109 relations: Abugida, Allophone, Anusvara, Apical consonant, Approximant consonant, Arabi Malayalam, Aramaic alphabet, Arthur Coke Burnell, Aspirated consonant, Assimilation (phonology), Avagraha, Betta Kurumba language, Brahmi script, Brahmic scripts, Character encoding, Chola dynasty, Code point, Consonant, Coorgi–Cox alphabet, Danda, Dental and alveolar flaps, Dental consonant, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar nasals, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar trills, Devanagari, Diacritic, Digraph (orthography), Diphthong, Dravidian languages, Elision, Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., Gemination, Government of Kerala, Government of Tamil Nadu, Grantha script, Hard palate, Hermann Gundert, India, Indian Script Code for Information Interchange, Indo-Aryan languages, Inherent vowel, International Phonetic Alphabet, Iota subscript, ISO 15919, Kerala, Kerala Gazette, Kerala New Year, Kochi metropolitan area, Kolezhuthu, ..., Labial consonant, Letter case, Malabar Coast, Malayalam, Malayalam Braille, Malayali, Malayanma, Manipravalam, Monophthong, Mulabhadra, Nasal consonant, Nasal vowel, Nasalization, Orthography, Palatal consonant, Paniya language, Phoenician alphabet, Phoneme, Postalveolar consonant, Proto-Indo-European language, Proto-Sinaitic script, Rajashekhara Varman, Ravula language, Retroflex consonant, Roundedness, Sanskrit, Semantics, SIL International, Sinhalese alphabet, Sooranad Kunjan Pillai, Subapical consonant, Suriyani Malayalam, Tamil language, Tamil Nadu, Tamil script, Tamil-Brahmi, Thiruvananthapuram, Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan, Tigalari script, Tulu language, Typographic ligature, Unicase, Unicode, Unicode Consortium, Vatteluttu alphabet, Vazhappally, Vedic Sanskrit, Velar consonant, Verse (poetry), Virama, Visarga, Voice (phonetics), Voiceless dental and alveolar stops, Voiceless retroflex affricate, Voicelessness, Vowel, Vowel length, Zero-width joiner, Zero-width non-joiner. Expand index (59 more) » « Shrink index
An abugida (from Ge'ez: አቡጊዳ ’abugida), or alphasyllabary, is a segmental writing system in which consonant–vowel sequences are written as a unit: each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is secondary.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
Anusvara (Sanskrit: अनुस्वारः) is the diacritic used to mark a type of nasal sound used in a number of Indic scripts.
An apical consonant is a phone (speech sound) produced by obstructing the air passage with the tip of the tongue.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Arabi Malayalam (Malayalam: അറബി മലയാളം, Arabi Malayalam: عَرَبِ مَلَیَاۻَمٛ) is a writing system - a variant form of the Arabic script with special orthographic features - for writing Malayalam.
The ancient Aramaic alphabet is adapted from the Phoenician alphabet and became distinct from it by the 8th century BCE.
Arthur Coke Burnell (11 July 184012 October 1882) was an English scholar in Sanskrit He is probably best known as the co-compiler of Hobson-Jobson, a compendium of Anglo-Indian terms.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.
Avagraha (Symbol: ऽ) symbol used to indicate prodelision of an अ in many Indian languages as shown below.
The Betta Kurumba language (Beṭṭa Kurumba) is a Dravidian language closely related to Tamil, and is spoken by 32,000 people in the Nilgiri mountains and in adjoining areas in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala.
Brahmi (IAST) is the modern name given to one of the oldest writing systems used in Ancient India and present South and Central Asia from the 1st millennium BCE.
The Brahmic scripts are a family of abugida or alphabet writing systems.
Character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system.
The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of southern India.
In character encoding terminology, a code point or code position is any of the numerical values that make up the code space.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
The Coorgi–Cox alphabet is an alphabet developed by the linguist Gregg M. Cox and is used by a number of individuals within Kodagu district of India.
In Indic scripts, the danda (Sanskrit: दण्ड "stick") is a punctuation character.
The alveolar tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
The alveolar nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in numerous spoken languages.
The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages.
Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore.
In linguistics, an elision or deletion is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. is a Scottish-founded, now American company best known for publishing the Encyclopædia Britannica, the world's oldest continuously published encyclopedia.
Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.
The Government of Kerala headquartered at Thiruvananthapuram is a democratically elected body that governs the Indian State of Kerala.
The Government of Tamil Nadu is the governing authority for the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
The Grantha script (Kiranta eḻuttu; ഗ്രന്ഥലിപി; grantha lipi) is an Indian script that was widely used between the sixth century and the 20th centuries by Tamil and Malayalam speakers in South India, particularly in Tamil Nadu and Kerala, to write Sanskrit and the classical language Manipravalam, and is still in restricted use in traditional Vedic schools (Sanskrit veda pāṭhaśālā).
The hard palate is a thin horizontal bony plate of the skull, located in the roof of the mouth.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indian Script Code for Information Interchange (ISCII) is a coding scheme for representing various writing systems of India.
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.
An inherent vowel is part of an abugida (or alphasyllabary) script.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
The iota subscript is a diacritic mark in the Greek alphabet shaped like a small vertical stroke or miniature iota placed below the letter.
ISO 15919 "Transliteration of Devanagari and related Indic scripts into Latin characters" is one of a series of international standards for romanization.
Kerala is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast.
The Kerala Gazette is an official weekly journal released by the government of Kerala, India.
The Kerala New Year (Malayalam Calendar) is on the day of vernal equinox, i.e., the day when the sun is considered to move from the northern to the southern hemisphere.
The Kochi metropolitan area or Kochi urban agglomeration is an urban agglomeration centred around the city of Kochi, India.
Kolezhuthu (கோலெழுத்து, കോലെഴുത്ത്) is one of the oldest writing systems in South India.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.
The Malabar Coast is a long, narrow coastline on the southwestern shore line of the mainland Indian subcontinent.
Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken across the Indian state of Kerala by the Malayali people and it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India.
Malayalam Braille is one of the Bharati braille alphabets, and it largely conforms to the letter values of the other Bharati alphabets.
The Malayali people or Keralite people (also spelt Malayalee, Malayalam script: മലയാളി and കേരളീയൻ) are an Indian ethnic group originating from the present-day state of Kerala, located in South India.
Malayanma script was a writing system used in Thiruvananthapuram.
Manipravalam മണിപ്രവാളം (Macaronic) was a literary style used in medieval liturgical texts in South India, which used an admixture of Proto Tamil-Malayalam language and Sanskrit.
A monophthong (Greek monóphthongos from mónos "single" and phthóngos "sound") is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation.
Mūlabhadra (മൂലഭദ്ര) aka Mūlabhadri (ml:മൂലഭദ്രി) was a secret method of communication employed by the royal spies of the erstwhile Travancore Kingdom during the medieval period.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.
In phonetics, nasalization (or nasalisation) is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that some air escapes through the nose during the production of the sound by the mouth.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
Paniya is one of the Dravidian languages of India.
The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Proto-Sinaitic, also referred to as Sinaitic, Proto-Canaanite, Old Canaanite, or Canaanite, is a term for both a Middle Bronze Age (Middle Kingdom) script attested in a small corpus of inscriptions found at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, and the reconstructed common ancestor of the Paleo-Hebrew, Phoenician and South Arabian scripts (and, by extension, of most historical and modern alphabets).
Rama Rajasekhara (reign c. 800—844 AD), better known as Ceraman Perumal Nayanar, is the first known ruler of the Ceras of Cranganore (c. 800—1124 CE).
Ravula, known locally as Yerava or Adiyan, is a Dravidian language of Karnataka and Kerala.
A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics) is a U.S.-based, worldwide, Christian non-profit organization, whose main purpose is to study, develop and document languages, especially those that are lesser-known, in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy, translate the Christian Bible into local languages, and aid minority language development.
The Sinhalese alphabet (Sinhalese: සිංහල අක්ෂර මාලාව) (Siṁhala Akṣara Mālāva) is an alphabet used by the Sinhalese people in Sri Lanka and elsewhere to write the Sinhalese language and also the liturgical languages Pali and Sanskrit.
Sooranad P. N. Kunjan Pillai was a historian, researcher, lexicographer, poet, essayist, literary critic, orator, socio-cultural leader, grammarian, educationist, and scholar of the Malayalam language.
A subapical consonant is a consonant made by contact with the underside of the tip of the tongue.
Suriyani Malayalam (സുറിയാനി മലയാളം, ܣܘܼܝܲܢܝܼ ܡܲܠܲܝܵܠܲܡ), also known as Karshoni or Syriac Malayalam, is a dialect of Malayalam written in a variant form of Syriac script which was popular among the Saint Thomas Christians (also known as Syrian Christians or Nasranis) of Kerala in India.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.
The Tamil script (தமிழ் அரிச்சுவடி) is an abugida script that is used by Tamils and Tamil speakers in India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore and elsewhere to write the Tamil language, as well as to write the liturgical language Sanskrit, using consonants and diacritics not represented in the Tamil alphabet.
Tamil-Brahmi, or Tamili, is a variant of the Brahmi script used to write the Tamil language.
Thiruvananthapuram, also known as Trivandrum, is the capital and the largest city of the Indian state of Kerala.
Thunchaththu Ramanujan Ezhuthachan (തുഞ്ചത്ത് രാമാനുജൻ എഴുത്തച്ഛൻ) was a Malayalam devotional poet and linguist from around the 16th century.
Tigalari or Tulu (Tigaḷāri lipi, Tuḷu lipi) The script is also referred to as Arya Ezhuttu, Grantha Malayalam, Tulu Grantha, Tulu-Malayalam, and Western Grantha.
Tulu (Tulu: ತುಳು ಭಾಷೆ Tulu bāse) is a Dravidian language spoken by around 2.5 million native speakers mainly in the south west part of the Indian state of Karnataka and in the Kasaragod district of Kerala which is collectively known as Tulu Nadu.
In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.
A unicase or unicameral alphabet is one that has no case for its letters.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
The Unicode Consortium (Unicode Inc.) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization that coordinates the development of the Unicode standard, based in Mountain View, California.
The Vaṭṭeḻuttu alphabet, also spelled Vattezhutthu (literally "rounded script", வட்டெழுத்து,,; വട്ടെഴുത്ത്) is an abugida writing system originating from the ancient Tamil people of South India.
Vazhappally is a suburb of Changanasserry.
Vedic Sanskrit is an Indo-European language, more specifically one branch of the Indo-Iranian group.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
In the countable sense, a verse is formally a single metrical line in a poetic composition.
Virama (्) is a generic term for the diacritic in many Brahmic scripts, ்including Devanagari and Eastern Nagari script, used to suppress the inherent vowel that otherwise occurs with every consonant letter.
Visarga (IAST) (विसर्गः) meaning "sending forth, discharge".
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
The voiceless alveolar stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages.
The voiceless retroflex sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
The zero-width joiner (ZWJ) is a non-printing character used in the computerized typesetting of some complex scripts such as the Arabic script or any Indic script.
The zero-width non-joiner (ZWNJ) is a non-printing character used in the computerization of writing systems that make use of ligatures.
Aryalipi, Aryashti script, ISO 15924:Mlym, Malayalam (script), Malayalam Alphabet, Malayalam Script, Malayalam alphabet, Malayalam letter, Malayalam letters, Mlym (script), Samvṛtōkāram, അ, ആ, ഇ, ഈ, ഉ, ഊ, ഋ, ഌ, എ, ഏ, ഐ, ഒ, ഓ, ഔ, ക, ഖ, ഗ, ഘ, ങ, ച, ഛ, ജ, ഝ, ഞ, ട, ടു, ഠ, ഡ, ഢ, ണ, ത, ഥ, ദ, ധ, ന, ഩ, പ, ഫ, ബ, ഭ, മ, യ, ര, റ, ല, ള, ഴ, വ, ശ, ഷ, സ, ഹ, ഺ, ഽ, ാ, ി, ീ, ു, ൂ, ൃ, ൄ, െ, േ, ൈ, ൊ, ോ, ൌ, ്, ൎ, ൗ, ൠ, ൡ, ൢ, ൣ, ൰, ൱, ൲, ൳, ൴, ൵, ൹, ൺ, ൻ, ർ, ൽ, ൾ, ൿ.