182 relations: Adityawarman, Affix, Affricate consonant, Agent (grammar), Agglutinative language, Alveolar consonant, Approximant consonant, Arabic, Arabic numerals, Arabic script, Asia, Austronesian languages, Austronesian peoples, Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa, Balabac, Palawan, Bataraza, Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, Borneo, British Empire, British Malaya, Brunei, Brunei Malay, Buddhism, Cambodia, Cambridge University Press, Central consonant, Cham alphabet, Chams, Chinese language, Christmas Island, Circumfix, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Cognate, Comparison of Standard Malay and Indonesian, Compound (linguistics), Constitution of Malaysia, Davao City, Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, Dharmasraya, Dialect, Dutch East Indies, Dutch language, Dutch people, East Malaysia, East Timor, English language, Ethnologue, First language, Francisco Serrão, ..., Fricative consonant, Fusional language, Glottal consonant, Grammatical gender, Grammatical mood, Grantha script, Hinduism, History of the Malay language, Hokkien, Indian Ocean, Indian religions, Indonesia, Indonesian language, Indonesian slang, International Phonetic Alphabet, International uniformity of braille alphabets, Islam, Islam in the Philippines, Jambi, Jambi Malay, Javanese language, Jawi alphabet, Johor, Johor Sultanate, Johor-Riau, Kawi script, Kedah Malay, Kedukan Bukit inscription, Kelantan-Pattani Malay, Labial consonant, Languages of Indonesia, Languages of Singapore, Lateral consonant, Latin script, Leiden, Lingua franca, List of English words of Malay origin, Madagascar, Majlis Bahasa Brunei-Indonesia-Malaysia, Malacca, Malacca Sultanate, Malagasy language, Malajoe Batawi, Malay alphabet, Malay Archipelago, Malay Peninsula, Malay trade and creole languages, Malayan languages, Malayic languages, Malayo-Polynesian languages, Malayo-Sumbawan languages, Malays (ethnic group), Malaysia, Malaysian English, Malaysian language, Maluku Islands, Manado Malay, Manually Coded Malay, Maritime Southeast Asia, Melayu Kingdom, Minangkabau language, Minangkabau people, Mindanao, Ming dynasty, Mixed language, Morphological derivation, Musi River (Indonesia), Muslim, Mutual intelligibility, Nasal consonant, Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian languages, Object (grammar), Orang Asli, Pacific Ocean, Palatal consonant, Palawan, Pallava script, Patois, Penang, Peninsular Malaysia, Peranakan, Persian language, Philippines, Portugal, Portuguese language, Prefix, Proto-Austronesian language, Proto-Malayo-Polynesian, Reduplication, Register (sociolinguistics), Rencong script, Riau, Sanskrit, Sarawak, Sarawak Malay, Serbo-Croatian, Singapore, South Sumatra, Southeast Asia, Spanish East Indies, Srivijaya, Stop consonant, Strait of Malacca, Straits Settlements, Subject (grammar), Suffix, Sulu Archipelago, Sumatra, Sunda–Sulawesi languages, Sundanese language, Taiwan, Tamil language, Ternate, Ternate language, Thai alphabet, Thailand, The Star (Malaysia), Tone (linguistics), Trill consonant, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Velar consonant, Vernacular, Vietnam, Voice (grammar), Voice (phonetics), Voicelessness, Vowel harmony, West Kalimantan, West Papuan languages, Wiktionary, Youth Pledge, Zamboanga Peninsula. Expand index (132 more) » « Shrink index
Adityawarman was a king of Malayapura, a state in central Sumatra.
In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
In linguistics, a grammatical agent is the thematic relation of the cause or initiator to an event.
An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabic numerals, also called Hindu–Arabic numerals, are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, based on the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world today.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.
The Austronesian peoples are various groups in Southeast Asia, Oceania and East Africa that speak languages that are under the Austronesian language super-family.
The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (Awtonomong Rehiyon sa Muslim Mindanao, الحكم الذاتي الاقليمي لمسلمي مندناو Al-ḥukm adh-dhātiyy al-'aqlīmiyy limuslimiyy mindanāu; abbreviated ARMM) is an autonomous region of the Philippines, located in the Mindanao island group of the Philippines, that consists of five predominantly Muslim provinces: Basilan (except Isabela City), Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi.
The Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa (The Language Development and Fostering Agency), formerly Pusat Bahasa (Language Center) is the institution responsible for designing and regulating the growth of the Indonesian language in Indonesia.
, officially the, is a settlement_text in the province of,. According to the, it has a population of people.
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Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde (English title: Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences of Southeast Asia and Oceania) is a peer reviewed academic journal on Southeast Asia and Indonesia that was established in 1853 and was published by the Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies.
Borneo (Pulau Borneo) is the third largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The term British Malaya loosely describes a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the island of Singapore that were brought under British control between the 18th and the 20th centuries.
Brunei, officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi), is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.
Brunei Malay (Bahasa Melayu Brunei) is the most widely spoken language in Brunei and a lingua franca in some parts of East Malaysia, such as Labuan, Limbang, Lawas, Sipitang and Papar.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A central consonant, also known as a median consonant, is a consonant sound that is produced when air flows across the center of the mouth over the tongue.
The Cham alphabet is an abugida used to write Cham, an Austronesian language spoken by some 230,000 Chams in Vietnam and Cambodia.
The Chams, or Cham people (Cham: Urang Campa, người Chăm or người Chàm, ជនជាតិចាម), are an ethnic group of Austronesian origin in Southeast Asia.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
The Territory of Christmas Island is an Australian external territory comprising the island of the same name. Christmas Island is located in the Indian Ocean, around south of Java and Sumatra and around north-west of the closest point on the Australian mainland. It has an area of. Christmas Island had a population of 1,843 residents as of 2016, the majority of whom live in settlements on the northern tip of the island. The main settlement is Flying Fish Cove. Around two-thirds of the island's population is estimated to have Malaysian Chinese origin (though just 21.2% of the population declared a Chinese ancestry in 2016), with significant numbers of Malays and white Australians as well as smaller numbers of Malaysian Indians and Eurasians. Several languages are in use, including English, Malay, and various Chinese dialects. Islam and Buddhism are major religions on the island, though a vast majority of the population does not declare a formal religious affiliation and may be involved in ethnic Chinese religion. The first European to sight the island was Richard Rowe of the Thomas in 1615. The island was later named on Christmas Day (25 December) 1643 by Captain William Mynors, but only settled in the late 19th century. Its geographic isolation and history of minimal human disturbance has led to a high level of endemism among its flora and fauna, which is of interest to scientists and naturalists. The majority (63 percent) of the island is included in the Christmas Island National Park, which features several areas of primary monsoonal forest. Phosphate, deposited originally as guano, has been mined on the island since 1899.
A circumfix (abbreviated) or confix is an affix which has two parts, one placed at the start of a word, and the other at the end.
The Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands is an Australian external territory in the Indian Ocean, comprising a small archipelago approximately midway between Australia and Sri Lanka.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
Malaysian and Indonesian are two standardised registers of the Malay language, used in Malaysia and Indonesia, respectively.
In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.
The Federal Constitution of Malaya, which came into force in 1957, is the supreme law of Malaya.
, officially the (Dakbayan sa Dabaw, Lungsod ng Dabaw), is a highly urbanized city in the island of Mindanao,.
Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (Institute of Language and Literature, Jawi: ديوان بهاس دان ڤوستاک), abbreviated DBP, is the government body responsible for coordinating the use of the Malay language and Malay-language literature in Malaysia.
Dharmasraya is the capital and also the name of the 11th century Malay Hinduism kingdom based on the Batanghari river system in modern-day Jambi and West Sumatra, on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; Nederlands(ch)-Indië; Hindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
The Dutch (Dutch), occasionally referred to as Netherlanders—a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, "Nederlanders"—are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands.
East Malaysia (Malaysia Timur), also known as Sabah, Sarawak and Labuan (Sabah, Sarawak dan Labuan) or Malaysian Borneo, is the part of Malaysia on the island of Borneo, the world's third largest island.
East Timor or Timor-Leste (Tetum: Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (República Democrática de Timor-Leste, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is a sovereign state in Maritime Southeast Asia.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
Francisco Serrão (died 1521) was a Portuguese explorer and a cousin of Ferdinand Magellan.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Fusional languages or inflected languages are a type of synthetic languages, distinguished from agglutinative languages by their tendency to use a single inflectional morpheme to denote multiple grammatical, syntactic, or semantic features.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.
The Grantha script (Kiranta eḻuttu; ഗ്രന്ഥലിപി; grantha lipi) is an Indian script that was widely used between the sixth century and the 20th centuries by Tamil and Malayalam speakers in South India, particularly in Tamil Nadu and Kerala, to write Sanskrit and the classical language Manipravalam, and is still in restricted use in traditional Vedic schools (Sanskrit veda pāṭhaśālā).
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Malay is a major language of the Austronesian language family.
Hokkien (from) or (閩南語/閩南話), is a Southern Min Chinese dialect group originating from the Minnan region in the south-eastern part of Fujian Province in Southeastern China and Taiwan, and spoken widely there and by the Chinese diaspora in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines and other parts of Southeast Asia, and by other overseas Chinese all over the world.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
Indian religions, sometimes also termed as Dharmic faiths or religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.
Indonesian slang (bahasa gaul or bahasa prokém) is an informal language in Indonesia.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
The goal of braille uniformity is to unify the braille alphabets of the world as much as possible, so that literacy in one braille alphabet readily transfers to another.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam is the oldest recorded monotheistic religion in the Philippines.
Jambi is a province of Indonesia.
Jambi Malay (Jambi Malay: Baso Jambi, Indonesian: Bahasa Jambi or Bahasa Melayu Jambi) is a Malayan language spoken in Jambi province, Indonesia.
Javanese (colloquially known as) is the language of the Javanese people from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, in Indonesia.
Jawi (Jawi: Jāwī; Pattani: Yawi; Acehnese: Jawoë) is an Arabic alphabet for writing Malay, Acehnese, Banjarese, Minangkabau, Tausūg and several other languages in Southeast Asia.
Johor or Johore is a Malaysian state, located in the southern portion of Peninsular Malaysia.
The Sultanate of Johor (or sometimes Johor-Riau or Johor-Riau-Lingga or Johor Empire) was founded by Malaccan Sultan Mahmud Shah's son, Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah II in 1528.
Johor-Riau may refer to: Johor-Riau-Lingga-Pahang; a former Malay sultanate that partitioned into 2 following the Anglo Dutch Treaty in 1824.
Aksara Kawi (from Sanskrit: कवि "kavi" lit. "poet") or Aksara Jawa Kuna ("Old Javanese script") is the name given to the writing system originating in Java and used across much of Maritime Southeast Asia from the 8th century to around 1500 AD.
Kedah Malay or Kedahan (Also known as Pelat Utara or Loghat Utara 'Northern Dialect') also referred in Thailand as "Syburi Malay" (ภาษามลายูไทรบุรี) is a variety of the Malayan languages mainly spoken in the northwestern northern Malaysian states of Perlis, Kedah, Penang, and northern Perak and in the southern Thai provinces of Trang, Satun and parts of Yala, the usage of Kedahan Malay was historically prevalent in southwestern Thailand before being superseded by the Thai language.
The Kedukan Bukit Inscription was discovered by the Dutchman M. Batenburg on 29 November 1920 at Kedukan Bukit, South Sumatra, Indonesia, on the banks of the River Tatang, a tributary of the River Musi.
Kelantan-Pattani Malay, often referred to in Thailand as Yawi (in Thai) or Jawi (in Patani Malay), and in Kelantan as Baso Kelate, is a Malayan language spoken in the Malaysian state of Kelantan and the neighbouring southernmost provinces of Thailand.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
More than 700 living languages are spoken in Indonesia.
According to the Constitution of Singapore, the single national language of Singapore is Malay, which plays a symbolic role, as Malays are constitutionally recognized as the indigenous peoples of Singapore, and it is the government's duty to protect their language and heritage.
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Leiden (in English and archaic Dutch also Leyden) is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
This is a partial list of loanwords in English language, that were borrowed or derived, either directly or indirectly, from Malay language.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
MABBIM (shortform for Majlis Bahasa Brunei-Indonesia-Malaysia - "Language Council of Brunei-Indonesia-Malaysia") is a regional language organisation which is formed to plan and monitor the development of Malay language/Indonesian language in the region.
Malacca (Melaka; மலாக்கா) dubbed "The Historic State", is a state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca.
The Malacca Sultanate (Kesultanan Melayu Melaka; Jawi script: كسلطانن ملايو ملاك) was a Malay sultanate centred in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia.
Malagasy is an Austronesian language and the national language of Madagascar.
Malajoe Batawi: Kitab deri hal Perkataan-Perkataan Malajoe, Hal Memetjah Oedjar-Oedjar Malajoe dan Hal Pernahkan Tanda-Tanda Batja dan Hoeroef-Hoeroef Besar (better known by the short title Malajoe Batawi; Perfected Spelling: Melayu Betawi; literally Betawi Malay) is a grammar of the Malay language as spoken in Batavia (now Jakarta) written by Lie Kim Hok.
The modern Malay alphabet or Indonesian alphabet (Brunei, Malaysia and Singapore: Tulisan Rumi, literally "Roman script" or "Roman writing", Indonesia: "Tulisan Latin") consists of the 26 letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet without any diacritics.
The Malay Archipelago (Malaysian & Indonesian: Kepulauan Melayu/Nusantara, Tagalog: Kapuluang Malay, Visayan: Kapupud-ang Malay) is the archipelago between mainland Indochina and Australia.
The Malay Peninsula (Tanah Melayu, تانه ملايو; คาบสมุทรมลายู,, မလေး ကျွန်းဆွယ်, 马来半岛 / 馬來半島) is a peninsula in Southeast Asia.
In addition to its classical and literary form, Malay had various regional dialects established before the rise of the Malaccan Sultanate.
The Malay or Malayan languages are a group of closely related languages spoken by Malays and related peoples across Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Southern Thailand and the far southern parts of the Philippines.
The Malayic languages are a branch of the Austronesian family.
The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages, with approximately 385.5 million speakers.
The Malayo-Sumbawan languages are a proposed subgroup of the Austronesian languages that unites the Malayic and Chamic languages with the languages of Java and the western Lesser Sunda Islands, except for Javanese itself.
Malays (Orang Melayu, Jawi: أورڠ ملايو) are an Austronesian ethnic group that predominantly inhabit the Malay Peninsula, eastern Sumatra and coastal Borneo, as well as the smaller islands which lie between these locations — areas that are collectively known as the Malay world.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Malaysian English (MyE), formally known as Malaysian Standard English (MySE), is a form of English used and spoken in Malaysia.
The Malaysian language (bahasa Malaysia), or Malaysian Malay (bahasa Melayu Malaysia) is the name regularly applied to the Malay language used in Malaysia.
The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas are an archipelago within Banda Sea, Indonesia.
Manado Malay, or simply the Manado language, is a creole language spoken in Manado, the capital of North Sulawesi province in Indonesia, and the surrounding area.
Kod Tangan Bahasa Malaysia (KTBM), or Manually Coded Malay, is the only form of sign language recognized by the government in Malaysia as the language of communication for the Deaf.
Maritime Southeast Asia is the maritime region of Southeast Asia as opposed to mainland Southeast Asia and comprises what is now Malaysia, Brunei, Philippines, Singapore, Indonesia, and Timor Leste.
The Melayu Kingdom (also known as Malayu, Dharmasraya Kingdom or the Jambi Kingdom;, reconstructed Middle Chinese pronunciation mat-la-yu kwok)Muljana, Slamet, (2006), Sriwijaya, Yogyakarta: LKIS,.
Minangkabau (autonym: Baso Minang(kabau); Bahasa Minangkabau) is an Austronesian language spoken by the Minangkabau of West Sumatra, the western part of Riau, South Aceh Regency, the northern part of Bengkulu and Jambi, also in several cities throughout Indonesia by migrated Minangkabau.
Minangkabau people (Minangkabau: Urang Minang; Indonesian: Suku Minang; Jawi script: اورڠ مينڠ), also known as Minang, are an ethnic group indigenous to the Minangkabau Highlands of West Sumatra, Indonesia.
Mindanao is the second largest island in the Philippines.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Although every language is mixed to some extent, by virtue of containing loanwords, it is a matter of controversy whether a term mixed language can meaningfully distinguish the contact phenomena of certain languages (such as those listed below) from the type of contact and borrowing seen in all languages.
Morphological derivation, in linguistics, is the process of forming a new word from an existing word, often by adding a prefix or suffix, such as For example, happiness and unhappy derive from the root word happy.
The Musi River is located in southern Sumatra, Indonesia.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
The Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian languages are a putative branch of the Austronesian family, proposed by Wouk & Ross (2002), that are thought to have dispersed from a possible homeland in Sulawesi.
Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.
Orang Asli (lit. "original people", "natural people" or "aboriginal people" in Malay) are the indigenous people and the oldest inhabitants of Peninsular Malaysia.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
Palawan (pron.), officially the Province of Palawan (Cuyonon: Probinsya i'ang Palawan / Paragua; Kapuoran sang Palawan; Lalawigan ng Palawan) is an archipelagic province of the Philippines that is located in the region of MIMAROPA.
The Pallava script, a Brahmic script, was developed under the Pallava dynasty of Southern India around the 6th century AD.
Patois (pl. same or) is speech or language that is considered nonstandard, although the term is not formally defined in linguistics.
Penang is a Malaysian state located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia, by the Malacca Strait.
Peninsular Malaysia also known as Malaya or West Malaysia, is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula and surrounding islands.
Peranakan Chinese, or Straits-born Chinese, are the descendants of Chinese immigrants who came to the Malay archipelago including British Malaya (now Malaysia and Singapore, where they are also referred to as Baba-Nyonya) and Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia; where they are also referred as Kiau-Seng) and southern Thailand, primarily in Phuket and Ranong between the 15th and 17th centuries.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word.
The Proto-Austronesian language (PAN) is the reconstructed ancestor of the Austronesian languages, one of the world's major language families.
The Proto-Malayo-Polynesian language (PMP) is the reconstructed ancestor of the Malayo-Polynesian languages, which is by far the largest branch (by current speakers) of the Austronesian language family.
Reduplication in linguistics is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word (or part of it) or even the whole word is repeated exactly or with a slight change.
In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.
Rencong, or "Rentjong," is a general term used to refer to any native writing systems found in central and south Sumatra, including Kerinci, Bengkulu, Palembang and Lampung.
Riau (Jawi), is a province of Indonesia.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sarawak is a state of Malaysia.
Sarawak Malay (Standard Malay: Bahasa Melayu Sarawak or Bahasa Sarawak, Jawi: بهاس ملايو سراوق, Sarawak Malay: Kelakar Sarawak) is a Malayan language native to the State of Sarawak, Malaysia.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
South Sumatra (Sumatera Selatan) is a province of Indonesia.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The Spanish East Indies (Spanish: Indias orientales españolas; Filipino: Silangang Indiyas ng Espanya) were the Spanish territories in Asia-Pacific from 1565 until 1899.
Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya, Indonesian/Malay: Sriwijaya, Javanese: ꦯꦿꦶꦮꦶꦗꦪ, Sundanese:, ศรีวิชัย, Sanskrit: श्रीविजय, Śrīvijaya, Khmer: ស្រីវិជ័យ "Srey Vichey", known by the Chinese as Shih-li-fo-shih and San-fo-ch'i t) was a dominant thalassocratic Malay city-state based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
The Strait of Malacca (Selat Melaka, Selat Malaka; Jawi: سلت ملاک) or Straits of Malacca is a narrow, stretch of water between the Malay Peninsula (Peninsular Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra.
The Straits Settlements (Negeri-negeri Selat, نݢري٢ سلت) were a group of British territories located in Southeast Asia.
The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
The Sulu Archipelago (Tausug: Sūg, Kepulauan Sulu, Kapuluan ng Sulu) is a chain of islands in the Pacific Ocean, in the southwestern Philippines.
Sumatra is an Indonesian island in Southeast Asia that is part of the Sunda Islands.
The Sunda–Sulawesi languages (also known as Inner Hesperonesian or Inner Western Malayo-Polynesian languages) are a putative branch of the Austronesian family posited in Wouk and Ross (2002).
Sundanese (in Sundanese script ᮘᮞ ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ, literally "language of Sunda") is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by the Sundanese.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Ternate is an island in the Maluku Islands (Moluccas) of eastern Indonesia.
Ternate or Ternatese is a North Halmahera language spoken on the island of Ternate, and some neighboring areas in North Maluku, including Kayoa, the Bacan islands and Halmahera.
Thai alphabet (อักษรไทย) is used to write the Thai, Southern Thai and other languages in Thailand.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Star is an English-language, tabloid-format newspaper in Malaysia.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the language or variety of a language used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
Vowel harmony is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels that occurs in some languages.
West Kalimantan (Kalimantan Barat, Malay: كليمنتان بارت,; Hakka: Sî-Kâ-lí-màn-tân; Teochew: Sai-Gia-li-man-dang) is a province of Indonesia.
The West Papuan languages are a language family of about two dozen Papuan languages of the Bird's Head Peninsula (Vogelkop or Doberai Peninsula) of far western New Guinea and the island of Halmahera, spoken by about 220,000 people in all.
Wiktionary is a multilingual, web-based project to create a free content dictionary of all words in all languages.
The Youth Pledge (Sumpah Pemuda) was a declaration made on 28 October 1928 by young Indonesian nationalists in the Second Youth Congress (Kongres Pemuda Kedua).
Zamboanga Peninsula (Chavacano: Peninsula de Zamboanga; Tangway ng Zamboanga; Península de Zamboanga) is an administrative region in the Philippines, designated as Region IX.
Bahasa Melayu, Basa Melayu, Bhasa Melayu, Colloquial Malay language, ISO 639:may, ISO 639:mly, ISO 639:ms, ISO 639:msa, ISO 639:zlm, Individual language Malay, Malay (individual language), Malay (language), Malay (macrolanguage), Malay (macrolanguage) language, Malay Language, Malay Languages, Malay langauge, Malay language (generic), Malay-language, بهاس ملايو, 馬來語, 马来语.