research agency of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).

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Alfalfa, Medicago sativa also called lucerne, is a perennial flowering plant in the pea family Fabaceae cultivated as an important forage crop in many countries around the world.

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In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.

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Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.

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Amaranthus, collectively known as amaranth, is a cosmopolitan genus of annual or short-lived perennial plants.

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The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.

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Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Amortization (or amortisation) is paying off an amount owed over time by making planned, incremental payments of principal and interest.

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Amylomaize was a term coined in the late 1940s by Robert P. Bear of Bear Hybrids Corn Company in Decatur, Illinois to describe his discovery and commercial breeding of a cornstarch with high (>50%) amylose content, also called high amylose starch.

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Anaerobic digestion

Anaerobic digestion is a collection of processes by which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen.

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Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.

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The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.

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Anemophily or wind pollination is a form of pollination whereby pollen is distributed by wind.

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Animal feed

Animal feed is food given to domestic animals in the course of animal husbandry.

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Annual plant

An annual plant is a plant that completes its life cycle, from germination to the production of seeds, within one year, and then dies.

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Annual Review of Genetics

The Annual Review of Genetics is an annual peer-reviewed scientific review journal published by Annual Reviews.

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Anthocyanins (also anthocyans; from Greek: ἄνθος (anthos) "flower" and κυάνεος/κυανοῦς kyaneos/kyanous "dark blue") are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that, depending on their pH, may appear red, purple, or blue.

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Aphids are small sap-sucking insects and members of the superfamily Aphidoidea.

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Appropriate technology

Appropriate technology is a movement (and its manifestations) encompassing technological choice and application that is small-scale, decentralized, labor-intensive, energy-efficient, environmentally sound, and locally autonomous.

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Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.

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Asian cuisine

Asian cuisine includes several major regional cuisines: East Asian, Southeast Asian, South Asian, Central Asian, and Middle Eastern/Western Asian.

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Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.

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Atole or Spanish, from Nahuatl ātōlli), also known as atol and atol de elote, is a traditional hot corn- and masa-based beverage of Mesoamerican origin. Chocolate atole is known as champurrado or atole. It is typically accompanied with tamales, and very popular during the Christmas holiday season (Las Posadas).

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B vitamins

B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism.

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Baby corn

Baby corn (also known as young corn or baby sweetcorn) is a cereal grain taken from corn (maize) harvested early while the stalks are still small and immature.

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Bacillus thuringiensis

Bacillus thuringiensis (or Bt) is a Gram-positive, soil-dwelling bacterium, commonly used as a biological pesticide.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Bait (luring substance)

Bait is any substance used to attract prey, e.g. in a mousetrap.

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Balsas River

The Balsas River (Spanish Río Balsas, also locally known as the Mezcala River, or Atoyac River) is a major river of south-central Mexico.

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Barbara McClintock

Barbara McClintock (June 16, 1902 – September 2, 1992) was an American scientist and cytogeneticist who was awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

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Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.

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A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food.

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Bedding (animals)

Bedding, in ethology and animal husbandry, is material, usually organic, used by animals to support their bodies when resting or otherwise stationary.

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Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.

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Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.

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Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.

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Blue corn

Blue corn (also known as Hopi maize) is a variety of flint maize grown in Mexico and the Southwestern United States.

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Bourbon whiskey

Bourbon whiskey is a type of American whiskey, a barrel-aged distilled spirit made primarily from corn.

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Bran, also known as miller's bran, is the hard outer layers of cereal grain.

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Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation

The Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária) is a state-owned research corporation affiliated with the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture.

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Breakfast cereal

Breakfast cereal is a food product made from processed cereal grains that is often eaten as a breakfast in primarily Western societies.

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Burgenland (Őrvidék; Gradišće; Gradiščanska; Hradsko; is the easternmost and least populous state of Austria. It consists of two statutory cities and seven rural districts, with in total 171 municipalities. It is long from north to south but much narrower from west to east (wide at Sieggraben). The region is part of the Centrope Project.

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A bushel (abbreviation: bsh. or bu.) is an imperial and US customary unit of weight or mass based upon an earlier measure of dry capacity.

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C3 carbon fixation

carbon fixation is one of three metabolic pathways for carbon fixation in photosynthesis, along with c4 and CAM.

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C4 carbon fixation

C4 carbon fixation or the Hatch-Slack pathway is a photosynthetic process in some plants.

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Cake is a form of sweet dessert that is typically baked.

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Calcium oxide

Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.

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A calorie is a unit of energy.

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Canjica (dish)

Canjica, mugunzá or mungunzá is a Brazilian sweet dish, associated with winter festivals, which in Brazil is in June (Festa Junina).

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A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.

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In botany, a caryopsis (plural caryopses) is a type of simple dry fruit—one that is monocarpellate (formed from a single carpel) and indehiscent (not opening at maturity) and resembles an achene, except that in a caryopsis the pericarp is fused with the thin seed coat.

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Manihot esculenta, commonly called cassava, manioc, yuca, mandioca and Brazilian arrowroot, is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.

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Cell biology

Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.

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In genetics, a centimorgan (abbreviated cM) or map unit (m.u.) is a unit for measuring genetic linkage.

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A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.

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Ceviche, also cebiche, seviche or sebiche, is a seafood dish popular in the Pacific coastal regions of Latin America.

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Charles Davenport

Charles Benedict Davenport (June 1, 1866 – February 18, 1944) was a prominent American eugenicist and biologist.

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A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit).

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Chicago Board of Trade

The Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT), established on April 3, 1848, is one of the world's oldest futures and options exchanges.

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Chicago Tribune

The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois, United States, owned by Tronc, Inc., formerly Tribune Publishing.

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In South and Central America, chicha is a fermented (alcoholic) or non-fermented beverage usually derived from grains, maize, or fruit.

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Chilaquiles from the Nahuatl word chīlāquilitl is a traditional Mexican dish.

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A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.

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A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.

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Chrysanthemin is an anthocyanin.

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A churro is a fried-dough pastry—predominantly choux—based snack.

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Circadian rhythm

A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.

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Clavibacter michiganensis

Clavibacter michiganensis is an aerobic non-sporulating Gram-positive plant pathogenic actinomycete that currently constitutes the only species within the genus Clavibacter.

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Coarse fishing

Coarse fishing is a term used in the United Kingdom and Ireland for angling for coarse fish.

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Columbian Exchange

The Columbian Exchange was the widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations, technology, and ideas between the Americas and the Old World in the 15th and 16th centuries, related to European colonization and trade following Christopher Columbus's 1492 voyage.

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Combine harvester

The modern combine harvester, or simply combine, is a versatile machine designed to efficiently harvest a variety of grain crops.

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Common ethanol fuel mixtures

Several common ethanol fuel mixtures are in use around the world.

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Communal work

Communal work is a gathering for mutually accomplishing a task or for communal fundraising, for example through a knitting bee.

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Conservation Biology (journal)

Conservation Biology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal of the Society for Conservation Biology, published by Wiley-Blackwell and established in May 1987.

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Cooking oil

Cooking oil is plant, animal, or synthetic fat used in frying, baking, and other types of cooking.

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Corn crib

A corn crib or corncrib is a type of granary used to dry and store corn.

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Corn ethanol

Corn ethanol is ethanol produced from corn that is used as a biomass.

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Corn flakes

Corn flakes, or cornflakes, are a breakfast cereal made by toasting flakes of cereal, usually maize (known as corn in the U.S.). The cereal was created by John Harvey Kellogg in 1894 as a food that he thought would be healthy for the patients of the Battle Creek Sanitarium in Michigan where he was superintendent.

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Corn grey leaf spot

Grey leaf spot (GLS) is a foliar fungal disease that affects maize, also known as corn.

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Corn kernel

Corn kernels are the fruits of corn (called maize in many countries).

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Corn maze

A corn maze or maize maze is a maze cut out of a corn field.

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Corn oil

Corn oil (maize oil) is oil extracted from the germ of corn (maize).

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Corn on the cob

Corn on the cob (known regionally as "pole corn", "cornstick", "sweet pole", "butter-pop" or "long maize") is a culinary term used for a cooked ear of freshly picked maize from a cultivar of sweet corn.

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Corn Palace

The Corn Palace, commonly advertised as The World's Only Corn Palace and the Mitchell Corn Palace, is a multi-purpose arena/facility located in Mitchell, South Dakota, United States.

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Corn silk

Corn silk is a common name for the shiny, thread-like, weak fibers that grow as part of ears of corn (maize); the tuft or tassel of silky fibers that protrude from the tip of the ear of corn.

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Corn smut

Corn smut is a plant disease caused by the pathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis that causes smut on maize and teosinte.

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Corn starch

Corn starch, cornstarch, cornflour or maize starch or maize is the starch derived from the corn (maize) grain.

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Corn steep liquor

Corn steep liquor is a by-product of corn wet-milling.

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Corn stover

Corn stover consists of the leaves, stalks, and cobs of maize (corn) (Zea mays ssp. mays L.) plants left in a field after harvest.

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Corn syrup

Corn syrup is a food syrup which is made from the starch of corn (called maize in some countries) and contains varying amounts of maltose and higher oligosaccharides, depending on the grade.

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Corn tortilla

In North America and Central America, a corn tortilla or just tortilla is a type of thin, unleavened flatbread, made from finely ground maize (corn).

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Cornbread is any quick bread containing cornmeal.

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A corncob, also called cob of corn, is the central core of an ear of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays).

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Cornmeal is a meal (coarse flour) ground from dried maize (corn).

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The Crambidae are the grass moth family of lepidopterans (butterflies and moths).

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Croatian kuna

The kuna is the currency of Croatia, in use since 1994 (ISO 4217 code: HRK).

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A crop is a plant or animal product that can be grown and harvested extensively for profit or subsistence.

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Crop circle

A crop circle or crop formation is a pattern created by flattening a crop, usually a cereal.

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Crop rotation

Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar or different types of crops in the same area in sequenced seasons.

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Crop Science (journal)

Crop Science is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering agronomy.

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Crop wild relative

A crop wild relative (CWR) is a wild plant closely related to a domesticated plant, whose geographic origins can be traced to regions known as Vavilov Centers (named for the pioneering botanist Nikolai Vavilov).

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The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is an independent Australian federal government agency responsible for scientific research.

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Cucurbita (Latin for gourd) is a genus of herbaceous vines in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae, also known as cucurbits, native to the Andes and Mesoamerica.

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The term cultivarCultivar has two denominations as explained in Formal definition.

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Curau is a Brazilian sweet custard-like dessert made from the expressed juice of unripe maize, cooked with milk and sugar.

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Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.

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Dehiscence (botany)

Dehiscence is the splitting along a built-in line of weakness in a plant structure in order to release its contents, and is common among fruits, anthers and sporangia.

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Dent corn

Dent corn also known as yellow dent corn, Reid's yellow dent corn, white dent corn, or field corn, is a variety of maize or corn with a high soft starch content.

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Detasseling corn is removing the immature pollen-producing bodies, the tassel, from the tops of corn (maize) plants and placing them on the ground.

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Developed country

A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

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Developmental biology

Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop.

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Diabrotica is a widespread genus of beetles, sometimes referred to as cucumber beetles or corn rootworms, in the family Chrysomelidae.

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Diesel fuel

Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.

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Dietary fiber

Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.

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Dihydrokaempferol 4-reductase

In enzymology, a dihydrokaempferol 4-reductase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are cis-3,4-leucopelargonidin and NADP+, whereas its 3 products are (+)-dihydrokaempferol, NADPH, and H+.

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DIMBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one) is a naturally occurring hydroxamic acid, a benzoxazinoid.

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Dog food

Dog food is food specifically formulated and intended for consumption by dogs and other related canines.

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Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.

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Donald F. Jones

Donald Forsha Jones (April 16, 1890 – June 19, 1963) was a United States maize geneticist and practical corn breeder at the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven.

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A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water.

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Dublin, Ohio

Dublin is a city in Franklin, Delaware, and Union counties in the U.S. state of Ohio.

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DuPont Pioneer

DuPont Pioneer, formerly Pioneer Hi-Bred is a large U.S. producer of hybrid seeds for agriculture.

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Ear (botany)

An ear is the grain-bearing tip part of the stem of a cereal plant, such as wheat or maize.

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Edible protein per unit area of land

Edible protein per unit area of land is a measure of agricultural productivity.

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Elasmopalpus is a monotypic snout moth genus described by Émile Blanchard in 1852.

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Eldana is a genus of moths of the family Pyralidae containing only one species, the African sugar-cane borer (Eldana saccharina), which is commonly found in Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Mozambique, Sierra Leone and South Africa.

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An enchilada is a corn tortilla rolled around a filling and covered with a chili pepper sauce.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Epistasis is the phenomenon where the effect of one gene (locus) is dependent on the presence of one or more 'modifier genes', i.e. the genetic background.

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Essential amino acid

An essential amino acid, or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized ''de novo'' (from scratch) by the organism, and thus must be supplied in its diet.

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Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.

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Ethanol fuel

Ethanol fuel is ethyl alcohol, the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, used as fuel.

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Ethnobotany is the study of a region's plants and their practical uses through the traditional knowledge of a local culture and people.

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European corn borer

The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis), also known as the European corn worm or European high-flyer, is a moth of the family Crambidae which includes other grass moths.

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Euxesta stigmatias

Euxesta stigmatias is a species of picture-winged fly in the genus Euxesta of the family Ulidiidae.

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Fall armyworm

The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) is a species in the order of Lepidoptera and is the larval life stage of a fall armyworm moth.

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A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.

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Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.

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Federal government of the United States

The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.

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Field corn

In North America, field corn is corn (Zea mays) grown for livestock fodder, ethanol, cereal and processed food products.

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Field of Corn

Field of Corn (with Osage Orange Trees) is a publicly funded art installation in the city of Dublin, Ohio.

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Fischer–Tropsch process

The Fischer–Tropsch process is a collection of chemical reactions that converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons.

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Fixed cost

In economics, fixed costs, indirect costs or overheads are business expenses that are not dependent on the level of goods or services produced by the business.

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The flavan-4-ols (3-deoxyflavonoids) are flavone-derived alcohols and a family of flavonoids.

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The flavanonols (with two "o"s a.k.a. 3-hydroxyflavanone or 2,3-dihydroflavonol) are a class of flavonoids that use the 3-hydroxy-2,3-dihydro-2-phenylchromen-4-one (IUPAC name) backbone.

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Flint corn

Flint corn (Zea mays var. indurata; also known as Indian corn or sometimes calico corn) is a variant of maize, the same species as common corn.

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Flour is a powder made by grinding raw grains or roots and used to make many different foods.

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Flour corn

Flour corn (Zea mays var. amylacea) is a variety of corn with a soft starchy endosperm and a thin pericarp.

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A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms).

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Fodder, a type of animal feed, is any agricultural foodstuff used specifically to feed domesticated livestock, such as cattle, rabbits, sheep, horses, chickens and pigs.

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Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.

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Food and Agriculture Organization

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.

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Forage harvester

A forage harvester (also known as a silage harvester, forager or chopper) is a farm implement that harvests forage plants to make silage.

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Forficula auricularia

Forficula auricularia, the common earwig or European earwig, is an omnivorous insect in the family Forficulidae.

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Fruit anatomy

Fruit anatomy is the plant anatomy of the internal structure of fruit.

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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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Futures contract

In finance, a futures contract (more colloquially, futures) is a standardized forward contract, a legal agreement to buy or sell something at a predetermined price at a specified time in the future.

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A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the display, cultivation and enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature.

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Garnish (food)

A garnish is an item or substance used as a decoration or embellishment accompanying a prepared food dish or drink.

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Gasification is a process that converts organic- or fossil fuel-based carbonaceous materials into carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide.

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Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.

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Güssing (Németújvár, Német-Újvár, Novi Grad) is a town in Burgenland, Austria.

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The GenBank sequence database is an open access, annotated collection of all publicly available nucleotide sequences and their protein translations.

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Genetic testing

Genetic testing, also known as DNA testing, allows the determination of bloodlines and the genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities to inherited diseases.

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Genetically modified crops

Genetically modified crops (GMCs, GM crops, or biotech crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering methods.

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Genetically modified food

Genetically modified foods or GM foods, also known as genetically engineered foods, bioengineered foods, genetically modified organisms, or GMOs, are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering.

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Genetically modified maize

Genetically modified maize (corn) is a genetically modified crop.

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Genetically modified organism

A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism).

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Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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George Beadle

George Wells Beadle (October 22, 1903 – June 9, 1989) was an American scientist in the field of genetics, and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Nobel laureate who with Edward Tatum discovered the role of genes in regulating biochemical events within cells in 1958.

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Germplasm are living genetic resources such as seeds or tissues that are maintained for the purpose of animal and plant breeding, preservation, and other research uses.

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Global Positioning System

The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.

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Gluten (from Latin gluten, "glue") is a composite of storage proteins termed prolamins and glutelins and stored together with starch in the endosperm (which nourishes the embryonic plant during germination) of various cereal (grass) grains.

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Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide and crop desiccant.

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Grain drying

Grain drying is process of drying grain to prevent spoilage during storage.

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The gram (alternative spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) (Latin gramma, from Greek γράμμα, grámma) is a metric system unit of mass.

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Grazing is a method of feeding in which a herbivore feeds on plants such as grasses, or other multicellular organisms such as algae.

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Grits is a porridge made from corn (maize) that is ground into a coarse meal and then boiled.

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Growing degree-day

Growing degree days (GDD), also called growing degree units (GDUs), are a heuristic tool in phenology.

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Growing season

The growing season is the part of the year during which local weather conditions (i.e. rainfall and temperature) permit normal plant growth.

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Guilá Naquitz Cave

Guilá Naquitz Cave in Oaxaca, Mexico is the site of early domestication of several food crops, including teosinte (an ancestor of maize), squash from the genus Cucurbita, bottle gourds (Lagenaria siceraria), and beans.

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A hedge or hedgerow is a line of closely spaced shrubs and sometimes trees, planted and trained to form a barrier or to mark the boundary of an area, such as between neighbouring properties.

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Helicoverpa zea

Helicoverpa zea, commonly known as the corn earworm, is a species (formerly in the genus Heliothis) in the family Noctuidae.

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Helitron (biology)

Helitrons are one of the three groups of eukaryotic class 2 transposable elements (TEs) so far described.

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Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.

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Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, are chemical substances used to control unwanted plants.

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In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has complete or partial reproductive organs and produces gametes normally associated with both male and female sexes.

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Heterochromatin is a tightly packed form of DNA or condensed DNA, which comes in multiple varieties.

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High-fructose corn syrup

High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) (also called glucose-fructose, isoglucose and glucose-fructose syrup) is a sweetener made from corn starch that has been processed by glucose isomerase to convert some of its glucose into fructose.

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Hoe (tool)

A hoe is an ancient and versatile agricultural and horticultural hand tool used to shape soil, remove weeds, clear soil, and harvest root crops.

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Hominy is a food produced from dried maize (corn in the U.S.) kernels that have been treated with an alkali, in a process called nixtamalization.

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Hot Corn

Hot Corn: Life Scenes in New York Illustrated is a collection of short stories by Solon Robinson about the life of the poor in New York City, and was a "runaway bestseller" when first published in the United States in early 1854.

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Hot dog cart

A hot dog cart is a specialized mobile food stand for preparing and selling street food, specifically hot dogs, to passersby.

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Human genome

The human genome is the complete set of nucleic acid sequences for humans, encoded as DNA within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria.

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Hybrid (biology)

In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.

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Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.

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Hydroxamic acid

A hydroxamic acid is a class of organic compounds bearing the functional group RC(O)N(OH)R', with R and R' as organic residues and CO as a carbonyl group.

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Ice cream

Ice cream (derived from earlier iced cream or cream ice) is a sweetened frozen food typically eaten as a snack or dessert.

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Iguala, known officially as Iguala de la Independencia, is a historic city located from the state capital of Chilpancingo, in the Mexican state of Guerrero in southwestern Mexico.

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Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.

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Inbreeding is the production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are closely related genetically.

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Independence Day (United States)

Independence Day, also referred to as the Fourth of July or July Fourth, is a federal holiday in the United States commemorating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776.

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Indiana is a U.S. state located in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America.

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Indigenous peoples of the Americas

The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.

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An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches.

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International Grains Council

The International Grains Council (IGC) is an intergovernmental organization which oversees the Grains Trade Convention and seeks to promote cooperation in the global grain trade.

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International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center

The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (known by its Spanish acronym CIMMYT for Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo) is a non-profit research and training institution dedicated to both the development of improved varieties of wheat and maize with the aim of contributing to food security, and the introduction of improved agricultural practices to smallholder farmers to help boost production, prevent crop disease and improve their livelihoods.

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Introgression, also known as introgressive hybridization, in genetics is the movement of a gene (gene flow) from one species into the gene pool of another by the repeated backcrossing of an interspecific hybrid with one of its parent species.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Jalisco, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Jalisco (Estado Libre y Soberano de Jalisco), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.

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John Doebley

John F. Doebley is an American botanical geneticist whose main area of interest is how genes drive plant development and evolution.

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Larco Museum

The Museo Larco (English: Larco Museum) or Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera is a privately owned museum of pre-Columbian art, located in the Pueblo Libre District of Lima, Peru.

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A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).

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Lima (Quechua:, Aymara) is the capital and the largest city of Peru.

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Limewater is the common name for a diluted solution of calcium hydroxide.

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List of maize dishes

This is a list of maize dishes, in which maize (also known as corn) is used as a primary ingredient.

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List of most valuable crops and livestock products

The following list, derived from the statistics of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) unless otherwise noted, lists the most important agricultural products produced by the countries of the world.

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List of sweetcorn varieties

This is a list of the most commonly cultivated varieties of sweet corn, and the approximate number of days from germination of corn plant to harvest.

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Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.

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Lutein (Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. from Latin luteus meaning "yellow") is a xanthophyll and one of 600 known naturally occurring carotenoids.

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A lye is a metal hydroxide traditionally obtained by leaching ashes (containing largely potassium carbonate or "potash"), or a strong alkali which is highly soluble in water producing caustic basic solutions.

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Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

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Maize dwarf mosaic virus

Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus (MDMV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Potyviridae.

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Maize streak virus

Maize streak virus causes a plant disease, known as maize streak disease (MSD) in its major host.

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Maize weevil

The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais), known in the United States as the greater rice weevil, is a species of beetle in the family Curculionidae.

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Makki di roti

Makki di roti (ਮੱਕੀ ਦੀ ਰੋਟੀ (Gurmukhi),(Shahmukhi), मक्की दी रोटी (Devanagari)) (Urdu: مکئی کی روٹی) is a flat, unleavened Punjabi bread made from corn meal, primarily eaten in Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent.

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Manual labour

Manual labour (in British English, manual labor in American English) or manual work is physical work done by people, most especially in contrast to that done by machines, and to that done by working animals.

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Masa or masa harina is a maize (corn) flour or dough that has been soaked and cooked in an alkaline solution in the nixtamalization process.

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Maya peoples

The Maya peoples are a large group of Indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica.

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Mămăligă (Moldovan Cyrillic: Мэмэлигэ) is a porridge made out of yellow maize flour, traditional in Romania, Moldova, Chechnya, Ossetia and Georgia and some regions in Ukraine near the mountains.

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Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.

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Mexican cuisine

Mexican cuisine began about 9,000 years ago, when agricultural communities such as the Maya formed, domesticating maize, creating the standard process of corn nixtamalization, and establishing their foodways.

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Mexicans (mexicanos) are the people of the United Mexican States, a multiethnic country in North America.

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Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews

Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews (published as MMBR) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Society for Microbiology.

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A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.

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Midwestern United States

The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the American Midwest, Middle West, or simply the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau (also known as "Region 2").

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Mineral (nutrient)

In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.

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Moche culture

The Moche civilization (alternatively, the Mochica culture or the Early, Pre- or Proto-Chimú) flourished in northern Peru with its capital near present-day Moche, Trujillo, Peru from about 100 to 700 AD during the Regional Development Epoch.

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Model organism

A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.

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Monsanto Company was an agrochemical and agricultural biotechnology corporation.

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Mucous membrane

A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.

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Multiple fruit

Multiple fruits, also called collective fruits, are fruiting bodies formed from a cluster of fruiting flowers, the inflorescence.

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Mush (cornmeal)

Mush — cornmeal pudding (or porridge) is usually boiled in water or milk.

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Mussel is the common name used for members of several families of bivalve molluscs, from saltwater and freshwater habitats.

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In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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MYB (gene)

Myb proto-oncogene protein also known as transcriptional activator Myb is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYB gene.

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Mythimna separata

Mythimna separata, the northern armyworm, oriental armyworm or rice ear-cutting caterpillar, is a moth of the Noctuidae family.

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Mythimna unipuncta

Mythimna unipuncta or true armyworm moth is a nocturnal agricultural pest belonging to the family Noctuidae.

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National Science Foundation

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.

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Native Americans in the United States

Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.

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Natural gas

Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.

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Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.

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Nikolai Vavilov

Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov (a) (– January 26, 1943) was a prominent Russian and Soviet agronomist, botanist and geneticist best known for having identified the centres of origin of cultivated plants.

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Nitrogen fixation

Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to living organisms.

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Nixtamalization typically refers to a process for the preparation of maize (corn), or other grain, in which the corn is soaked and cooked in an alkaline solution, usually limewater (but sometimes wood ash lye) washed, and then hulled.

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No-till farming

No-till farming (also called zero tillage or direct drilling) is a way of growing crops or pasture from year to year without disturbing the soil through tillage.

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Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.

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North American Free Trade Agreement

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA; Spanish: Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, TLCAN; French: Accord de libre-échange nord-américain, ALÉNA) is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America.

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Nsima is a dish made from maize flour (white cornmeal) and water and is a staple food in Zambia (nshima/ ubwali) and Malawi (nsima).

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Oaxaca (from Huāxyacac), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca (Estado Libre y Soberano de Oaxaca), is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, make up the 32 federative entities of Mexico.

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Oaxaca Valley

The Central Valleys (Valles Centrales) of Oaxaca, also simply known as the Oaxaca Valley, is a geographic region located within the modern-day state of Oaxaca in southern Mexico.

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Obverse and reverse

Obverse and its opposite, reverse, refer to the two flat faces of coins and some other two-sided objects, including paper money, flags, seals, medals, drawings, old master prints and other works of art, and printed fabrics.

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Octane rating

An octane rating, or octane number, is a standard measure of the performance of an engine or aviation fuel.

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The Olmecs were the earliest known major civilization in Mexico following a progressive development in Soconusco.

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Organic matter

Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter (NOM) refers to the large pool of carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial and aquatic environments.

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Ostrinia furnacalis

Ostrinia furnacalis is a species of moth in the family Crambidae, the grass moths.

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In seed plants, the ovule is the structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells.

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Pamonha is a traditional Brazilian food.

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Pantothenic acid

Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin.

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Pap (food)

Pap, also known as mieliepap (Afrikaans for maize porridge) in South Africa or Sadza in Shona or Isitshwala in Isindebele language in Zimbabwe, or Vhuswa in Tshivenda or bogobe in Northern Sotho, Sesotho and Setswana languages or Nsima Chewa in Malawi, or Nsima in Zambia, Ogi/ Akamu in Nigeria or phaletšhe in Botswana is a traditional porridge/polenta made from mielie-meal (coarsely ground maize) and a staple food of the Bantu peoples of Southern Africa (the Afrikaans word pap is taken from Dutch and simply means "porridge").

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In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.

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The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit Pisum sativum.

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Pellagra is a disease caused by a lack of the vitamin niacin (vitamin B3).

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Pellet stove

A pellet stove is a stove that burns compressed wood or biomass pellets to create a source of heat for residential and sometimes industrial spaces.

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Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.

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Peregrinus maidis

Peregrinus maidis, known as the corn planthopper, is a species of insect in the order Hemiptera and the family Delphacidae.

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Perennial plant

A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives more than two years.

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Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.

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Phlobaphenes (or phlobaphens, CAS No.:71663-19-9) are reddish, alcohol-soluble and water-insoluble phenolic substances.

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Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.

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Photoperiodism is the physiological reaction of organisms to the length of day or night.

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Phytochromes are a class of photoreceptor in plants, bacteria and fungi use to detect light.

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Plant lipid transfer proteins

Plant lipid transfer proteins, also known as plant LTPs or PLTPs, are a group of highly-conserved proteins of about 7-9kDa found in higher plant tissues.

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Plant stem

A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root.

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Planter (farm implement)

A planter is a farm implement, usually towed behind a tractor, that sows (plants) seeds in rows throughout a field.

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Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.

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Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.

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Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.

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Pod corn

Pod corn or wild maize is a variety of maize thought to be the progenitor of corn.

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Polenta is a dish of boiled cornmeal that was historically made from other grains.

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Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells).

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Polymorphism (biology)

Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.

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Polyploid cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes.

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Popcorn, popcorns, or pop-corn, is a variety of corn kernel, which expands and puffs up when heated.

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Porridge (also historically spelled porage, porrige, parritch) is a food commonly eaten as a breakfast cereal dish, made by boiling ground, crushed or chopped starchy plants—typically grain—in water or milk.

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Post-harvest losses (grains)

Grains may be lost in the pre-harvest, harvest, and post-harvest stages.

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The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.

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Pozole (pozolli, pozole), which means "hominy", is a traditional soup or stew from Mexico.

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Pre-Columbian era

The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.

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A purée (or mash) is cooked food, usually vegetables, fruits or legumes, that has been ground, pressed, blended or sieved to the consistency of a creamy paste or liquid.

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Purple corn

Purple corn (maíz morado) or purple maize is another name for Blue corn, a variety of flint maize (Zea mays indurata) originating from Mesoamerica.

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Push–pull agricultural pest management

Push–pull technology is a strategy for controlling agricultural pests by using repellent "push" plants and trap "pull" plants.

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A quesadilla is a tortilla, usually a corn tortilla but also sometimes made with a flour tortilla; particularly in northern Mexico and the United States, which is filled with cheese and then grilled.

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Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa; (or, from Quechua kinwa or kinuwa) is a flowering plant in the amaranth family. It is a herbaceous annual plant grown as a grain crop primarily for its edible seeds. Quinoa is not a grass, but rather a pseudocereal botanically related to spinach and amaranth (Amaranthus spp.). Quinoa provides protein, dietary fiber, B vitamins, and dietary minerals in rich amounts above those of wheat, corn, rice or oats. It is gluten-free. After harvest, the seeds are processed to remove the bitter-tasting outer seed coat. Quinoa originated in the Andean region of northwestern South America, and was domesticated 3,000 to 4,000 years ago for human consumption in the Lake Titicaca basin of Peru and Bolivia, though archaeological evidence shows livestock uses 5,200 to 7,000 years ago.

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The reaper-binder, or binder, is a farm implement that improved upon the simple reaper.

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Rectified spirit

Rectified spirit, also known as neutral spirits, rectified alcohol, or ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin is highly concentrated ethanol which has been purified by means of repeated distillation, a process that is called rectification.

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Reference Daily Intake

The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily intake level of a nutrient that is considered to be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97–98% of healthy individuals in every demographic in the United States.

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Research institute

A research institute or research center is an establishment founded for doing research.

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Rhizobia are bacteria that fix nitrogen (diazotrophs) after becoming established inside root nodules of legumes (Fabaceae).

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Rhopalosiphum maidis

Rhopalosiphum maidis, common names corn leaf aphid and corn aphid, is an insect, and a pest of maize and other crops.

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Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).

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Rochester, Minnesota

Rochester is a city founded in 1854 in the U.S. State of Minnesota and is the county seat of Olmsted County located on the Zumbro River's south fork in Southeast Minnesota.

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Rolling circle replication

Rolling circle replication describes a process of unidirectional nucleic acid replication that can rapidly synthesize multiple copies of circular molecules of DNA or RNA, such as plasmids, the genomes of bacteriophages, and the circular RNA genome of viroids.

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Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

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Root system

In mathematics, a root system is a configuration of vectors in a Euclidean space satisfying certain geometrical properties.

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Rust (fungus)

Rusts are plant diseases caused by pathogenic fungi of the order Pucciniales (previously also known as Uredinales).

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Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop.

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Sadza in Shona (isitshwala in isiNdebele, or pap, vuswa or bogobe in South Africa, or nsima in Chichewa language, or Ugali in East Africa) or phaletšhe in Botswana, is a cooked maize meal that is the staple food in Zimbabwe and other parts of Southern Africa.

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Sagamité is a Native American stew made from hominy or Indian corn and grease (from animal fat).

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A salad is a dish consisting of a mixture of small pieces of food, usually vegetables.

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San Andrés (Mesoamerican site)

San Andrés is an Olmec archaeological site in the present-day Mexican state of Tabasco.

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A sandpit (most Commonwealth countries) or sandbox (US/Canada) is a low, wide container or shallow depression filled with soft (beach) sand in which children can play.

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A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.

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Selection methods in plant breeding based on mode of reproduction

Plant breeders use different methods depending on the mode of reproduction of crops, which include.

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Selective breeding

Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits (characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together.

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Sheaf (agriculture)

A sheaf is a bunch of cereal-crop stems bound together after harvesting (or reaping), traditionally by cutting the stems with a scythe or sickle or, after its 1872 invention, by a mechanical reaper-binder.

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Silage is fermented, high-moisture stored fodder which can be fed to cattle, sheep and other such ruminants (cud-chewing animals) or used as a biofuel feedstock for anaerobic digesters.

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A silo (from the Greek σιρός – siros, "pit for holding grain") is a structure for storing bulk materials.

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A snack is a portion of food, smaller than a regular meal, generally eaten between meals.

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Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.

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Soil conditioner

A soil conditioner is a product which is added to soil to improve the soil’s physical qualities, usually its fertility (ability to provide nutrition for plants) and sometimes its mechanics.

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Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae.

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Southeastern United States

The Southeastern United States (Sureste de Estados Unidos, Sud-Est des États-Unis) is the eastern portion of the Southern United States, and the southern portion of the Eastern United States.

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Southern corn leaf blight

Southern corn leaf blight (SCLB) is a fungal disease of maize caused by the plant pathogen Bipolaris maydis (also known as Cochliobolus heterostrophus in its teleomorph state).

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Southwestern corn borer

The southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella, is a moth belonging to the sub-order Heterocera.

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The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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Stalk borer

The stalk borer (Papaipema nebris) is a moth of the Noctuidae family.

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Staple food

A staple food, or simply a staple, is a food that is eaten routinely and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a standard diet for a given people, supplying a large fraction of energy needs and generally forming a significant proportion of the intake of other nutrients as well.

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Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.

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StarLink corn recall

The StarLink corn recalls occurred in the autumn of 2000, when over 300 food products were found to contain a genetically modified corn that had not been approved for human consumption.

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Stewart's wilt

Stewart's wilt is a serious bacterial disease of corn caused by the bacterium Pantoea stewartii.

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Stigma (botany)

The stigma (plural: stigmata) is the receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower.

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A stook, also referred to as a shock or stack, is an arrangement of sheaves of cut grain-stalks placed so as to keep the grain-heads off the ground while still in the field and prior to collection for threshing.

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Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.

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Sweet corn

Sweet corn (Zea mays convar. saccharata var. rugosa; also called sugar corn and pole corn) is a cereal with a high sugar content.

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The Taíno people are one of the indigenous peoples of the Caribbean.

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Taíno language

Taíno is an extinct and poorly-attested Arawakan language that was spoken by the Taíno people of the Caribbean.

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A taco is a traditional Mexican dish consisting of a corn or wheat tortilla folded or rolled around a filling.

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A tamale (tamal, tamalli) is a traditional Mesoamerican dish made of masa or dough (starchy, and usually corn-based), which is steamed in a corn husk or banana leaf.

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Taxus is a small genus of coniferous trees or shrubs in the yew family Taxaceae.

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Tehuacán is the second largest city in the Mexican state of Puebla, nestled in the Southeast Valley of Tehuacán, bordering the states of Oaxaca and Veracruz.

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Tehuacán Valley matorral

The Tehuacán Valley matorral is a xeric shrubland ecoregion, of the deserts and xeric shrublands biome, located in eastern Central Mexico.

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Temperate climate

In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.

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A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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Thiamine, also known as thiamin or vitamin B1, is a vitamin found in food, and manufactured as a dietary supplement and medication.

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Three Sisters (agriculture)

The Three Sisters are the three main agricultural crops of various Native American groups in North America: winter squash, maize (corn), and climbing beans (typically tepary beans or common beans).

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Ticker symbol

A ticker symbol or stock symbol is an abbreviation used to uniquely identify publicly traded shares of a particular stock on a particular stock market.

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Tobacco pipe

A tobacco pipe, often called simply a pipe, is a device specifically made to smoke tobacco.

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The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.

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A tortilla) is a type of thin, unleavened flatbread, typically made from corn or wheat. In Spanish, "tortilla" means "small torta", or "small cake". It was first made by the indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica prior to European contact. The Aztecs and other Nahuatl speakers call tortillas tlaxcalli.Nahuatl Dictionary. (1997). Wired Humanities Project. University of Oregon. Retrieved August 29, 2012, from.

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Tostada (tortilla)

Tostada is a Spanish word meaning "toasted".

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Transposable element

A transposable element (TE or transposon) is a DNA sequence that can change its position within a genome, sometimes creating or reversing mutations and altering the cell's genetic identity and genome size.

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Transubstantiation (Latin: transsubstantiatio; Greek: μετουσίωσις metousiosis) is, according to the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church, the change of substance or essence by which the bread and wine offered in the sacrifice of the sacrament of the Eucharist during the Mass, become, in reality, the body and blood of Jesus Christ.

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Tripsacum is a genus of plants in the grass family native to the Western Hemisphere.

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Tripsacum dactyloides

Tripsacum dactyloides, commonly called eastern gamagrass, is a warm-season, sod-forming bunch grass.

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Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Ugali (also sometimes called kimnyet, sima, sembe, obokima, kaunga, dona, obusuma, ngima, kwon, arega or posho) is a dish made of maize flour (cornmeal), millet flour, or sorghum flour (sometimes mixed with cassava flour) cooked in boiling liquid (water or milk) to a stiff or firm dough-like consistency (when it is cooked as porridge, it is called uji) and served with salad.

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Unit cost

The unit cost is the cost incurred by a company to produce, store and sell one unit of a particular product.

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United States Capitol

The United States Capitol, often called the Capitol Building, is the home of the United States Congress, and the seat of the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government.

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United States Department of Agriculture

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.

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United States Department of Energy

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.

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United States Forest Service

The United States Forest Service (USFS) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass.

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University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign

The University of Illinois Urbana–Champaign (also known as U of I, Illinois, or colloquially as the University of Illinois or UIUC) is a public research university in the U.S. state of Illinois and the flagship institution of the University of Illinois System.

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Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food as part of a meal.

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Vintage Books

Vintage Books is a publishing imprint established in 1954 by Alfred A. Knopf.

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Water tower

A water tower is an elevated structure supporting a water tank constructed at a height sufficient to pressurize a water supply system for the distribution of potable water, and to provide emergency storage for fire protection.

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Waxy corn

Waxy corn (maize) was found in China in 1909.

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A weed is a plant considered undesirable in a particular situation, "a plant in the wrong place".

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Western corn rootworm

The Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, is one of the most devastating corn rootworm species in North America, especially in the midwestern corn-growing areas such as Iowa.

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Wet-milling is a process in which feed material is steeped in water, with or without sulfur dioxide, to soften the seed kernel in order to help separate the kernel’s various components.

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Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.

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Winter wheat

Winter wheat (usually Triticum aestivum) are strains of wheat that are planted in the autumn to germinate and develop into young plants that remain in the vegetative phase during the winter and resume growth in early spring.

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Wood fuel

Wood fuel (or fuelwood) is a fuel, such as firewood, charcoal, chips, sheets, pellets, and sawdust.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Zea (plant)

Zea is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family.

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Zea diploperennis

Zea diploperennis, the diploperennial teosinte, is a species of grass (family: Poaceae) in the genus Zea and a teosinte (wild relative of maize or corn).

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Zeaxanthin is one of the most common carotenoid alcohols found in nature.

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Zein is a class of prolamine protein found in maize (corn).

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1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus

1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus is a 2005 non-fiction book by American author and science writer Charles C. Mann about the pre-Columbian Americas.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maize

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