175 relations: Adaptive immune system, Allele, Allorecognition, Ankylosing spondylitis, Antibody, Antigen, Antigen presentation, Antigen processing, Antigen-presenting cell, Apoptosis, Assortative mating, Asthma, Autoimmune disease, B cell, B-cell receptor, Bacteria, Balancing selection, Baruj Benacerraf, Base pair, Beta-2 microglobulin, Bird, C. C. Little, Cancer, Carbohydrate, Cathepsin, CD4, CD8, Cell (biology), Cell nucleus, Cell-mediated immunity, Cheetah, Chromosome 6, Chronic condition, Claus Wedekind, Complement component 2, Complement component 4, Complement factor B, Complement system, Conformational epitope, Cytokine, Cytosol, Cytotoxic T cell, Dendritic cell, Devil facial tumour disease, Directional selection, Dominance (genetics), Endocytosis, Endogamy, Endoplasmic reticulum, Endosome, ..., Endothelium, Epitope, Ester, Eurasian beaver, Eutheria, Evolution, Evolutionary biology, Fish, Frequency-dependent selection, Gene duplication, Gene pool, Genetic marker, Genetic recombination, Genotype, Genus, George Davis Snell, Giant panda, Gray short-tailed opossum, Haplotype, Heat shock protein, Heterozygote advantage, Histocompatibility, HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-B27, HLA-C, HLA-DM, HLA-DP, HLA-DPB1, HLA-DQ, HLA-DQB1, HLA-DR, HLA-DRA, HLA-DRB1, Homology (biology), Human, Human leukocyte antigen, Humoral immunity, Immune receptor, Immune system, Immune tolerance, Immunodominance, Immunoglobulin superfamily, Immunology, Inbreeding, Induced-self antigen, Inflammatory bowel disease, Innate immune system, Intracellular parasite, Jargon, Jean Dausset, L-form bacteria, Linear epitope, Lipid, Locus (genetics), Lymph node, Lymphatic system, Lymphocyte, Lysosome, Macrophage, Major histocompatibility complex and sexual selection, Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DP alpha 1, Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 1, Mammal, Marsupial, Mate choice, MHC class I, MHC class II, MHC multimer, MHC restriction, Miscarriage, Mouse, Mycoplasma, Natural killer cell, Natural selection, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Nucleic acid, Olfaction, Opossum, Organ transplantation, Organism, Paratope, Penguin Books, Peptide, Perspiration, Peter Alfred Gorer, Phagocyte, Phagocytosis, Phagosome, Phenotype, Pheromone, Plasma cell, Platelet, Polygene, Polymorphism (biology), Programmed cell death, Protease, Proteasome, Protein, Protein dimer, Protein splicing, Pseudogene, Red blood cell, Rickettsia, Sexual selection, Species, Stem cell, Streptamer, T cell, T helper cell, T-cell receptor, Tapasin, Tasmania, Tasmanian devil, The Compatibility Gene, Three-dimensional space, Thymus, Transplant rejection, Transporter associated with antigen processing, Tumor necrosis factor alpha, Twin, Vertebrate, Virus, White blood cell, Zygosity. Expand index (125 more) » « Shrink index
The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth.
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
Allorecognition is the ability of an individual organism to distinguish its own tissues from those of another.
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a type of arthritis in which there is long term inflammation of the joints of the spine.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
Antigen presentation describes a vital immune process which is essential for T cell immune response triggering.
Antigen processing is an immunological process that prepares antigens for presentation to special cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes.
An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays antigen complexed with major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs) on their surfaces; this process is known as antigen presentation.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Assortative mating is a mating pattern and a form of sexual selection in which individuals with similar phenotypes mate with one another more frequently than would be expected under a random mating pattern.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype.
The B-cell receptor or BCR is composed of immunoglobulin molecules that form a type 1 transmembrane receptor protein usually located on the outer surface of a lymphocyte type known as B cells.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Balancing selection refers to a number of selective processes by which multiple alleles (different versions of a gene) are actively maintained in the gene pool of a population at frequencies larger than expected from genetic drift alone.
Baruj Benacerraf (October 29, 1920 – August 2, 2011) was a Venezuelan-American immunologist, who shared the 1980 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the "discovery of the major histocompatibility complex genes which encode cell surface protein molecules important for the immune system's distinction between self and non-self."http://nobelprize.org/medicine/laureates/1980 1980 Nobel Medicine Winnershttp://nobelprize.org/medicine/laureates/1980/benacerraf-autobio.html Nobel autobiography His colleagues and shared recipients were Jean Dausset and George Davis Snell.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
β2 microglobulin also known as B2M is a component of MHC class I molecules, MHC class I molecules have α1, α2, and α3 proteins which are present on all nucleated cells (excludes red blood cells).
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
Clarence Cook "C.C." Little (October 6, 1888 – December 22, 1971) was an American genetics, cancer, and tobacco researcher and academic administrator.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Cathepsins (Ancient Greek kata- "down" and hepsein "boil"; abbreviated CTS) are proteases (enzymes that degrade proteins) found in all animals as well as other organisms.
In molecular biology, CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4) is a glycoprotein found on the surface of immune cells such as T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells.
CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that serves as a co-receptor for the T cell receptor (TCR).
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Cell-mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies, but rather involves the activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen.
List |F. jubata Erxleben, 1777 |F. jubatus Schreber, 1775 |Felis guttata Hermann, 1804 |F. venatica Griffith, 1821 |Acinonyx venator Brookes, 1828 |F. fearonii Smith, 1834 |F. megaballa Heuglin, 1868 |C. jubatus Blanford, 1888 |Cynælurus jubata Mivart, 1900 |C. guttatus Hollister, 1911 --> The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is a large cat of the subfamily Felinae that occurs in Southern, North and East Africa, and a few localities in Iran. The species is IUCN Red Listed as vulnerable, as it suffered a substantial decline in its historic range in the 20th century due to habitat loss, poaching, illegal pet trade, and conflict with humans. By 2016, the global cheetah population has been estimated at approximately 7,100 individuals in the wild. Several African countries have taken steps to improve cheetah conservation measures. It is the fastest land animal. The only extant member of the genus Acinonyx, the cheetah was formally described by Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber in 1775. The cheetah is characterised by a slender body, deep chest, spotted coat, small rounded head, black tear-like streaks on the face, long thin legs and long spotted tail. Its lightly built, slender form is in sharp contrast with the robust build of the big cats, making it more similar to the cougar. The cheetah reaches nearly at the shoulder, and weighs. Though taller than the leopard, it is notably smaller than the lion. Typically yellowish tan or rufous to greyish white, the coat is uniformly covered with nearly 2,000 solid black spots. Cheetahs are active mainly during the day, with hunting their major activity. Adult males are sociable despite their territoriality, forming groups called coalitions. Females are not territorial; they may be solitary or live with their offspring in home ranges. Carnivores, cheetah mainly prey upon antelopes and gazelles. They will stalk their prey to within, charge towards it and kill it by tripping it during the chase and biting its throat to suffocate it to death. Cheetahs can reach speeds of in short bursts, but this is disputed by more recent measurements. The average speed of cheetahs is about. Cheetahs are induced ovulators, breeding throughout the year. Gestation is nearly three months long, resulting in a litter of typically three to five cubs (the number can vary from one to eight). Weaning occurs at six months; siblings tend to stay together for some time. Cheetah cubs face higher mortality than most other mammals, especially in the Serengeti region. Cheetahs inhabit a variety of habitatsdry forests, scrub forests and savannahs. Because of its prowess at hunting, the cheetah was tamed and used to kill game at hunts in the past. The animal has been widely depicted in art, literature, advertising and animation.
Chromosome 6 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.
Claus Wedekind is a Swiss biological researcher notable for his 1995 study that determined a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) dependent mate preference in humans.
Complement C2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C2 gene.
Complement component 4 (C4), in humans, is a protein involved in the intricate complement system, originating from the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system.
Complement factor B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CFB gene.
The complement system is a part of the immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promotes inflammation, and attacks the pathogen's cell membrane.
A conformational epitope is a sequence of sub-units (usually amino acids) composing an antigen that come in direct contact with a receptor of the immune system.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.
A cytotoxic T cell (also known as TC, cytotoxic T lymphocyte, CTL, T-killer cell, cytolytic T cell, CD8+ T-cell or killer T cell) is a T lymphocyte (a type of white blood cell) that kills cancer cells, cells that are infected (particularly with viruses), or cells that are damaged in other ways.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system.
Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) is an aggressive non-viral clonally transmissible cancer which affects Tasmanian devils, a marsupial native to Australia.
In population genetics, directional selection is a mode of natural selection in which an extreme phenotype is favored over other phenotypes, causing the allele frequency to shift over time in the direction of that phenotype.
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.
Endocytosis is a form of bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.
Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a specific social group, caste or ethnic group, rejecting those from others as unsuitable for marriage or other close personal relationships.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
In cell biology, an endosome is a membrane-bound compartment inside eukaryotic cells.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
An epitope, also known as antigenic determinant, is the part of an antigen that is recognized by the immune system, specifically by antibodies, B cells, or T cells.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
The Eurasian beaver or European beaver (Castor fiber) is a species of beaver which was once widespread in Eurasia.
Eutheria (from Greek εὐ-, eu- "good" or "right" and θηρίον, thēríon "beast" hence "true beasts") is one of two mammalian clades with extant members that diverged in the Early Cretaceous or perhaps the Late Jurassic.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
Frequency-dependent selection is an evolutionary process by which the fitness of a phenotype depends on its frequency relative to other phenotypes in a given population.
Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is generated during molecular evolution.
The gene pool is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species.
A genetic marker is a gene or DNA sequence with a known location on a chromosome that can be used to identify individuals or species.
Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.
The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype).
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
George Davis Snell (December 19, 1903 – June 6, 1996) was an American mouse geneticist and basic transplant immunologist.
The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca, literally "black and white cat-foot";, literally "big bear cat"), also known as panda bear or simply panda, is a bear native to south central China.
The gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) is a small South American member of the Didelphidae family of opossums.
A haplotype (haploid genotype) is a group of alleles in an organism that are inherited together from a single parent.
Heat shock proteins (HSP) are a family of proteins that are produced by cells in response to exposure to stressful conditions.
A heterozygote advantage describes the case in which the heterozygous genotype has a higher relative fitness than either the homozygous dominant or homozygous recessive genotype.
Histocompatibility, or tissue compatibility, is the property of having the same, or sufficiently similar, alleles of a set of genes called human leukocyte antigens (HLA), the human version of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC).
HLA-A is a group of human leukocyte antigens (HLA) that are coded for by the HLA-A locus, which is located at human chromosome 6p21.3.
HLA-B (major histocompatibility complex, class I, B) is a human gene that provides instructions for making a protein that plays a critical role in the immune system.
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B27 (subtypes B*2701-2759) is a class I surface antigen encoded by the B locus in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6 and presents antigenic peptides (derived from self and non-self antigens) to T cells.
HLA-C belongs to the MHC (human.
HLA-DM (human leukocyte antigen DM) is an intracellular protein involved in the mechanism of antigen presentation on antigen presenting cells (APCs) of the immune system.
HLA-DP is a protein/peptide-antigen receptor and graft-versus-host disease antigen that is composed of 2 subunits, DPα and DPβ.
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DP(W2) beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DPB1 gene.
HLA-DQ (DQ) is a cell surface receptor protein found on antigen presenting cells.
Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ beta 1, also known as HLA-DQB1, is a human gene and also denotes the genetic locus that contains this gene.
HLA-DR is an MHC class II cell surface receptor encoded by the human leukocyte antigen complex on chromosome 6 region 6p21.31.
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR alpha chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DRA gene.
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB1 beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DRB1 gene.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system or complex is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans.
Humoral immunity or humoural immunity is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by macromolecules found in extracellular fluids such as secreted antibodies, complement proteins, and certain antimicrobial peptides.
An immune receptor (or immunologic receptor) is a receptor, usually on a cell membrane, which binds to a substance (for example, a cytokine) and causes a response in the immune system.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immune tolerance, or immunological tolerance, or immunotolerance, is a state of unresponsiveness of the immune system to substances or tissue that have the capacity to elicit an immune response in given organism.It is induced by prior exposure to that specific antigen.
Immunodominance is the immunological phenomenon in which immune responses are mounted against only a few of the antigenic peptides out of the many produced.
The immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) is a large protein superfamily of cell surface and soluble proteins that are involved in the recognition, binding, or adhesion processes of cells.
Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.
Inbreeding is the production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are closely related genetically.
Induced-self antigen is a marker of abnormal self, which can be recognized upon infected (in particular, virus-infected) and transformed cells.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.
The innate immune system, also known as the non-specific immune system or in-born immunity system, is an important subsystem of the overall immune system that comprises the cells and mechanisms involved in the defense of the host from infection by other organisms.
Intracellular parasites are microparasites that are capable of growing and reproducing inside the cells of a host.
Jargon is a type of language that is used in a particular context and may not be well understood outside that context.
Jean-Baptiste-Gabriel-Joachim Dausset (19 October 1916 – 6 June 2009) was a French immunologist born in Toulouse, France.
L-form bacteria, also known as Sam Cannon, L-phase variants, and cell wall-deficient (CWD) bacteria, are strains of bacteria that lack cell walls.
A linear or a sequential epitope is an epitope that is recognized by antibodies by its linear sequence of amino acids, or primary structure.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).
A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.
The lymphatic system is part of the vascular system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin, lympha meaning "water") directionally towards the heart.
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.
A lysosome is a membrane-bound organelle found in nearly all animal cells.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
The major histocompatibility complex in sexual selection concerns how major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules allow for immune system surveillance of the population of protein molecules in a host's cells.
Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DP alpha 1, also known as HLA-DPA1, is a human gene.
Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 1, also known as HLA-DQA1, is a human gene present on short arm of chromosome 6 (6p21.3) and also denotes the genetic locus which contains this gene.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Marsupials are any members of the mammalian infraclass Marsupialia.
Mate choice, also known as intersexual selection, is an evolutionary process in which selection is dependent on the attractiveness of an individual's phenotypic traits.
MHC class I molecules are one of two primary classes of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules (the other being MHC class II) and are found on the cell surface of all nucleated cells in the bodies of jawed vertebrates.
MHC class II molecules are a class of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules normally found only on antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells, mononuclear phagocytes, some endothelial cells, thymic epithelial cells, and B cells.
MHC multimers are oligomeric forms of MHC molecules, designed to identify and isolate T-cells with high affinity to specific antigens amid a large group of unrelated T-cells.
MHC-restricted antigen recognition, or MHC restriction, refers to the fact that a given T cell can interact with both the self-major histocompatibility complex molecule and the foreign peptide that is bound to it, but will recognize and respond to the antigen, only when it is bound to a particular MHC molecule.
Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently.
A mouse (Mus), plural mice, is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate.
Mycoplasma is a genus of bacteria that lack a cell wall around their cell membrane.
Natural killer cells or NK cells are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.
The opossum is a marsupial of the order Didelphimorphia endemic to the Americas.
Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
A paratope, also called an antigen-binding site, is a part of an antibody which recognizes and binds to an antigen.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
Peter Alfred Gorer FRS (14 April 1907 (London)–1961) was a British immunologist, pathologist and geneticist who pioneered the field of transplant immunology.
Phagocytes are cells that protect the body by ingesting harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells.
In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.
In cell biology, a phagosome is a vesicle formed around a particle engulfed by a phagocyte via phagocytosis.
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.
Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete large volumes of antibodies.
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.
A "polygene” or "multiple gene inheritance" is a member of a group of non-epistatic genes that interact additively to influence a phenotypic trait.
Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.
Programmed cell death (or PCD) is the death of a cell in any form, mediated by an intracellular program.
A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis: protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
Proteasomes are protein complexes which degrade unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis, a chemical reaction that breaks peptide bonds.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
In biochemistry, a protein dimer is a macromolecular complex formed by two protein monomers, or single proteins, which are usually non-covalently bound.
Protein splicing is an intramolecular reaction of a particular protein in which an internal protein segment (called an intein) is removed from a precursor protein with a ligation of C-terminal and N-terminal external proteins (called exteins) on both sides.
Pseudogenes are segments of DNA that are related to real genes.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
Rickettsia is a genus of nonmotile, Gram-negative, nonspore-forming, highly pleomorphic bacteria that can be present as cocci (0.1 μm in diameter), rods (1–4 μm long), or thread-like (10 μm long).
Sexual selection is a mode of natural selection where members of one biological sex choose mates of the other sex to mate with (intersexual selection), and compete with members of the same sex for access to members of the opposite sex (intrasexual selection).
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
The Streptamer technology allows the reversible isolation and staining of antigen-specific T cells.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
The T helper cells (Th cells) are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.
The T-cell receptor, or TCR, is a molecule found on the surface of T cells, or T lymphocytes, that is responsible for recognizing fragments of antigen as peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.
TAP-associated glycoprotein also known as tapasin or TAPBP is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAPBP gene.
Tasmania (abbreviated as Tas and known colloquially as Tassie) is an island state of Australia.
The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is a carnivorous marsupial of the family Dasyuridae.
The Compatibility Gene is a 2014 book about the discovery of the mechanism of compatibility in the human immune system by professor Daniel M. Davis.
Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameters) are required to determine the position of an element (i.e., point).
The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system.
Transplant rejection occurs when transplanted tissue is rejected by the recipient's immune system, which destroys the transplanted tissue.
Transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) is a member of the ATP-binding-cassette transporter family.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction.
Twins are two offspring produced by the same pregnancy.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism.
Histocompatibility index, Histocompatibility molecule, Histone Compatability, MHC antigen, MHC2, Major Histocompatibility Complex, Major histocompatability complex, Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, Major histocompatibility complex 2, Major histocompatibility complex protein, Major histocompatibility notes, Major histocompatiblity complex.