336 relations: Abnormal posturing, Abortion, Acidosis, Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Adduct, Adverse effect, Agriculture, Algeria, Allele, Amodiaquine, Andes, Anemia, Angola, Anopheles, Anopheles stephensi, Antigen, Antimalarial medication, Antimicrobial resistance, Antipyretic, Apicomplexa, Apicomplexan life cycle, Apicoplast, Archipelago, Artemisia annua, Artemisinin, Arthralgia, Asexual reproduction, Asia, Atovaquone/proguanil, Attenuator (genetics), Avian malaria, B vitamins, BBC News Online, Bilirubin, Biological pest control, Blackwater fever, Blantyre coma scale, Blood film, Blood sugar level, Blood transfusion, Blood–brain barrier, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Capillary, Capital cost, Carlos Finlay, Case fatality rate, Cell membrane, Cellular differentiation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, ..., Cerebrum, Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran, Chills, China, Chinese herbology, Chloroquine, Chronic condition, Chronic liver disease, Cinchona, Cipargamin, Circulatory system, Clindamycin, Clinical trial, Clinton Foundation, Coagulopathy, Coinfection, Columella, Coma, Compendium of Materia Medica, Complication (medicine), Conjugate gaze palsy, Constantine, Algeria, Convulsion, Coordination complex, Council on Foreign Relations, Counterfeit medications, Cyfluthrin, DDT, Death, DEET, Deltamethrin, Dihydroartemisinin, Disease, Disease burden, DNA, Doxycycline, Drug resistance, Duffy antigen system, Economic development, Egypt, Emotional and behavioral disorders, Encephalopathy, Endemic (epidemiology), Endosymbiont, Epilepsy, Epileptic seizure, Epstein–Barr virus, Equator, Eradication of infectious diseases, Etruria, Fatigue, Fatty acid synthesis, Fetal circulation, Fever, Filariasis, Fission (biology), Galápagos Islands, Gamete, Gastroenteritis, Ge Hong, Gene drive, Genetic engineering, Genetically modified organism, Genome, Genomics, Genus, Glasgow Coma Scale, Global warming, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, Greater Mekong Subregion, Greece, Gross domestic product, Havana, Hawaii, Headache, Health education, Health measures during the construction of the Panama Canal, Hemoglobin, Hemoglobinuria, Hemolytic anemia, Hepatocyte, Hepatomegaly, Hepatosplenomegaly, Heterozygote advantage, Histology, History of malaria, HIV, Host (biology), Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Human genome, Hypoglycemia, Hypokalemia, Hypotension, Hypoventilation, Icaridin, Immune system, Immune tolerance, Immunity (medical), Indian Medical Service, Indigenous peoples in Peru, Indonesia, Indoor residual spraying, Infant, Infant mortality, Infection, Infectious disease (medical specialty), Influenza, Insect repellent, Insecticide, Intensive care unit, Intermittent preventive therapy, IPGMER and SSKM Hospital, Irradiation, Ivory Coast, IZA Institute of Labor Economics, Jaundice, Jesuit's bark, Joseph Bienaimé Caventou, Josiah C. Nott, Julius Wagner-Jauregg, Kidney failure, Kolkata, Lactic acid, Laos, Latin America, List of endemic birds of Hawaii, List of Plasmodium species infecting birds, List of Plasmodium species infecting reptiles, Litre, Liver, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Low birth weight, Lumefantrine, Lysis, Macaque, Malaria antigen detection tests, Malaria Atlas Project, Malaria No More, Malaria Policy Advisory Committee, Malaria prophylaxis, Malaria vaccine, Mali, Mauritius, Medication, Mefloquine, Mekong, Metabolic acidosis, Miasma theory, Microorganism, Middle Ages, Millimeter of mercury, Model organism, Mosquito, Mosquito control, Mosquito net, Mosquito-borne disease, Mozambique, National Malaria Eradication Program, Natural selection, Needle sharing, Needlestick injury, Neurological disorder, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Nystagmus, Opisthotonus, Organometallic chemistry, Overdiagnosis, Overwintering, Panama, Panama Canal, Parasitism, Paris green, Paroxysmal attack, Passerine, Patient, Patrick Manson, Peru, Pesticide, Pesticide resistance, Pharmacopoeia, Pierre Joseph Pelletier, Piperaquine, Placebo, Plasmodium, Plasmodium berghei, Plasmodium coatneyi, Plasmodium cynomolgi, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium relictum, Plasmodium vivax, Pneumonia, Polymerase chain reaction, Polymorphism (biology), Pontine Marshes, Pregnancy, Pregnancy-associated malaria, Premunity, Primaquine, Protein, Protist, Protozoa, Provinces of China, Pulmonary edema, Purchasing power parity, Pyrethroid, Pyridoxal, Quinine, Rapid diagnostic test, Recrudescence, Red blood cell, Relapse, Reproduction, Research and development, Retinopathy, Roman Empire, Rome, Ronald Ross, Route of administration, Royal Army Medical College, RTS,S, Saliva, Salivary gland, Salmonella, Sardinia, Sensitivity and specificity, Sepsis, Shivering, Shock (circulatory), Shortness of breath, Sickle cell disease, Sickle cell trait, Simian, Society of Jesus, Socioeconomics, Spiroindolone, Spleen, Splenomegaly, Sterile insect technique, Stillbirth, Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, Sub-Saharan Africa, Subtropics, Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, Symptom, Syphilis, Tafenoquine, Temperate climate, Thailand, Thalassemia, The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, Thrombocytopenia, Tiber, Tincture, Toxicity, Traditional Chinese medicine, Tropics, Tu Youyou, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Vaccine, Vector (epidemiology), Vector control, Vietnam, Vinckeia, Viral disease, Viral hepatitis, Vomiting, Walter Reed, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Water resource management, Water stagnation, Wayback Machine, White blood cell, Whole genome sequencing, William C. Gorgas, World Health Organization, World War I, World War II, X-ray, Yellow fever, Zika virus, Zoonosis, Zygosity, Zygote. Expand index (286 more) » « Shrink index
Abnormal posturing is an involuntary flexion or extension of the arms and legs, indicating severe brain injury.
Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus.
Acidosis is a process causing increased acidity in the blood and other body tissues (i.e., an increased hydrogen ion concentration).
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a medical condition occurring in critically ill or critically wounded patients characterized by widespread inflammation in the lungs.
An adduct (from the Latin adductus, "drawn toward" alternatively, a contraction of "addition product") is a product of a direct addition of two or more distinct molecules, resulting in a single reaction product containing all atoms of all components.
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
Amodiaquine (ADQ) is a medication used to treat malaria, including Plasmodium falciparum malaria when uncomplicated.
The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.
Anopheles (Greek anofelís: "useless") is a genus of mosquito first described and named by J. W. Meigen in 1818.
Anopheles stephensi is a primary mosquito vector of malaria in urban India and is included in the same subgenus as Anopheles gambiae, the primary malaria vector in Africa.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
Antimalarial medications, also known as antimalarials, are designed to prevent or cure malaria.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.
Antipyretics (from anti- 'against' and 'feverish') are substances that reduce fever.
The Apicomplexa (also called Apicomplexia) are a large phylum of parasitic alveolates.
Apicomplexans, a group of intracellular parasites, have life cycle stages evolved to allow them to survive the wide variety of environments they are exposed to during their complex life cycle.
An apicoplast is a derived non-photosynthetic plastid found in most Apicomplexa, including Toxoplasma gondii, malaria parasites such as Plasmodium falciparum, but not in others such as Cryptosporidium.
An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.
Artemisia annua, also known as sweet wormwood, sweet annie, sweet sagewort, annual mugwort or annual wormwood, is a common type of wormwood native to temperate Asia, but naturalized in many countries including scattered parts of North America.
Artemisinin and its semi-synthetic derivatives are a group of drugs used against Plasmodium falciparum malaria.
Arthralgia (from Greek arthro-, joint + -algos, pain) literally means joint pain; it is a symptom of injury, infection, illnesses (in particular arthritis) or an allergic reaction to medication.
Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
The drug combination atovaquone/proguanil (INNs, trade names Malarone, Malanil) is an antimalarial medication used in both the treatment and prevention of malaria.
Attenuation (in genetics) is a proposed mechanism of control in some bacterial operons which results in premature termination of transcription and is based on the fact that, in bacteria, transcription and translation proceed simultaneously.
Avian malaria is a parasitic disease of birds, caused by parasite species belonging to the genera Plasmodium and Hemoproteus (phylum Apicomplexa, class Haemosporidia, family Plasmoiidae).
B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism.
BBC News Online is the website of BBC News, the division of the BBC responsible for newsgathering and production.
Bilirubin is a yellow compound that occurs in the normal catabolic pathway that breaks down heme in vertebrates.
Biological control or biocontrol is a method of controlling pests such as insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases using other organisms.
Blackwater fever is a complication of malaria infection in which red blood cells burst in the bloodstream (hemolysis), releasing hemoglobin directly into the blood vessels and into the urine, frequently leading to kidney failure.
The Blantyre coma scale is a modification of the Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale, designed to assess malarial coma in children.
A blood film—or peripheral blood smear—is a thin layer of blood smeared on a glass microscope slide and then stained in such a way as to allow the various blood cells to be examined microscopically.
The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.
Blood transfusion is generally the process of receiving blood or blood products into one's circulation intravenously.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.
Capital costs are fixed, one-time expenses incurred on the purchase of land, buildings, construction, and equipment used in the production of goods or in the rendering of services.
Carlos Juan Finlay (December 3, 1833 – August 20, 1915) was a Cuban epidemiologist recognized as a pioneer in the research of yellow fever, determining that it was transmitted through mosquitoes Aedes aegypti.
In epidemiology, a case fatality rate (CFR)—or case fatality risk, case fatality ratio or just fatality rate—is the proportion of deaths within a designated population of "cases" (people with a medical condition) over the course of the disease.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
The cerebrum is a large part of the brain containing the cerebral cortex (of the two cerebral hemispheres), as well as several subcortical structures, including the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulb.
Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran (18 June 1845 – 18 May 1922) was a French physician who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1907 for his discoveries of parasitic protozoans as causative agents of infectious diseases such as malaria and trypanosomiasis.
Chills is a feeling of coldness occurring during a high fever, but sometimes is also a common symptom which occurs alone in specific people.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese herbology is the theory of traditional Chinese herbal therapy, which accounts for the majority of treatments in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).
Chloroquine is a medication used to prevent and to treat malaria in areas where malaria is known to be sensitive to its effects.
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.
Chronic liver disease in the clinical context is a disease process of the liver that involves a process of progressive destruction and regeneration of the liver parenchyma leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis.
Cinchona is a genus of flowering plants in the family Rubiaceae containing at least 23 species of trees and shrubs.
Cipargamin (NITD609, KAE609) is an experimental synthetic antimalarial drug belonging to the spiroindolone class.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Clindamycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
The Clinton Foundation (founded in 1997 as the William J. Clinton Foundation), and from 2013 to 2015, briefly renamed the Bill, Hillary & Chelsea Clinton Foundation) is a non-profit organization under section 501(c)(3) of the U.S. tax code. It was established by former President of the United States Bill Clinton with the stated mission to "strengthen the capacity of people in the United States and throughout the world to meet the challenges of global interdependence." Its offices are located in New York City and Little Rock, Arkansas. Through 2016 the foundation had raised an estimated $2 billion from U.S. corporations, foreign governments and corporations, political donors, and various other groups and individuals. The acceptance of funds from wealthy donors has been a source of controversy. The foundation "has won accolades from philanthropy experts and has drawn bipartisan support". Charitable grants are not a major focus of the Clinton Foundation, which instead uses most of its money to carry out its own humanitarian programs. This foundation is a public organization to which anyone may donate and is distinct from the Clinton Family Foundation, a private organization for personal Clinton family philanthropy. According to the Clinton Foundation's website, neither Bill Clinton nor his daughter, Chelsea Clinton (both are members of the governing board), draws any salary or receives any income from the Foundation. When Hillary Clinton was a board member she reportedly also received no income from the Foundation.
A bleeding disorder (coagulopathy) is a condition that affects the way the blood clots.
In microbiology, coinfection is the simultaneous infection of a host by multiple pathogen species.
Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella (4 – c. 70 AD) was a prominent writer on agriculture in the Roman empire.
Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.
The Compendium of Materia Medica (also known by the romanizations Bencao Gangmu or Pen-tsao Kang-mu) is a Chinese herbology volume written by Li Shizhen during the Ming dynasty; its first draft was completed in 1578.
Complication, in medicine, is an unfavorable evolution or consequence of a disease, a health condition or a therapy.
Conjugate gaze palsies are neurological disorders affecting the ability to move both eyes in the same direction.
Not to be confused with Constantinople, the historical city from 330 to 1453 in Thrace, now Istanbul, Turkey. Constantine (قسنطينة, ⵇⵙⴻⵏⵟⵉⵏⴰ), also spelled Qacentina or Kasantina, is the capital of Constantine Province in northeastern Algeria.
A convulsion is a medical condition where body muscles contract and relax rapidly and repeatedly, resulting in an uncontrolled shaking of the body.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
A counterfeit medication or a counterfeit drug is a medication or pharmaceutical product which is produced and sold with the intent to deceptively represent its origin, authenticity or effectiveness.
Cyfluthrin is a pyrethroid insecticide and common household pesticide.
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, commonly known as DDT, is a colorless, tasteless, and almost odorless crystalline chemical compound, an organochlorine, originally developed as an insecticide, and ultimately becoming infamous for its environmental impacts.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide, also called DEET or diethyltoluamide, is the most common active ingredient in insect repellents.
Deltamethrin is a pyrethroid ester insecticide.
Dihydroartemisinin (also known as dihydroqinghaosu, artenimol or DHA) is a drug used to treat malaria.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Disease burden is the impact of a health problem as measured by financial cost, mortality, morbidity, or other indicators.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Doxycycline is an antibiotic that is used in the treatment of a number of types of infections caused by bacteria and protozoa.
Drug resistance is the reduction in effectiveness of a medication such as an antimicrobial or an antineoplastic in curing a disease or condition.
Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor (DARC), also known as Fy glycoprotein (FY) or CD234 (Cluster of Differentiation 234), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DARC gene.
economic development wikipedia Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD; sometimes called emotional disturbance or serious emotional disturbance) refer to a disability classification used in educational settings that allows educational institutions to provide special education and related services to students that have poor social or academic adjustment that cannot be better explained by biological abnormalities or a developmental disability.
Encephalopathy (from ἐγκέφαλος "brain" + πάθος "suffering") means any disorder or disease of the brain, especially chronic degenerative conditions.
In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic (from Greek ἐν en "in, within" and δῆμος demos "people") in a population when that infection is constantly maintained at a baseline level in a geographic area without external inputs.
An endosymbiont or endobiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism in a symbiotic relationship with the host body or cell, often but not always to mutual benefit.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
The Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), also called human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), is one of eight known human herpesvirus types in the herpes family, and is one of the most common viruses in humans.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
Eradication is the reduction of an infectious disease's prevalence in the global host population to zero.
Etruria (usually referred to in Greek and Latin source texts as Tyrrhenia Τυρρηνία) was a region of Central Italy, located in an area that covered part of what are now Tuscany, Lazio, and Umbria.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
Fatty acid synthesis is the creation of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA and NADPH through the action of enzymes called fatty acid synthases.
In animals that give live birth, the fetal circulation is the circulatory system of a fetus.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
Filariasis is a parasitic disease caused by an infection with roundworms of the Filarioidea type.
Fission, in biology, is the division of a single entity into two or more parts and the regeneration of those parts into separate entities resembling the original.
The Galápagos Islands (official name: Archipiélago de Colón, other Spanish name: Las Islas Galápagos), part of the Republic of Ecuador, are an archipelago of volcanic islands distributed on either side of the equator in the Pacific Ocean surrounding the centre of the Western Hemisphere, west of continental Ecuador.
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.
Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract -- the stomach and small intestine.
Ge Hong (葛洪; b. 283 - d. 343 or 363) was an Eastern Jin Dynasty scholar, and the author of Essays on Chinese Characters.
A gene drive is a genetic engineering technology that can propagate a particular suite of genes throughout a population.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism).
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
The Glasgow coma scale (GCS) is a neurological scale which aims to give a reliable and objective way of recording the conscious state of a person for initial as well as subsequent assessment.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDD) is an inborn error of metabolism that predisposes to red blood cell breakdown.
The Greater Mekong Subregion, or just Greater Mekong, is an international region of the Mekong River basin in Southeast Asia.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Havana (Spanish: La Habana) is the capital city, largest city, province, major port, and leading commercial center of Cuba.
Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
Health education is a profession of educating people about health.
One of the greatest challenges facing the builders of the Panama Canal was dealing with the tropical diseases rife in the area.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
In medicine, hemoglobinuria or haemoglobinuria is a condition in which the oxygen transport protein hemoglobin is found in abnormally high concentrations in the urine.
Hemolytic anemia or haemolytic anaemia is a form of anemia due to hemolysis, the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells (RBCs), either in the blood vessels (intravascular hemolysis) or elsewhere in the human body (extravascular, but usually in the spleen).
A hepatocyte is a cell of the main parenchymal tissue of the liver.
Hepatomegaly is the condition of having an enlarged liver.
Hepatosplenomegaly (commonly abbreviated HSM) is the simultaneous enlargement of both the liver (hepatomegaly) and the spleen (splenomegaly).
A heterozygote advantage describes the case in which the heterozygous genotype has a higher relative fitness than either the homozygous dominant or homozygous recessive genotype.
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
The history of malaria stretches from its prehistoric origin as a zoonotic disease in the primates of Africa through to the 21st century.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter.
The Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) is an American non-profit medical research organization based in Chevy Chase, Maryland.
The human genome is the complete set of nucleic acid sequences for humans, encoded as DNA within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria.
Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels.
Hypokalemia, also spelled hypokalaemia, is a low level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
Hypoventilation (also known as respiratory depression) occurs when ventilation is inadequate (hypo meaning "below") to perform needed gas exchange.
Icaridin, also known as picaridin, is an insect repellent.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immune tolerance, or immunological tolerance, or immunotolerance, is a state of unresponsiveness of the immune system to substances or tissue that have the capacity to elicit an immune response in given organism.It is induced by prior exposure to that specific antigen.
In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.
The Indian Medical Service (IMS) was a military medical service in British India, which also had some civilian functions.
Indigenous peoples in Peru, or Native Peruvians, comprise a large number of distinct ethnic groups who have inhabited the country of Peru's territory since before the arrival of Europeans around 1500.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Indoor residual spraying or IRS is the process of spraying the inside of dwellings with an insecticide to kill mosquitoes that spread malaria.
An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.
Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Infectious disease, also known as infectious diseases, infectious medicine, infectious disease medicine or infectiology, is a medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis, control and treatment of infections.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
An insect repellent (also commonly called "bug spray") is a substance applied to skin, clothing, or other surfaces which discourages insects (and arthropods in general) from landing or climbing on that surface.
Insecticides are substances used to kill insects.
Intensive care unit An intensive care unit (ICU), also known as an intensive therapy unit or intensive treatment unit (ITU) or critical care unit (CCU), is a special department of a hospital or health care facility that provides intensive treatment medicine.
Intermittent preventive therapy or intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) is a public health intervention aimed at treating and preventing malaria episodes in infants (IPTi), children (IPTc), schoolchildren (IPTsc) and pregnant women (IPTp).
The Institute of Post-Graduate Medical Education and Research and Seth Sukhlal Karnani Memorial Hospital, colloquially known as P G Hospital (Presidency General Hospital) or SSKM Hospital is a tertiary referral government hospital for the state of West Bengal, India and is a national research institute.
Irradiation is the process by which an object is exposed to radiation.
Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.
The IZA - Institute of Labor Economics (Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit), until 2016 referred to as the Institute of the Study of Labor (IZA), is a private, independent economic research institute and academic network focused on the analysis of global labor markets and headquartered in Bonn, Germany.
Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.
Jesuit's Bark, also known as cinchona bark, as Peruvian Bark, and as China Bark, is a former name of the most celebrated specific remedy for all forms of malaria.
Joseph Bienaimé Caventou (30 June 1795 – 5 May 1877) was a French pharmacist.
Josiah Clark Nott (March 31, 1804March 31, 1873) was an American physician and surgeon.
Julius Wagner-Jauregg (7 March 1857 – 27 September 1940) was an Austrian physician, who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1927, and is the only psychiatrist to have done so.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
There are 71 known taxa of birds endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, of which 30 are extinct, 6 possibly extinct and 30 of the remaining 48 species and subspecies are listed as endangered or threatened by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.
Species in six subgenera of Plasmodium infect birds - Bennettinia, Giovannolaia, Haemamoeba, Huffia, Novyella and Papernaia.
Over 90 species and subspecies of Plasmodium infect lizards.
The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
The Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM) is a higher education institution and registered charity located in Liverpool, United Kingdom.
Low birth weight (LBW) is defined by the World Health Organization as a birth weight of a infant of 2,499 g or less, regardless of gestational age.
Lumefantrine (or benflumetol) is an antimalarial drug.
Lysis (Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") refers to the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic") mechanisms that compromise its integrity.
The macaques (or pronunciation by Oxford Dictionaries) constitute a genus (Macaca) of Old World monkeys of the subfamily Cercopithecinae.
Malaria antigen detection tests are a group of commercially available rapid diagnostic tests of the rapid antigen test type that allow quick diagnosis of malaria by people who are not otherwise skilled in traditional laboratory techniques for diagnosing malaria or in situations where such equipment is not available.
The Malaria Atlas Project, abbreviated as MAP, is a non-profit project funded primarily by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Medical Research Council and the Wellcome Trust.
Malaria No More is a nonprofit organization that aims to end death caused by malaria.
The Malaria Policy Advisory Committee is an international organization that works to prevent malaria.
Malaria prophylaxis is the preventive treatment of malaria.
Malaria vaccine is a vaccine that is used to prevent malaria.
Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.
Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Mefloquine, sold under the brand names Lariam among others, is a medication used to prevent or treat malaria.
The Mekong is a trans-boundary river in Southeast Asia.
Metabolic acidosis is a condition that occurs when the body produces excessive quantities of acid or when the kidneys are not removing enough acid from the body.
The miasma theory (also called the miasmatic theory) is an obsolete medical theory that held that diseases—such as cholera, chlamydia, or the Black Death—were caused by a miasma (μίασμα, ancient Greek: "pollution"), a noxious form of "bad air", also known as night air.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
A millimeter of mercury is a manometric unit of pressure, formerly defined as the extra pressure generated by a column of mercury one millimetre high and now defined as precisely pascals.
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that constitute the family Culicidae.
Mosquito control manages the population of mosquitoes to reduce their damage to human health, economies, and enjoyment.
A mosquito net offers protection against mosquitos, flies, and other insects, and thus against the diseases they may carry.
Mosquito-borne diseases or mosquito-borne illnesses are diseases caused by bacteria, viruses or parasites transmitted by mosquitoes.
Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.
In the United States, the National Malaria Eradication Program (NMEP) was launched on 1 July 1947.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Needle sharing is the practice of intravenous drug-users by which a syringe is shared by multiple individuals to administer intravenous drugs, and is a primary vector for diseases which can be transmitted through blood (blood-borne pathogens).
A needlestick injury, percutaneous injury, or percutaneous exposure incident or sharps injury is the penetration of the skin by a needle or other sharp object, which has been in contact with blood, tissue or other body fluids before the exposure.
A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
Nystagmus is a condition of involuntary (or voluntary, in rare cases) eye movement, acquired in infancy or later in life, that may result in reduced or limited vision.
Opisthotonus or opisthotonos, from Greek roots, ὄπισθεν, opisthen meaning "behind" and τόνος tonos meaning "tension", is a state of severe hyperextension and spasticity in which an individual's head, neck and spinal column enter into a complete "bridging" or "arching" position.
Organometallic chemistry is the study of organometallic compounds, chemical compounds containing at least one chemical bond between a carbon atom of an organic molecule and a metal, including alkaline, alkaline earth, and transition metals, and sometimes broadened to include metalloids like boron, silicon, and tin, as well.
Overdiagnosis is the diagnosis of "disease" that will never cause symptoms or death during a patient's ordinarily expected lifetime.
Overwintering is the process by which some organisms pass through or wait out the winter season, or pass through that period of the year when "winter" conditions (cold or sub-zero temperatures, ice, snow, limited food supplies) make normal activity or even survival difficult or near impossible.
Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
The Panama Canal (Canal de Panamá) is an artificial waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
Paris green (copper(II) acetate triarsenite or copper(II) acetoarsenite) is an inorganic compound.
Paroxysmal attacks or paroxysms (from Greek παροξυσμός) are a sudden recurrence or intensification of symptoms, such as a spasm or seizure.
A passerine is any bird of the order Passeriformes, which includes more than half of all bird species.
A patient is any recipient of health care services.
Sir Patrick Manson, (3 October 1844 – 9 April 1922), was a Scottish physician who made important discoveries in parasitology, and was the founder of the field of tropical medicine.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
Pesticide resistance describes the decreased susceptibility of a pest population to a pesticide that was previously effective at controlling the pest.
A pharmacopoeia, pharmacopeia, or pharmacopoea (literally, “drug-making”), in its modern technical sense, is a book containing directions for the identification of compound medicines, and published by the authority of a government or a medical or pharmaceutical society.
Piperaquine is an antiparasitic drug used in combination with dihydroartemisinin to treat malaria.
A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.
Plasmodium is a genus of unicellular eukaryotes that are obligate parasites of vertebrates and insects.
Plasmodium berghei is a protozoan parasite that causes malaria in certain rodents.
Plasmodium coatneyi is a parasite that is an agent of malaria in nonhuman primates.
Plasmodium cynomolgi is a non-human primate parasite which usually been found in the Asian Old World monkeys.
Plasmodium falciparum is a unicellular protozoan parasite of humans, and the deadliest species of Plasmodium that cause malaria in humans.
Plasmodium knowlesi is a primate malaria parasite commonly found in Southeast Asia.
Plasmodium malariae is a parasitic protozoa that causes malaria in humans.
Plasmodium ovale is a species of parasitic protozoa that causes tertian malaria in humans.
Plasmodium relictum a parasite, and the most common cause of malaria in birds.
Plasmodium vivax is a protozoal parasite and a human pathogen.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.
Lake Fogliano, a coastal lagoon in the Pontine Plain. The Pontine Marshes, termed in Latin Pomptinus Ager by Titus Livius, Pomptina Palus (singular) and Pomptinae Paludes (plural) by Pliny the Elder,Natural History 3.59.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) or placental malaria is a presentation of the common illness that is particularly life-threatening to both mother and developing fetus.
Premunity is a term used to signify progressive development of immunity in individuals exposed to an infective agent, mainly belonging to protozoa and Rickettsia, but not in viruses.
Primaquine is a medication used to treat and prevent malaria and to treat ''Pneumocystis'' pneumonia.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
Provincial-level administrative divisions or first-level administrative divisions, are the highest-level Chinese administrative divisions.
Pulmonary edema is fluid accumulation in the tissue and air spaces of the lungs.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
A pyrethroid is an organic compound similar to the natural pyrethrins produced by the flowers of pyrethrums (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and C. coccineum).
Pyridoxal is one form of vitamin B6.
Quinine is a medication used to treat malaria and babesiosis.
A rapid diagnostic test (RDT) is a medical diagnostic test that is quick and easy to perform.
Recrudescence is the revival of material or behavior that had previously been stabilized, settled, or diminished.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
In medicine, relapse or recidivism is a recurrence of a past (typically medical) condition.
Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".
Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.
Retinopathy is any damage to the retina of the eyes, which may cause vision impairment.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Sir Ronald Ross (13 May 1857 – 16 September 1932), was a British medical doctor who received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1902 for his work on the transmission of malaria, becoming the first British Nobel laureate, and the first born outside Europe.
A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.
The Royal Army Medical College (RAMC) was located on a site south of the Tate Gallery (now known as Tate Britain) on Millbank, in Westminster, London, overlooking the River Thames.
RTS,S/AS01 — trade name Mosquirix — is a recombinant protein-based malaria vaccine.
Saliva is a watery substance formed in the mouths of animals, secreted by the salivary glands.
The salivary glands in mammals are exocrine glands that produce saliva through a system of ducts.
Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae.
Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures of the performance of a binary classification test, also known in statistics as a classification function.
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.
Shivering (also called shuddering) is a bodily function in response to cold in warm-blooded animals.
Shock is the state of low blood perfusion to tissues resulting in cellular injury and inadequate tissue function.
Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of blood disorders typically inherited from a person's parents.
Sickle cell trait describes a condition in which a person has one abnormal allele of the hemoglobin beta gene (is heterozygous), but does not display the severe symptoms of sickle-cell disease that occur in a person who has two copies of that allele (is homozygous).
The simians (infraorder Simiiformes) are monkeys and apes, cladistically including: the New World monkeys or platyrrhines, and the catarrhine clade consisting of the Old World monkeys and apes (including humans).
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes.
The spiroindolones are an emerging class of antimalarial drugs whose mode of action is to inhibit protein synthesis in the target parasite.
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.
Splenomegaly is an enlargement of the spleen.
The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a method of biological insect control, whereby overwhelming numbers of sterile insects are released into the wild.
Stillbirth is typically defined as fetal death at or after 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy.
Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants is an international environmental treaty, signed in 2001 and effective from May 2004, that aims to eliminate or restrict the production and use of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.
Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, sold under the brandname Fansidar, is a combination medication used to treat malaria.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
Tafenoquine is an 8-aminoquinoline drug manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline that is being investigated as a potential treatment for malaria, as well as for malaria prevention.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
Thalassemias are inherited blood disorders characterized by abnormal hemoglobin production.
The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (or simply the Global Fund) is an international financing organization that aims to "ttract and disburse additional resources to prevent and treat HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria." A public-private partnership, the organization maintains its secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland.
Thrombocytopenia is a condition characterized by abnormally low levels of thrombocytes, also known as platelets, in the blood.
The Tiber (Latin Tiberis, Italian Tevere) is the third-longest river in Italy, rising in the Apennine Mountains in Emilia-Romagna and flowing through Tuscany, Umbria and Lazio, where it is joined by the river Aniene, to the Tyrrhenian Sea, between Ostia and Fiumicino.
A tincture is typically an alcoholic extract of plant or animal material or solution of such, or of a low volatility substance (such as iodine and mercurochrome).
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
Tu Youyou (born 30 December 1930) is a Chinese pharmaceutical chemist and educator.
The United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID; pronounced: you-SAM-rid) is the U.S Army’s main institution and facility for defensive research into countermeasures against biological warfare.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
In epidemiology, a disease vector is any agent that carries and transmits an infectious pathogen into another living organism; most agents regarded as vectors are organisms, such as intermediate parasites or microbes, but it could be an inanimate medium of infection such as dust particles.
Vector control is any method to limit or eradicate the mammals, birds, insects or other arthropods (here collectively called "vectors") which transmit disease pathogens.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Vinckeia is a subgenus of the genus Plasmodium — all of which are parasitic alveolates.
A viral disease (or viral infection) occurs when an organism's body is invaded by pathogenic viruses, and infectious virus particles (virions) attach to and enter susceptible cells.
Viral hepatitis is liver inflammation due to a viral infection.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
Major Walter Reed, M.D., U.S. Army, (September 13, 1851 – November 22, 1902) was a U.S. Army physician who in 1901 led the team that postulated and confirmed the theory that yellow fever is transmitted by a particular mosquito species, rather than by direct contact.
The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) is the largest biomedical research facility administered by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD).
Water resource management is the activity of planning, developing, distributing and managing the optimum use of water resources.
Water stagnation occurs when water stops flowing.
The Wayback Machine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web and other information on the Internet.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
Whole genome sequencing (also known as WGS, full genome sequencing, complete genome sequencing, or entire genome sequencing) is the process of determining the complete DNA sequence of an organism's genome at a single time.
William Crawford Gorgas KCMG (October 3, 1854 – July 3, 1920) was a United States Army physician and 22nd Surgeon General of the U.S. Army (1914–1918).
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Yellow fever is a viral disease of typically short duration.
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae.
Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans.
Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism.
A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.
Cerebral malaria, Congestive fever, Eradication of malaria, Falciform malaria, Falciparum malaria, Fever and ague, Malaria infection, Malaria paroxysms, Malaria prevention, Malaria, cerebral, Malarial, Malarial fever, Malarias, Malariologist, Malariology, Malarious fever, Maleria, Marsh fevers, Paludism, Pernicious fever, Severe malaria, Swamp malaria, Tertian fever, Tertian malaria, Uncomplicated malaria, Vivax malaria.