278 relations: Abraham Lincoln, Adjustment disorder, Adolf Meyer (psychiatrist), Adrenal gland, Alcohol abuse, Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor, Alzheimer's disease, American Family Physician, American Psychiatric Association, Amitriptyline, Amphetamine, Anhedonia, Anorexia nervosa, Anticonvulsant, Antidepressant, Antimigraine drug, Antipsychotic, Anxiety, Archetypal psychology, Aristotle, Asthma, At Eternity's Gate, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Atypical depression, Basal ganglia, Beck Depression Inventory, Beta blocker, Biology of depression, Biopsychosocial model, Bipolar disorder, Bipolar II disorder, Birth control, Borderline personality disorder, Botulinum toxin, Boxed warning, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, Bupropion, Calcium, Cardiovascular disease, Catatonia, Cathexis, Child abuse, China, Chronic condition, Chronic fatigue syndrome, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Churn rate, Circadian rhythm, Cochrane (organisation), Cognitive behavioral therapy, ..., Comorbidity, Complete blood count, Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1, Cortisol awakening response, COX-2 inhibitor, Creativity, CT scan, Cure, Cytokine, Delusion, Dementia, Depression (economics), Depression (mood), Depression (physiology), Depressive Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, Descriptive psychiatry, Developed country, Developing country, Dextroamphetamine, Diabetes mellitus, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Diathesis–stress model, Differential diagnosis, Disability, Disability-adjusted life year, Disease burden, Docosahexaenoic acid, Dopamine receptor, Dopamine receptor D1, Duloxetine, Dysfunctional family, Dysthymia, Edda Neele, Eicosapentaenoic acid, Electroconvulsive therapy, Emil Kraepelin, Emotional bias, Epileptic seizure, Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Exercise, Facial feedback hypothesis, Family history (medicine), Feighner Criteria, FKBP5, Fluoxetine, Folate, Food and Drug Administration, Frontal lobe, Gene, General anaesthesia, General practitioner, Generalized anxiety disorder, Genetics, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, Gordon Duff, Gordon Parker (psychiatrist), Grief, Hallucination, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Henry James, Hippocampus, Hippocrates, HIV, HIV/AIDS, Homovanillic acid, Hormone therapy, Hypersomnia, Hypogonadism, Hypomania, Hyponatremia, Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, Hypothyroidism, ICD-10, Id, ego and super-ego, Informed consent, Insomnia, Interferon, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Internet, Interpersonal psychotherapy, Ipsos MORI, Isoniazid, Isotretinoin, James Hillman, John B. Watson, John Stuart Mill, Jules Angst, Karl Kleist, Karl Leonhard, Lateral ventricles, Leonard Cohen, Libido, Life expectancy, Light therapy, List of antidepressants, List of cognitive–behavioral therapies, Lithium (medication), Locus (genetics), Locus coeruleus, Louis Delasiauve, Low back pain, Magnetic resonance imaging, Major depressive episode, Mania, Mary Shelley, Median, Medication, Melancholic depression, Mental disorder, Mental status examination, Metabolic disorder, Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, Minor depressive disorder, Mirtazapine, Moclobemide, Modafinil, Monoamine neurotransmitter, Monoamine oxidase, Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Mood disorder, Mortality rate, Multiple sclerosis, Narcissism, National Comorbidity Survey, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, National Institute of Mental Health, Nature versus nurture, Neuroimaging, Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, Neuropsychological assessment, Neurosis, Neurotrophic factors, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Object (philosophy), Omega-3 fatty acid, Orbitofrontal cortex, Pain, Parkinson's disease, PBS, Personality disorder, Physical examination, Placebo, Postpartum depression, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Pregnancy, Primary care, Primary care physician, Psychiatric history, Psychiatrist, Psychiatry, Psychoanalysis, Psychodynamic psychotherapy, Psychologist, Psychomotor agitation, Psychomotor retardation, Psychosis, Psychotherapy, Psychotic depression, Randomized controlled trial, Raphe nuclei, Rating scale, Rational emotive behavior therapy, Recurrent brief depression, Reification (fallacy), Reiki, Reserpine, Resurrection, Richard Baker (chronicler), Royal College of General Practitioners, Royal College of Psychiatrists, Rumination (psychology), Sadness, Samuel Johnson, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Schema (psychology), Schizophrenia, Screening (medicine), Seasonal affective disorder, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Self-esteem, Self-harm, Serotonin, Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Sickness behavior, Sigmund Freud, Smoking cessation, Social constructionism, Social rejection, Social stigma, Somatization, Soul, Stimulant, Straight gyrus, Stress (biology), Striatum, Stroke, Subcortical ischemic depression, Subject (philosophy), Substance abuse, Suicide, Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised, Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment of Social Services, Systemic disease, Temporal lobe, Tennessee Williams, Testosterone, Thalamus, The Guardian Life Insurance Company of America, Thomas Szasz, Thyroid hormones, Thyroid-stimulating hormone, Toxin, Transcranial magnetic stimulation, Treatment-resistant depression, Tricyclic antidepressant, Tryptophan, Tyrosine hydroxylase, Unconscious mind, United States Preventive Services Task Force, Venlafaxine, Vincent van Gogh, Vitamin D, Wake therapy, Weight gain, William James, Winston Churchill, World Health Organization, 5-HTTLPR. 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Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
An adjustment disorder (AD)—sometimes called exogenous, reactive, or situational depression—occurs when an individual is unable to adjust to or cope with a particular stress or a major life event.
Adolf Meyer (September 13, 1866 – March 17, 1950) was a psychiatrist who rose to prominence as the first psychiatrist-in-chief of the Johns Hopkins Hospital (1910-1941).
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
Alcohol abuse is a previous psychiatric diagnosis in which there is recurring harmful use of alcohol despite its negative consequences.
The alpha-2 (α2) adrenergic receptor (or adrenoceptor) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) associated with the Gi heterotrimeric G-protein.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
American Family Physician is a biweekly peer-reviewed medical journal published by the American Academy of Family Physicians.
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the largest psychiatric organization in the world.
Amitriptyline, sold under the brand name Elavil among others, is a medicine primarily used to treat a number of mental illnesses.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
Anhedonia refers to a diverse array of deficits in hedonic function, including reduced motivation or ability to experience pleasure.
Anorexia nervosa, often referred to simply as anorexia, is an eating disorder characterized by low weight, fear of gaining weight, and a strong desire to be thin, resulting in food restriction.
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
An antimigraine drug is a medication intended to reduce the effects or intensity of migraine headache.
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
Archetypal psychology was initiated as a distinct movement in the early 1970s by James Hillman, a psychologist who trained in analytical psychology and became the first Director of the Jung Institute in Zurich.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Sorrowing Old Man (At Eternity's Gate) is an oil painting by Vincent van Gogh that he made in 1890 in Saint-Rémy de Provence based on an early lithograph.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
Atypical depression, or depression with atypical features as it has been known in the DSM IV, is depression that shares many of the typical symptoms of the psychiatric syndromes major depression or dysthymia but is characterized by improved mood in response to positive events.
The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) is a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain.
The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, BDI-1A, BDI-II), created by Aaron T. Beck, is a 21-question multiple-choice self-report inventory, one of the most widely used psychometric tests for measuring the severity of depression.
Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are particularly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).
Scientific studies have found that numerous brain areas show altered activity in patients suffering from depression, and this has encouraged advocates of various theories that seek to identify a biochemical origin of the disease, as opposed to theories that emphasize psychological or situational causes.
The biopsychosocial model is a broad view that attributes disease outcome to the intricate, variable interaction of biological factors (genetic, biochemical, etc), psychological factors (mood, personality, behavior, etc.), and social factors (cultural, familial, socioeconomic, medical, etc.).Santrock, J. W. (2007).
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
Bipolar II disorder (BP-II; pronounced "type two bipolar" or "bipolar type two" disorder) is a bipolar spectrum disorder (see also Bipolar disorder) characterized by at least one episode of hypomania and at least one episode of major depression.
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD), also known as emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD), is a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by unstable relationships with other people, unstable sense of self, and unstable emotions.
Botulinum toxin (BTX) or Botox is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species.
In the United States, a boxed warning (sometimes "black box warning", colloquially) is a type of warning that appears on the package insert for certain prescription drugs, so called because the U.S. Food and Drug Administration specifies that it is formatted with a 'box' or border around the text.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.
Bupropion, sold under the brand names Wellbutrin and Zyban among others, is a medication primarily used as an antidepressant and smoking cessation aid.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Catatonia is a state of psycho-motor immobility and behavioral abnormality manifested by stupor.
In psychoanalysis, cathexis is defined as the process of investment of mental or emotional energy in a person, object, or idea.
Child abuse or child maltreatment is physical, sexual, or psychological maltreatment or neglect of a child or children, especially by a parent or other caregiver.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), also referred to as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), is a medical condition characterized by long-term fatigue and other symptoms that limit a person's ability to carry out ordinary daily activities.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.
Churn rate (sometimes called attrition rate), in its broadest sense, is a measure of the number of individuals or items moving out of a collective group over a specific period.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
Cochrane is a non-profit, non-governmental organization formed to organize medical research findings so as to facilitate evidence-based choices about health interventions faced by health professionals, patients, and policy makers.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice aimed at improving mental health.
In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional diseases or disorders co-occurring with (that is, concomitant or concurrent with) a primary disease or disorder; in the countable sense of the term, a comorbidity (plural comorbidities) is each additional disorder or disease.
A complete blood count (CBC), also known as a complete blood cell count, full blood count (FBC), or full blood exam (FBE), is a blood panel requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood, such as the cell count for each cell type and the concentrations of various proteins and minerals.
Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) is a protein, also known as CRF1, with the latter (CRF1) now being the IUPHAR-recommended name.
The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is an increase of about 50% in cortisol levels occurring 20–30 minutes after awakening in the morning in some people.
Selective COX-2 inhibitors are a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that directly targets cyclooxygenase-2, COX-2, an enzyme responsible for inflammation and pain.
Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and somehow valuable is formed.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
A cure is a substance or procedure that ends a medical condition, such as a medication, a surgical operation, a change in lifestyle or even a philosophical mindset that helps end a person's sufferings; or the state of being healed, or cured.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
A delusion is a mistaken belief that is held with strong conviction even in the presence of superior evidence to the contrary.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
In economics, a depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
Depression in physiology and medicine refers to a lowering, in particular a reduction in a specific biological variable or the function of an organ.
Depressive Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (DD-NOS) is designated by the code 311 in the DSM-IV for depressive disorders that are impairing but do not fit any of the officially specified diagnoses.
Descriptive psychiatry is based on the study of observable symptoms and behavioral phenomena rather than underlying psychodynamic processes.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Dextroamphetamine is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant and amphetamine enantiomer that is prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.
The diathesis–stress model is a psychological theory that attempts to explain a disorder as the result of an interaction between a predispositional vulnerability and a stress caused by life experiences.
In medicine, a differential diagnosis is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features.
A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.
The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) is a measure of overall disease burden, expressed as the number of years lost due to ill-health, disability or early death.
Disease burden is the impact of a health problem as measured by financial cost, mortality, morbidity, or other indicators.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid that is a primary structural component of the human brain, cerebral cortex, skin, and retina.
Dopamine receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are prominent in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS).
Dopamine receptor D1, also known as DRD1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD1 gene.
Duloxetine, sold under the brand name Cymbalta among others, is a medication mostly used for major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, fibromyalgia and neuropathic pain.
A dysfunctional family is a family in which conflict, misbehavior, and often child neglect or abuse on the part of individual parents occur continuously and regularly, leading other members to accommodate such actions.
Dysthymia, now known as persistent depressive disorder (PDD), is a mood disorder consisting of the same cognitive and physical problems as depression, with less severe but longer-lasting symptoms.
Edda Neele (born 15 December 1910 in Elberfeld, Wuppertal, died 16 February 2005) was a German psychiatrist, and a student and collaborator of Karl Kleist, who worked at the Goethe University Frankfurt Neuropsychiatric Clinic.
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; also icosapentaenoic acid) is an omega-3 fatty acid.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), formerly known as electroshock therapy, and often referred to as shock treatment, is a psychiatric treatment in which seizures are electrically induced in patients to provide relief from mental disorders.
Emil Kraepelin (15 February 1856 – 7 October 1926) was a German psychiatrist.
An emotional bias is a distortion in cognition and decision making due to emotional factors.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR or sed rate) is the rate at which red blood cells sediment in a period of one hour.
Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
The facial feedback hypothesis states that facial movement can influence emotional experience.
In medicine, a family history (FH or FHx) consists of information about disorders from which the direct blood relatives of the patient have suffered.
The Feighner Criteria is the informal name given to influential psychiatric diagnostic criteria developed at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri from the late 1950s to the early 1970s.
FK506 binding protein 5, also known as FKBP5, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the FKBP5 gene.
Fluoxetine, also known by trade names Prozac and Sarafem, among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
The frontal lobe, located at the front of the brain, is the largest of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the mammalian brain.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
General anaesthesia or general anesthesia (see spelling differences) is a medically induced coma with loss of protective reflexes, resulting from the administration of one or more general anaesthetic agents.
In the medical profession, a general practitioner (GP) is a medical doctor who treats acute and chronic illnesses and provides preventive care and health education to patients.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry, that is, apprehensive expectation about events or activities.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
A gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist) is a type of medication which affects gonadotropins and sex hormones.
Sir Gordon William Duff, (born 27 December 1947) is a British medical scientist and academic.
Gordon Barraclough Parker AO is Scientia Professor of Psychiatry at the University of New South Wales (UNSW).
Grief is a multifaceted response to loss, particularly to the loss of someone or something that has died, to which a bond or affection was formed.
A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.
The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), also called the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), abbreviated HAM-D, is a multiple item questionnaire used to provide an indication of depression, and as a guide to evaluate recovery.
Henry James, OM (–) was an American author regarded as a key transitional figure between literary realism and literary modernism, and is considered by many to be among the greatest novelists in the English language.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Homovanillic acid (HVA) is a major catecholamine metabolite that is produced by a consecutive action of monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyltransferase on dopamine.
Hormone therapy or hormonal therapy is the use of hormones in medical treatment.
Hypersomnia, or hypersomnolence, is a neurological disorder of excessive time spent sleeping or excessive sleepiness.
Hypogonadism means diminished functional activity of the gonads—the testes or the ovaries —that may result in diminished sex hormone biosynthesis.
Hypomania (literally "under mania" or "less than mania") is a mood state characterized by persistent disinhibition and elevation (euphoria).
Hyponatremia is a low sodium level in the blood.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis or HTPA axis) is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three components: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys).
Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.
ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO).
The id, ego, and super-ego are three distinct, yet interacting agents in the psychic apparatus defined in Sigmund Freud's structural model of the psyche.
Informed consent is a process for getting permission before conducting a healthcare intervention on a person, or for disclosing personal information.
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells.
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes." Its full official name is International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a brief, attachment-focused psychotherapy that centers on resolving interpersonal problems and symptomatic recovery.
Ipsos MORI is a market research organisation in the United Kingdom.
Isoniazid, also known as isonicotinylhydrazide (INH), is an antibiotic used for the treatment of tuberculosis.
Isotretinoin, also known as 13-cis-retinoic acid (and colloquially referred to by its former brand name Accutane or Roaccutane), is a medication primarily used to treat severe acne.
James Hillman (April 12, 1926 – October 27, 2011) was an American psychologist.
John Broadus Watson (January 9, 1878 – September 25, 1958) was an American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism.
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
Jules Angst (born 1926) is Emeritus Professor of Psychiatry at Zurich University in Zurich, Switzerland, and Honorary Doctor of Heidelberg University in Heidelberg, Germany.
Karl Kleist (born 31 January 1879 in Mulhouse, Alsace, died 26 December 1960) was a German neurologist and psychiatrist who made notable advances in descriptive psychopathology and neuropsychology.
Karl Leonhard (21 March 1904 – 23 April 1988) was a German psychiatrist who was a student and collaborator of Karl Kleist, who himself stood in the tradition of Carl Wernicke.
The lateral ventricles are the two largest cavities of the ventricular system of the human brain and contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
Leonard Norman Cohen (September 21, 1934 – November 7, 2016) was a Canadian singer-songwriter, poet and novelist.
Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
Light therapy—or phototherapy, classically referred to as heliotherapy—consists of exposure to daylight or to specific wavelengths of light using polychromatic polarised light, lasers, light-emitting diodes, fluorescent lamps, dichroic lamps or very bright, full-spectrum light.
This is a complete list of clinically approved prescription antidepressants throughout the world, as well as clinically approved prescription drugs used to augment antidepressants, by pharmacological and/or structural classification.
Cognitive behavioral therapy is an umbrella term that encompasses many therapeutical approaches, techniques and systems.
Lithium compounds, also known as lithium salts, are primarily used as a psychiatric medication.
A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).
The locus coeruleus (\-si-ˈrü-lē-əs\, also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus) is a nucleus in the pons of the brainstem involved with physiological responses to stress and panic.
Louis Delasiauve Louis Jean Francois Delasiauve (October 14, 1804, Garennes-sur-Eure – June 5, 1893, Paris) was a French psychiatrist.
Low back pain (LBP) is a common disorder involving the muscles, nerves, and bones of the back.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
A major depressive episode (MDE) is a period characterized by the symptoms of major depressive disorder.
Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety.
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (née Godwin; 30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English novelist, short story writer, dramatist, essayist, biographer, and travel writer, best known for her Gothic novel ''Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus'' (1818).
The median is the value separating the higher half of a data sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Melancholic depression, or depression with melancholic features, is a DSM-IV subtype of clinical depression requiring at least one of the following symptoms.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
The mental status examination or mental state examination (MSE) is an important part of the clinical assessment process in psychiatric practice.
A metabolic disorder can happen when abnormal chemical reactions in the body alter the normal metabolic process.
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is an approach to psychotherapy that was originally created as a relapse-prevention treatment for depression.
Minor depressive disorder, also known as minor depression, is a mood disorder that does not meet the full criteria for major depressive disorder but at least two depressive symptoms are present for two weeks.
Mirtazapine, sold under the brand name Remeron among others, is an atypical antidepressant which is used primarily in the treatment of depression.
Moclobemide (sold as Amira, Aurorix, Clobemix, Depnil and Manerix) is a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) drug primarily used to treat depression and social anxiety. It is not approved for use in the United States, but is approved in other Western countries such as the UK and Australia (TGA approved in December 2000). It is produced by affiliates of the Hoffmann–La Roche pharmaceutical company. Initially, Aurorix was also marketed by Roche in South Africa, but was withdrawn after its patent rights expired and Cipla Medpro's Depnil and Pharma Dynamic's Clorix became available at half the cost. No significant rise in blood pressure occurs when moclobemide is combined with amines such as tyramine-containing foods or pressor amine drugs, unlike with the older nonselective and irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), which cause a severe rise in blood pressure with such combination. Due to the lack of anticholinergic, cardiovascular, cognitive and psychomotor impairments moclobemide is advantageous in the elderly as well as those with cardiovascular disease.
Modafinil, sold under the brand name Provigil among others, is a medication to treat sleepiness due to narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In OSA continuous positive airway pressure is the preferred treatment. While it has seen off-label use as a purported cognitive enhancer, evidence for any benefit is lacking. It is taken by mouth. Common side effects include headache, anxiety, trouble sleeping, and nausea. Serious side effects may include allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, abuse, or hallucinations. It is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe. The amount of medication used may need to be adjusted in those with kidney or liver problems. It is not recommended in those with an arrhythmia, significant hypertension, or left ventricular hypertrophy. How it works is not entirely clear. One possibility is that it may affect the areas of the brain involved with the sleep cycle. Modafinil was approved for medical use in the United States in 1998. In the United States it is classified as a schedule IV controlled substance due to concerns about addiction. In the United Kingdom it is a prescription only medication. It is avaliable as a generic medication. In the United Kingdom it costs the NHS about £105.21 a month as of 2018. In the United States the wholesale cost per month is about 34.20 USD as of 2018.
Monoamine neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain (such as -CH2-CH2-). All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzymes.
L-Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B).
Mood disorder, also known as mood (affective) disorders, is a group of conditions where a disturbance in the person's mood is the main underlying feature.
Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
Narcissism is the pursuit of gratification from vanity or egotistic admiration of one's own attributes.
The National Comorbidity Survey: Baseline (NCS-1) was the first large-scale field survey of mental health in the United States.
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom, which publishes guidelines in four areas.
The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is one of 27 institutes and centers that make up the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
The nature versus nurture debate involves whether human behaviour is determined by the environment, either prenatal or during a person's life, or by a person's genes.
Neuroimaging or brain imaging is the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function/pharmacology of the nervous system.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening reaction that occasionally occurs in response to neuroleptic or antipsychotic medication.
Neuropsychological assessment was traditionally carried out to assess the extent of impairment to a particular skill and to attempt to determine the area of the brain which may have been damaged following brain injury or neurological illness.
Neurosis is a class of functional mental disorders involving chronic distress but neither delusions nor hallucinations.
Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are a family of biomolecules – nearly all of which are peptides or small proteins – that support the growth, survival, and differentiation of both developing and mature neurons.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.
An object is a technical term in modern philosophy often used in contrast to the term subject.
Omega−3 fatty acids, also called ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a prefrontal cortex region in the frontal lobes in the brain which is involved in the cognitive processing of decision-making.
Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
Personality disorders (PD) are a class of mental disorders characterized by enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition, and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating from those accepted by the individual's culture.
A physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination (more popularly known as a check-up) is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease.
A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.
Postpartum depression (PPD), also called postnatal depression, is a type of mood disorder associated with childbirth, which can affect both sexes.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Primary care is the day-to-day healthcare given by a health care provider.
A primary care physician is a physician who provides both the first contact for a person with an undiagnosed health concern as well as continuing care of varied medical conditions, not limited by cause, organ system, or diagnosis.
A psychiatric history is the result of a medical process where a clinician working in the field of mental health (usually a psychiatrist) systematically records the content of an interview with a patient.
A psychiatrist is a physician who specializes in psychiatry, the branch of medicine devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, study, and treatment of mental disorders.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.
Psychodynamic psychotherapy is a form of depth psychology, the primary focus of which is to reveal the unconscious content of a client's psyche in an effort to alleviate psychic tension.
A psychologist studies normal and abnormal mental states from cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by observing, interpreting, and recording how individuals relate to one another and to their environments.
Psychomotor agitation is a set of signs and symptoms that stem from mental tension and anxiety.
Psychomotor retardation (also known as "psychomotor impairment" or "motormental retardation" or "psychomotor slowing") involves a slowing-down of thought and a reduction of physical movements in an individual.
Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.
Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.
Psychotic depression, also known as depressive psychosis, is a major depressive episode that is accompanied by psychotic symptoms.
A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial; RCT) is a type of scientific (often medical) experiment which aims to reduce bias when testing a new treatment.
The raphe nuclei (ῥαφή "seam"Liddell, H.G. & Scott, R. (1940). A Greek-English Lexicon. revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones. with the assistance of. Roderick McKenzie. Oxford: Clarendon Press.) are a moderate-size cluster of nuclei found in the brain stem.
A rating scale is a set of categories designed to elicit information about a quantitative or a qualitative attribute.
Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), previously called rational therapy and rational emotive therapy, is an active-directive, philosophically and empirically based psychotherapy, the aim of which is to resolve emotional and behavioral problems and disturbances and to help people to lead happier and more fulfilling lives.
Recurrent brief depression (RBD) defines a mental disorder characterized by intermittent depressive episodes, not related to menstrual cycles in women, occurring between approximately 6-12 times per year, over at least one year or more fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for major depressive episodes (DSM-IV and ICD-10) except for duration which in RBD is less than 14 days, typically 2–4 days.
Reification (also known as concretism, hypostatization, or the fallacy of misplaced concreteness) is a fallacy of ambiguity, when an abstraction (abstract belief or hypothetical construct) is treated as if it were a concrete real event or physical entity.
() is a form of alternative medicine developed in 1922 by Mikao Usui.
Reserpine (also known by trade names Raudixin, Serpalan, Serpasil) is an indole alkaloid, Major Types Of Chemical Compounds In Plants & Animals Part II: Phenolic Compounds, Glycosides & Alkaloids. Wayne's Word: An On-Line Textbook of Natural History.
Resurrection is the concept of coming back to life after death.
Sir Richard Baker (c. 1568 – 18 February 1645) was a politician, historian and religious writer.
The Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) is the professional body for general (medical) practitioners (GPs/Family Physicians/Primary Care Physicians) in the United Kingdom.
The Royal College of Psychiatrists is the main professional organisation of psychiatrists in the United Kingdom, and is responsible for representing psychiatrists, for psychiatric research and for providing public information about mental health problems.
Rumination is the focused attention on the symptoms of one's distress, and on its possible causes and consequences, as opposed to its solutions.
Sadness is an emotional pain associated with, or characterized by, feelings of disadvantage, loss, despair, grief, helplessness, disappointment and sorrow.
Samuel Johnson LL.D. (18 September 1709 – 13 December 1784), often referred to as Dr.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge (21 October 177225 July 1834) was an English poet, literary critic, philosopher and theologian who, with his friend William Wordsworth, was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England and a member of the Lake Poets.
In psychology and cognitive science, a schema (plural schemata or schemas) describes a pattern of thought or behavior that organizes categories of information and the relationships among them.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
Screening, in medicine, is a strategy used in a population to identify the possible presence of an as-yet-undiagnosed disease in individuals without signs or symptoms.
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a mood disorder subset in which people who have normal mental health throughout most of the year exhibit depressive symptoms at the same time each year, most commonly in the winter.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
Self-esteem reflects an individual's overall subjective emotional evaluation of his or her own worth.
Self-harm, also known as self-injury, is defined as the intentional, direct injuring of body tissue, done without suicidal intentions.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs that treat major depressive disorder (MDD) and can also treat anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), chronic neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), and menopausal symptoms.
Ancher, Michael, "The Sick Girl", 1882, Statens Museum for Kunst. Sickness behavior is a coordinated set of adaptive behavioral changes that develop in ill individuals during the course of an infection.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
Smoking cessation (also known as quitting smoking or simply quitting) is the process of discontinuing tobacco smoking.
Social constructionism or the social construction of reality (also social concept) is a theory of knowledge in sociology and communication theory that examines the development of jointly constructed understandings of the world that form the basis for shared assumptions about reality.
Social rejection occurs when an individual is deliberately excluded from a social relationship or social interaction.
Social stigma is disapproval of (or discontent with) a person based on socially characteristic grounds that are perceived.
Somatization is a tendency to experience and communicate psychological distress in the form of somatic symptoms and to seek medical help for them.
In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
The portion of the inferior frontal lobe immediately adjacent to the longitudinal fissure (and medial to the medial orbital gyrus and olfactory tract) is named the straight gyrus,(or gyrus rectus) and is continuous with the superior frontal gyrus on the medial surface.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
The striatum, or corpus striatum (also called the neostriatum and the striate nucleus) is a nucleus (a cluster of neurons) in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Subcortical ischemic depression, also known as vascular depression, is a medical condition most commonly seen in older people with major depressive disorder.
A subject is a being who has a unique consciousness and/or unique personal experiences, or an entity that has a relationship with another entity that exists outside itself (called an "object").
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
The Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) is a psychological self-report questionnaire designed to identify risk factors for suicide in children and adolescents between ages 13 and 18.
The Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment of Social Services (SBU – Statens beredning för medicinsk och social utvärdering in Swedish) previously the Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment is an independent Swedish governmental agency tasked with assessing and evaluating methods in use in healthcare och social services.
A systemic disease is one that affects a number of organs and tissues, or affects the body as a whole.
The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.
Thomas Lanier "Tennessee" Williams III (March 26, 1911 – February 25, 1983) was an American playwright.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.
The Guardian Life Insurance Company of America is one of the largest mutual life insurance companies in the United States.
Thomas Stephen Szasz (Szász Tamás István; 15 April 1920 – 8 September 2012) was a Hungarian-American academic, psychiatrist and psychoanalyst.
Thyroid hormones are two hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, namely triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as thyrotropin, thyrotropic hormone, TSH, or hTSH for human TSH) is a pituitary hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine (T4), and then triiodothyronine (T3) which stimulates the metabolism of almost every tissue in the body.
A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a method in which a changing magnetic field is used to cause electric current to flow in a small region of the brain via electromagnetic induction.
Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) or treatment-refractory depression is a term used in clinical psychiatry to describe cases of major depressive disorder (MDD) that do not respond adequately to appropriate courses of at least two antidepressants.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.
Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Tyrosine hydroxylase or tyrosine 3-monooxygenase is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the conversion of the amino acid L-tyrosine to L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA).
The unconscious mind (or the unconscious) consists of the processes in the mind which occur automatically and are not available to introspection, and include thought processes, memories, interests, and motivations.
The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) is "an independent panel of experts in primary care and prevention that systematically reviews the evidence of effectiveness and develops recommendations for clinical preventive services".
Venlafaxine, sold under the brand name Effexor among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) class.
Vincent Willem van Gogh (30 March 185329 July 1890) was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who is among the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
Wake therapy is a form of sleep deprivation used as a treatment for depression.
Weight gain is an increase in body weight.
William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
5-HTTLPR (serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region) is a degenerate repeat polymorphic region in SLC6A4, the gene that codes for the serotonin transporter.
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