82 relations: Activin and inhibin, Adjudin, Adverse effect, Aldehyde dehydrogenase, Amaranthaceae, Antigen, Aristolochia indica, Aristolochiaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Ayurveda, Azadirachta indica, Azoospermia, Birth control, BRDT, Calcium channel blocker, Cannabis sativa, Castration, Chinese herbology, Chromatin remodeling, Coitus interruptus, Combined oral contraceptive pill, Condom, Cyperaceae, Dimethyl sulfoxide, Dysphania ambrosioides, Epididymis, Erection, Food and Drug Administration, Gamendazole, Gamete, Gossypium herbaceum, Gossypol, Heat-based contraception, Hemp, Hippocrates, HIV/AIDS, Immunocontraception, JQ1, Libido, Long-acting reversible contraception, Lonidamine, Malvaceae, Mechanism of action, Medroxyprogesterone acetate, Microorganism, Miglustat, New York Daily News, Nifedipine, Non-penetrative sex, Papaya, ..., Pedanius Dioscorides, Phenoxybenzamine, Pomegranate, Pregnancy, Punica, Research and development, Retinal, Retinoic acid, Reversible inhibition of sperm under guidance, Ruta graveolens, Sarangadhara, Sertoli cell, Sexual intercourse, Sexually transmitted infection, Silodosin, Sperm, Spermatid, Spermatogenesis, Spermicide, Styrene maleic anhydride, Sushruta, Testosterone (medication), Testosterone undecanoate, Trestolone, Tripterygium wilfordii, Ultrasound, Urethra, Vas deferens, Vas-occlusive contraception, Vasectomy, Verbenaceae, Vitamin A. Expand index (32 more) » « Shrink index
Activin and inhibin are two closely related protein complexes that have almost directly opposite biological effects.
Adjudin (AF-2364) is a drug which is under development as a potential non-hormonal male contraceptive drug, which acts by blocking the production of sperm in the testes, but without affecting testosterone production.
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
Aldehyde dehydrogenases are a group of enzymes that catalyse the oxidation of aldehydes.
Amaranthaceae is a family of flowering plants commonly known as the amaranth family, in reference to its type genus Amaranthus.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
Aristolochia indica (native language: Garudakkodi / Eswaramooli) is a creeper plant found in Southern India and also Sri Lanka.
The Aristolochiaceae are a family, the birthwort family, of flowering plants with seven genera and about 400 known species belonging to the order Piperales.
According to APG II, the Asclepiadaceae, commonly known as milkweed family, is a former plant family now treated as a subfamily (subfamily Asclepiadoideae) in the Apocynaceae (Bruyns 2000).
Ayurveda is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent.
Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, nimtree or Indian lilac, is a tree in the mahogany family Meliaceae.
Azoospermia is the medical condition of a man whose semen contains no sperm.
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.
Bromodomain testis-specific protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BRDT gene.
Calcium channel blockers (CCB), calcium channel antagonists or calcium antagonists are several medications that disrupt the movement of calcium through calcium channels.
Cannabis sativa is an annual herbaceous flowering plant indigenous to eastern Asia but now of cosmopolitan distribution due to widespread cultivation.
Castration (also known as gonadectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles.
Chinese herbology is the theory of traditional Chinese herbal therapy, which accounts for the majority of treatments in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).
Chromatin remodeling is the dynamic modification of chromatin architecture to allow access of condensed genomic DNA to the regulatory transcription machinery proteins, and thereby control gene expression.
Coitus interruptus, also known as the rejected sexual intercourse, withdrawal or pull-out method, is a method of birth control in which a man, during sexual intercourse, withdraws his penis from a woman's vagina prior to orgasm (and ejaculation) and then directs his ejaculate (semen) away from the vagina in an effort to avoid insemination.
The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a type of birth control that is designed to be taken orally by women.
A condom is a sheath-shaped barrier device, used during sexual intercourse to reduce the probability of pregnancy or a sexually transmitted infection (STI).
The Cyperaceae are a family of monocotyledonous graminoid flowering plants known as sedges, which superficially resemble grasses and rushes.
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an organosulfur compound with the formula (CH3)2SO.
Dysphania ambrosioides, formerly Chenopodium ambrosioides, known as wormseed, Jesuit's tea, Mexican-tea, payqu (paico), epazote, mastruz, or herba sanctæ Mariæ, is an annual or short-lived perennial herb native to Central America, South America, and southern Mexico.
The epididymis (plural: epididymides or) is a tube that connects a testicle to a vas deferens in the male reproductive system.
An erection (clinically: penile erection or penile tumescence) is a physiological phenomenon in which the penis becomes firm, engorged, and enlarged.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Gamendazole is a drug candidate for male contraception. It is an indazole carboxylic acid derived from lonidamine (LND). It has been shown to reduce fertility in male rats without affecting testosterone levels, but human clinical trials have not been started.
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.
Gossypium herbaceum, commonly known as Levant cotton, is a species of cotton native to the semi-arid regions of sub-Saharan Africa and Arabia where it still grows in the wild as a perennial shrub.
Gossypol is a natural phenol derived from the cotton plant (genus Gossypium).
An experimental male contraceptive method involves heating the testicles so that they cannot produce sperm.
Hemp, or industrial hemp (from Old English hænep), typically found in the northern hemisphere, is a variety of the Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for the industrial uses of its derived products.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
In the strictest sense immunocontraception is the use of an animal's immune system to prevent it from fertilizing offspring.
JQ1 is a thienotriazolodiazepine and a potent inhibitor of the BET family of bromodomain proteins which include BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, and the testis-specific protein BRDT in mammals.
Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.
Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) are methods of birth control that provide effective contraception for an extended period without requiring user action.
Lonidamine is a derivative of indazole-3-carboxylic acid, which for a long time, has been known to inhibit aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells.
Malvaceae, or the mallows, is a family of flowering plants estimated to contain 244 genera with 4225 known species.
In pharmacology, the term mechanism of action (MOA) refers to the specific biochemical interaction through which a drug substance produces its pharmacological effect.
Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), sold under the brand name Depo-Provera among others, is a hormonal medication of the progestin type.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Miglustat (OGT 918, N-butyl-deoxynojirimycin) is a drug developed by Oxford GlycoSciences and marketed by Actelion and is used primarily to treat type I Gaucher disease (GD1).
The New York Daily News, officially titled Daily News, is an American newspaper based in New York City.
Nifedipine, sold under the brand names Adalat among others, is a medication used to manage angina, high blood pressure, Raynaud's phenomenon, and premature labor.
Non-penetrative sex or outercourse is sexual activity that usually does not include sexual penetration.
The papaya (from Carib via Spanish), papaw, or pawpaw is the plant Carica papaya, one of the 22 accepted species in the genus Carica of the family Caricaceae.
Pedanius Dioscorides (Πεδάνιος Διοσκουρίδης, Pedianos Dioskorides; 40 – 90 AD) was a Greek physician, pharmacologist, botanist, and author of De Materia Medica (Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς, On Medical Material) —a 5-volume Greek encyclopedia about herbal medicine and related medicinal substances (a pharmacopeia), that was widely read for more than 1,500 years.
Phenoxybenzamine (marketed under the trade name Dibenzyline) is a non-selective, irreversible alpha blocker.
The pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree in the family Lythraceae that grows between tall.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Punica is a small genus of fruit-bearing deciduous shrubs or small trees.
Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.
Retinal is also known as retinaldehyde.
Retinoic acid is a metabolite of vitamin A (retinol) that mediates the functions of vitamin A required for growth and development.
Reversible inhibition of sperm under guidance (RISUG), formerly referred to as the synthetic polymer styrene maleic anhydride (SMA), is the development name of a male contraceptive injection developed at IIT Kharagpur in India by the team of Dr.
Ruta graveolens, commonly known as rue, common rue or herb-of-grace, is a species of Ruta grown as an ornamental plant and herb.
Sarangadhara is an epic story during the reign of Rajaraja Narendra.
A Sertoli cell (a kind of sustentacular cell) is a "nurse" cell of the testicles that is part of a seminiferous tubule and helps in the process of spermatogenesis, the production of sperm.
Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.
Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or venereal diseases (VD), are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex.
Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").
The spermatid is the haploid male gametid that results from division of secondary spermatocytes.
Spermatogenesis is the process by which haploid spermatozoa develop from germ cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testis.
Spermicide is a contraceptive substance that destroys sperm, inserted vaginally prior to intercourse to prevent pregnancy.
Styrene maleic anhydride (SMA or SMAnh) is a synthetic polymer that is built-up of styrene and maleic anhydride monomers.
Sushruta, or Suśruta (Sanskrit: सुश्रुत, lit. "well heard") was an ancient Indian physician during 1500 BCE to 1000 BCE, known as the main author of the treatise The Compendium of Suśruta (Sanskrit: ''Suśruta-saṃhitā'').
Testosterone is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.
Testosterone undecanoate, sold under the brand names Nebido, Aveed, and Andriol among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used mainly in the treatment of low testosterone levels in men.
Trestolone, also known as 7α-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT), is an experimental androgen/anabolic steroid (AAS) and progestogen medication which has been under development for potential use as a form of hormonal birth control for men and in androgen replacement therapy for low testosterone levels in men but has never been marketed for medical use.
Tripterygium wilfordii, or léi gōng téng (Mandarin) (Chinese:雷公藤, Japanese: raikōtō), sometimes called thunder god vine but more properly translated thunder duke vine, is a vine used in traditional Chinese medicine.
Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.
In anatomy, the urethra (from Greek οὐρήθρα – ourḗthrā) is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus for the removal of urine from the body.
The vas deferens (Latin: "carrying-away vessel"; plural: vasa deferentia), also called ductus deferens (Latin: "carrying-away duct"; plural: ductus deferentes), is part of the male reproductive system of many vertebrates; these vasa transport sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory ducts in anticipation of ejaculation.
Vas-occlusive contraception is a form of male contraception that blocks sperm transport in the vas deferens, the tubes that carry sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory ducts.
Vasectomy is a surgical procedure for male sterilization or permanent contraception.
The Verbenaceae are a family, commonly known as the verbena family or vervain family, of mainly tropical flowering plants.
Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably beta-carotene).
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