58 relations: Afghanistan, Arabic, Avicenna, Caliphate, Cambridge University Press, Career, Class (education), Classical antiquity, Classical Arabic, Classical Athens, Competition, Conversation, Curriculum, Dari language, Debate, Devin J. Stewart, Education, Egypt, Elementary school, Emulation (observational learning), Fatwa, Higher education, History of Islamic economics, Hoover Institution, Ibn Hajar al-Haytami, Islam, Islamic ethics, Islamic Golden Age, Islamic literature, Islamic philosophy, Islamic studies, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Journal of World History, List of inventions in the medieval Islamic world, Literacy, Madrasa, Maktab Anbar, Mathematics in medieval Islam, Medicine in the medieval Islamic world, Middle Ages, Mosque, Motilal Banarsidass, Muslim world, Oxford University Press, Petition, Primary education, Primary school, Qira'at, Quran, School, ..., Secondary education, Secondary school, Sheikh, Shia Islam, Sunni Islam, Tuition payments, Tutor, University of Hawaii Press. Expand index (8 more) » « Shrink index
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A career is an individual's metaphorical "journey" through learning, work and other aspects of life.
A class in education has a variety of related meanings.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Classical Arabic is the form of the Arabic language used in Umayyad and Abbasid literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD.
The city of Athens (Ἀθῆναι, Athênai a.tʰɛ̂ː.nai̯; Modern Greek: Ἀθῆναι, Athínai) during the classical period of Ancient Greece (508–322 BC) was the major urban center of the notable polis (city-state) of the same name, located in Attica, Greece, leading the Delian League in the Peloponnesian War against Sparta and the Peloponnesian League.
Competition is, in general, a contest or rivalry between two or more entities, organisms, animals, individuals, economic groups or social groups, etc., for territory, a niche, for scarce resources, goods, for mates, for prestige, recognition, for awards, for group or social status, or for leadership and profit.
Conversation is interactive communication between two or more people.
In education, a curriculum (plural: curricula or curriculums) is broadly defined as the totality of student experiences that occur in the educational process.
Darī (دری) or Dari Persian (فارسی دری Fārsī-ye Darī) or synonymously Farsi (فارسی Fārsī) is the variety of the Persian language spoken in Afghanistan.
Debate is a process that involves formal discussion on a particular topic.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Elementary school is a school for students in their first school years, where they get primary education before they enter secondary education.
In emulation learning, subjects learn about parts of their environment and use this to achieve their own goals.
A fatwā (فتوى; plural fatāwā فتاوى.) in the Islamic faith is a nonbinding but authoritative legal opinion or learned interpretation that the Sheikhul Islam, a qualified jurist or mufti, can give on issues pertaining to the Islamic law.
Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.
Between the 9th and 14th centuries, the Muslim world developed many concepts and techniques in economics such as Hawala, an early informal value transfer system, Islamic trusts known as waqf, and mufawada.
The Hoover Institution is an American public policy think tank and research institution located at Stanford University in California.
Shibab al-Dīn Abū al-ʿAbbās Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī ibn Hajar al-Haytamī al-Makkī al-Ansārī known as Ibn Hajar al-Haytami al-Makki (ابن حجر الهيتمي المكي) was a famousArendonk, C. van; Schacht, J..
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islamic ethics (أخلاق إسلامية), defined as "good character," historically took shape gradually from the 7th century and was finally established by the 11th century.
The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.
Islamic literature is literature written with an Islamic perspective, in any language.
In the religion of Islam, two words are sometimes translated as philosophy—falsafa (literally "philosophy"), which refers to philosophy as well as logic, mathematics, and physics; and Kalam (literally "speech"), which refers to a rationalist form of Islamic philosophy and theology based on the interpretations of Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism as developed by medieval Muslim philosophers.
Islamic studies refers to the study of Islam.
The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society is an academic journal which publishes articles on the history, archaeology, literature, language, religion and art of South Asia, the Middle East (together with North Africa and Ethiopia), Central Asia, East Asia and South-East Asia.
The Journal of World History is a peer-reviewed academic journal that presents historical analysis from a global point of view, focusing especially on forces that cross the boundaries of cultures and civilizations, including large-scale population movements, economic fluctuations, transfers of technology, the spread of infectious diseases, long-distance trade, and the spread of religious faiths, ideas, and values.
The following is a list of inventions made in the medieval Islamic world, especially during the "Islamic Golden Age" (8th to 13th centuries), as well as the late medieval period, especially in the Emirate of Granada and the Ottoman Empire.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.
Maktab Anbar (مكتب عنبر) (Anbar Office) is an old house in the center of Old Damascus near the Umayyad Mosque and a short distance from the Street Called Straight.
Mathematics during the Golden Age of Islam, especially during the 9th and 10th centuries, was built on Greek mathematics (Euclid, Archimedes, Apollonius) and Indian mathematics (Aryabhata, Brahmagupta).
In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine is the science of medicine developed in the Islamic Golden Age, and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of Islamic civilization.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
Motilal Banarsidass (MLBD) is a leading Indian publishing house on Sanskrit and Indology since 1903, located in Delhi, India.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
A petition is a request to do something, most commonly addressed to a government official or public entity.
Primary education and elementary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary education (The first two grades of primary school, Grades 1 and 2, are also part of early childhood education).
A primary school (or elementary school in American English and often in Canadian English) is a school in which children receive primary or elementary education from the age of about seven to twelve, coming after preschool, infant school and before secondary school.
In Islam, Qira'at, which means literally the readings, terminologically means the method of recitation.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
A school is an institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the direction of teachers.
Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education scale.
A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place.
Sheikh (pronounced, or; شيخ, mostly pronounced, plural شيوخ)—also transliterated Sheik, Shykh, Shaik, Shayk, Shaykh, Cheikh, Shekh, and Shaikh—is an honorific title in the Arabic language.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Tuition payments, usually known as tuition in American English and as tuition fees in Commonwealth English, are fees charged by education institutions for instruction or other services.
A tutor is a person who provides assistance or tutelage to one or more people on certain subject areas or skills.
The University of Hawaii Press is a university press that is part of the University of Hawaiokinai.