220 relations: Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Othman, Abu Bakr (mansa), Abu Bakr (name), Abu Bakr II, Abu-Abdullah Adelabu, Adobe, Afar people, African empires, Afterlife, Al-Andalus, Al-Bakri, Al-Maqrizi, Al-Qalqashandi, Alms, Alvise Cadamosto, An-Nasir Muhammad, Anatolian beyliks, Andalusia, Anglicisation, Anno Domini, Aoudaghost, Arabian Peninsula, Arabic, Arabs, Askia Daoud, Askia Ishaq I, Askia Mohammad I, AWQAF Africa, Baibars, Bamana Empire, Bambara people, Bambouk, Battle of Jenné, Battle of Kirina, Bilal ibn Rabah, Bitòn Coulibaly, Bozo language, Burkina Faso, Cairo, Camel train, Casamance, Caste, Christian, Copper, Culture of Yemen, Dankaran Touman, Dédougou, Denianke Dynasty, Dinar, Diogo Gomes, ..., Dioman, Dirham, Djenné, Djibouti, Draa River, Ducat, Egypt, Eid al-Fitr, Elephant, Elmina, Emirate of Granada, Empire of Great Fulo, Essouk, Ethiopian Empire, Faama, Falcon, Fouta Djallon, Freedman, Fula language, Fula people, Fusilier, Futa Tooro, Gambia River, Gao, Gao Empire, Gbara, Ghana, Ghana Empire, Gold, Golden Age, Great Mosque of Djenné, Griot, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Hajj, Hejaz, Hijri year, History in Africa, History of Islam, Ibn Battuta, Ibn Khaldun, Indentured servitude, Islam, Islamic studies, Ivory Coast, Jan Jansen (historian), Jihad, Jolof Empire, Joseph Ki-Zerbo, Kaabu, Kanem–Bornu Empire, Kangaba, Kassi (empress), Keita dynasty, Khalifa (mansa), Kingdom of Portugal, Kirané Kaniaga, Kissidougou, Kita, Mali, Koro, Mali, Kouroukan Fouga, Kouroussa, Lamtuna, Leo Africanus, Library of Alexandria, Lion, List of Sunni Muslim dynasties, Macina, Mali, Madrasa, Maghan I, Maghan III, Mahmud II (mansa), Mahmud III, Mahmud IV (mansa), Mail (armour), Mamluk, Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo), Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library, Manding languages, Mandinka language, Mandinka people, Maninka language, Mansa (title), Mari Djata II of Mali, Marinid dynasty, Marrakesh, Mauritania, Méma, Mecca, Middle Ages, Military history of the Mali Empire, Millet, Mithqal, Mongol Empire, Mosque, Mossi people, Mudbrick, Muezzin, Muhammad, Muhammad al-Idrisi, Musa I of Mali, Musa II of Mali, Musa III of Mali, Muslim, Muslim world, Niani, Guinea, Niger, Niger River, Old World, Oral tradition, Ouaddaï highlands, Oualata, Pasha, Poles, Prophets and messengers in Islam, Pulaar language, R., Ramadan, Republic of Venice, Routledge, Sahabah, Sahara, Sahel, Sakoura Mansa, Salt, Sandaki (mansa), Sankore Madrasah, Ségou, Senegal, Senegal River, Shell money, Shihab al-Umari, Siguiri, Sijilmasa, Songhai Empire, Songhai people, Soninke people, Soninke Wangara, Sonni Ali, Sosso Empire, Soumaoro Kanté, Sub-Saharan Africa, Sudan (region), Sudano-Sahelian architecture, Suleyman (mansa), Sultan, Sundiata Keita, Taghaza, Takedda, Takrur, Tarikh al-Sudan, The Gambia, Timbuktu, Tiramakhan Traore, Toucouleur people, Traditional African religions, Trans-Saharan trade, Tributary state, Tripoli, Tuareg people, Twelve Doors of Mali, Uli I of Mali, Uli II, Wassoulou, Wati (mansa), William Muir, Wolof people, Working animal, Yatenga Province, Za Dynasty. Expand index (170 more) » « Shrink index
Abu Al-Hasan 'Ali ibn 'Othman (c. 1297 – May 24, 1351) was a sultan of the Marinid dynasty who reigned in Morocco between 1331 and 1348.
Abu Bakr, also known as Abubakari I or Manding Bory, was the fifth Mansa (Emperor) of the Mali Empire, reigning from 1275 to 1285.
Abu Bakr (أبو بكر.) was a sahabi, one of the companions of Muhammad and the first Caliph of Sunni Islam.
Abu Bakr II (fl. 14th century), also spelled Abubakri and known as Mansa Qu, may have been the ninth mansa of the Mali Empire.
Abdul-Fattah Abu-Abdullah Taiye Ejire Adelabu (عبد الفتّاح أبو عبد الله تَائيي أيجيري أديلابو) or simply Sheikh Adelabu (الشيخ أديلابو), also known as Al-Afriqi (الإفريقي) or Shaykh Al-Afriqi (الشيخ الإفريقي) is a Nigerian Muslim scholar, writer, academic, publisher and cleric from Osogbo, capital city of Osun State, Nigeria.
Adobe is a building material made from earth and other organic materials.
The Afar (Qafár), also known as the Danakil, Adali and Odali, are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa.
African empires is an umbrella term used in African studies to refer to a number of pre-colonial African kingdoms in Africa with multinational structures incorporating various populations and polities into a single entity, usually through conquest.
Afterlife (also referred to as life after death or the hereafter) is the belief that an essential part of an individual's identity or the stream of consciousness continues to manifest after the death of the physical body.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
, or simply Al-Bakri (أبو عبيد عبدالله بن عبد العزيز البكري) (c. 1014–1094) was an Andalusian Arab historian and the greatest geographer of the Muslim West.
Taqi al-Din Abu al-Abbas Ahmad ibn 'Ali ibn 'Abd al-Qadir ibn Muhammad al-Maqrizi (1364–1442)Franz Rosenthal,.
Shihab al-Din abu 'l-Abbas Ahmad ben Ali ben Ahmad Abd Allah al-Qalqashandi (1355 or 1356 – 1418) was a medieval Egyptian writer and mathematician.
Alms or almsgiving involves giving to others as an act of virtue, either materially or in the sense of providing capabilities (e.g. education) free.
Alvise Cadamosto or Alvide da Ca' da Mosto (also known in Portuguese as Luís Cadamosto; c. 1432 – July 18, 1488) was an Venetian slave trader and explorer, who was hired by the Portuguese prince Henry the Navigator and undertook two known journeys to West Africa in 1455 and 1456, accompanied by the Genoese captain Antoniotto Usodimare.
Al-Malik an-Nasir Nasir ad-Din Muhammad ibn Qalawun (الملك الناصر ناصر الدين محمد بن قلاوون), commonly known as an-Nasir Muhammad (الناصر محمد), or by his kunya: Abu al-Ma'ali (أبو المعالى) or as Ibn Qalawun (1285–1341) was the ninth Turkic Mamluk sultan of Egypt who ruled for three reigns: December 1293–December 1294, 1299–1309, and 1310 until his death in 1341.
Anatolian beyliks (Anadolu beylikleri, Ottoman Turkish: Tavâif-i mülûk, Beylik), sometimes known as Turkmen beyliks, were small principalities (or petty kingdoms) in Anatolia governed by Beys, the first of which were founded at the end of the 11th century.
Andalusia (Andalucía) is an autonomous community in southern Spain.
Anglicisation (or anglicization, see English spelling differences), occasionally anglification, anglifying, englishing, refers to modifications made to foreign words, names and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English.
The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
Aoudaghost (also transliterated as Awadaghust, Awdughast, Awdaghusht and Awdhaghurst) is a former Berber town in Hodh El Gharbi, Mauritania.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Askia Daoud (also Askia Dawud) was ruler of the Songhai Empire from 1549 to 1582.
Askia Ishaq I was ruler of the Songhai Empire from 1539 to 1549, elected Askia following the death of Askiya Ismail.
Askia Muhammad I (ca. 1443 – 1538), born Muhammad Ture or Mohamed Toure in Futa Tooro, later called Askia, also known as Askia the Great, was an emperor, military commander, and political reformer of the Songhai Empire in the late 15th century.
AWQAF Africa (also known or referred to as AWQAF or The Awqaf) serves all countries of Africa: South, North, West, East, and other territorial geography of the continent including its islands in the Indian and Atlantic oceans and Mediterranean Sea, as well as the West Indies.
Baibars or Baybars (الملك الظاهر ركن الدين بيبرس البندقداري, al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Rukn al-Dīn Baybars al-Bunduqdārī) (1223/1228 – 1 July 1277), of Turkic Kipchak origin — nicknamed Abu al-Futuh and Abu l-Futuhat (Arabic: أبو الفتوح; English: Father of Conquest, referring to his victories) — was the fourth Sultan of Egypt in the Mamluk Bahri dynasty.
The Bamana Empire (also Bambara Empire or Ségou Empire) was a large West African state based at Ségou, now in Mali.
The Bambara (Bamana or Banmana) are a Mandé ethnic group native to much of West Africa, primarily southern Mali, Guinea, Burkina Faso and Senegal.
Bambouk (sometimes Bambuk or Bambuhu) is a traditional name for the territory in eastern Senegal and western Mali, encompassing the Bambouk Mountains on its eastern edge, the valley of the Faleme River and the hilly country to the east of the river valley.
The Battle of Jenné was a military engagement between forces of the Mali Empire and the Moroccan Pashalik of Timbuktu.
The Battle of Kirina, also known as the Battle of Krina or Siege of Karina (c. 1235), was a confrontation between the Sosso king Sumanguru Kanté and the Mandinka prince Sundiata Keita.
Bilal ibn Rabah (بلال ابن رباح‎; 580–640 AD) also known as Bilal al-Habashi, Bilal ibn Riyah, and ibn Rabah), was one of the most trusted and loyal Sahabah (companions) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He was born in Mecca and is considered as the first muezzin, chosen by Muhammad himself.Robinson, David.. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Print. He was known for his beautiful voice with which he called people to their prayers. He died in 640, at the age of 57.
Bitòn Coulibaly (also Mamary Coulibaly, 1689?–1755) founded the Bambara Empire in what is now Mali's Ségou Region and Mopti Region.
Bozo, or Boso, meaning house of straw, is a Mande language spoken by the Bozo people, the principal fishing people of the Inner Niger Delta in Mali.
Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
A camel train or caravan is a series of camels carrying passengers and/or goods on a regular or semi-regular service between points.
Casamance (Wolof and Kasamansa; Casamance; Casamansa) is the area of Senegal south of the Gambia including the Casamance River.
Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a lifestyle which often includes an occupation, status in a hierarchy, customary social interaction, and exclusion.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
The culture of Yemen has an ancient history, influenced by Islam.
Dankaran Touman was the first son of Naré Maghann Konaté (father of Sundiata Keita, founder and first Emperor of the Mali Empire in the 13th century).
Dédougou is a city located in western Burkina Faso.
The Denianke Dynasty or Denyanke Dynasty ruled the Empire of Great Fulo from the 16th century into the late 18th century.
The dinar is the principal currency unit in several countries which were formerly territories of the Ottoman Empire, and was used historically in several more.
Diogo Gomes was a Portuguese navigator, explorer and writer.
Dioman is a town in the far west of Ivory Coast.
Dirham, dirhem or dirhm (درهم) was and, in some cases, still is a unit of currency in several Arab states.
Djenné (also Djénné, Jenné and Jenne) is a town and an urban commune in the Inland Niger Delta region of central Mali.
Djibouti (جيبوتي, Djibouti, Jabuuti, Gabuuti), officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The Draa (Asif en Dra, ⴰⵙⵉⴼ ⴻⵏ ⴷⵔⴰ, wad dərʿa; also spelled Dra or Drâa, in older sources mostly Darha or Dara) is Morocco's longest river, at.
The ducat was a gold or silver coin used as a trade coin in Europe from the later middle ages until as late as the 20th century.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Eid al-Fitr (عيد الفطر) is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm).
Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea.
Elmina is a town and the capital of the Komenda/Edina/Eguafo/Abirem District on the south coast of South Ghana in the Central Region, situated on a south-facing bay on the Atlantic Ocean coast of Ghana, west of Cape Coast.
The Emirate of Granada (إمارة غرﻧﺎﻃﺔ, trans. Imarat Gharnāṭah), also known as the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada (Reino Nazarí de Granada), was an emirate established in 1230 by Muhammad ibn al-Ahmar.
The Empire of Great Fulo, also known as the Denanke Kingdom or Denianke Kingdom, was a pre-Islamic Pulaar kingdom of Senegal, which dominated the Futa Tooro region.
Essouk (Arabic: السوق) is a commune and small village in the Kidal Region of Mali.
The Ethiopian Empire (የኢትዮጵያ ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥተ), also known as Abyssinia (derived from the Arabic al-Habash), was a kingdom that spanned a geographical area in the current state of Ethiopia.
Faama is a Mandinka word meaning "king".
Falcons are birds of prey in the genus Falco, which includes about 40 species.
Fouta Djallon is a highland region in the centre of Guinea, a country in West Africa.
A freedman or freedwoman is a former slave who has been released from slavery, usually by legal means.
Fula Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh, also known as Fulani or Fulah (Fula: Fulfulde, Pulaar, Pular; Peul), is a language spoken as a set of various dialects in a continuum that stretches across some 20 countries in West and Central Africa.
The Fula people or Fulani or Fulany or Fulɓe (Fulɓe; Peul; Fulani or Hilani; Fula; Pël; Fulaw), numbering between 40 and 50 million people in total, are one of the largest ethnic groups in the Sahel and West Africa, widely dispersed across the region.
Fusilier is a name given to various kinds of soldiers; its meaning depends on the historical context.
Futa Toro (Wolof and Fuuta Tooro; Fouta-Toro), often simply the Futa, is a semidesert region around the middle run of the Senegal River.
The Gambia River (formerly known as the River Gambra) is a major river in West Africa, running from the Fouta Djallon plateau in north Guinea westward through Senegal and the Gambia to the Atlantic Ocean at the city of Banjul.
Gao is a city in Mali and the capital of the Gao Region.
The Gao Empire precedes that of the Songhai Empire in the region of the Middle Niger.
The Gbara (pronounced) or Great Assembly in Old Malinke (now spelled and pronounced as Bara or Gara in those Manding languages without /gb/) was the deliberative body of the Mali Empire, which ruled much of West Africa during the Middle Ages.
Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.
The Ghana Empire (700 until 1240), properly known as Awkar (Ghana or Ga'na being the title of its ruler), was located in the area of present-day southeastern Mauritania and western Mali.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
The term Golden Age comes from Greek mythology, particularly the Works and Days of Hesiod, and is part of the description of temporal decline of the state of peoples through five Ages, Gold being the first and the one during which the Golden Race of humanity (chrýseon génos) lived.
The Great Mosque of Djenné (Grande mosquée de Djenné, الجامع الكبير في جينيه) is a large banco or adobe building that is considered by many architects to be one of the greatest achievements of the Sudano-Sahelian architectural style.
A griot, jali or jeli (djeli or djéli in French spelling) is a West African historian, storyteller, praise singer, poet and/or musician.
Guinea, officially the Republic of Guinea (République de Guinée), is a country on the western coast of Africa.
Guinea-Bissau, officially the Republic of Guinea-Bissau (República da Guiné-Bissau), is a sovereign state in West Africa.
The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.
The Hejaz (اَلْـحِـجَـاز,, literally "the Barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia.
The Hijri year (سَنة هِجْريّة) or era (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is the era used in the Islamic lunar calendar, which begins its count from the Islamic New Year in 622 AD.
History in Africa: A Journal of Method is an annual peer-reviewed academic journal covering the historiography and methodology of African history.
The history of Islam concerns the political, social,economic and cultural developments of the Islamic civilization.
Ibn Battuta (محمد ابن بطوطة; fully; Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد بن عبد الله اللواتي الطنجي بن بطوطة) (February 25, 13041368 or 1369) was a Moroccan scholar who widely travelled the medieval world.
Ibn Khaldun (أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي.,; 27 May 1332 – 17 March 1406) was a fourteenth-century Arab historiographer and historian.
An indentured servant or indentured laborer is an employee (indenturee) within a system of unfree labor who is bound by a signed or forced contract (indenture) to work for a particular employer for a fixed time.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islamic studies refers to the study of Islam.
Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.
Jihad (جهاد) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.
The Jolof Empire (Djolof or Diolof), also known as the Wolof or Wollof Empire, was a West African state that ruled parts of Senegal from 1350 to 1549.
Joseph Ki-Zerbo (June 21, 1922 – December 4, 2006, Burkina Faso) was a Burkinabé historian, politician and writer.
The Kaabu Empire (1537–1867), also written Gabu, Ngabou, and N’Gabu', was a Mandinka empire of Senegambia centered within modern northeastern Guinea-Bissau, Larger parts of today's Gambia; Kingdom of Saloum, extending into Koussanar, Koumpentoum regions of South Eastern Senegal, and Casamance in Senegal.
The Kanem–Bornu Empire was an empire that existed in modern Chad and Nigeria.
Kangaba is a town and commune and seat of the Cercle of Kangaba in the Koulikoro Region of south-western Mali.
Kassi (fl. 1341) was an empress of Mali.
The Keita dynasty ruled pre-imperial and imperial Mali from the 12th century into the early 17th century.
Mansa Khalifa was the fourth mansa of the Mali Empire.
The Kingdom of Portugal (Regnum Portugalliae, Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal.
Kirané Kaniaga is ''commune'' in the Cercle of Yélimané in the Kayes Region of south-western Mali.
Kissidougou is a city in southern Guinea.
Kita is a town and urban commune in western Mali.
Koro is a town and commune and seat of the Cercle of Koro in the Mopti Region of Mali.
According to the Epic of Sundiata, Kouroukan Fouga or Kurukan Fuga was the constitution of the Mali Empire created after the Battle of Krina (1235) by an assembly of nobles to create a government for the newly established empire.
Kouroussa or Kurussa is a town located in northeastern Guinea, and is the capital of Kouroussa Prefecture.
The Lamtuna are a nomadic Berber tribe belonging to the Sanhaja (Zenaga) confederation, who traditionally inhabited areas from Sous to Adrar Plateau.
Joannes Leo Africanus, (c. 1494 – c. 1554?) (born al-Hasan ibn Muhammad al-Wazzan al-Fasi, حسن ابن محمد الوزان الفاسي) was a Berber Andalusi diplomat and author who is best known for his book Descrittione dell’Africa (Description of Africa) centered on the geography of the Maghreb and Nile Valley.
The Royal Library of Alexandria or Ancient Library of Alexandria in Alexandria, Egypt, was one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world.
The lion (Panthera leo) is a species in the cat family (Felidae).
The following is a list of Sunni Muslim dynasties.
Macina (also Ké Macina and Massina) is a small town and rural commune in the Cercle of Macina in the Ségou Region of southern-central Mali.
Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.
Maghan I was a mansa of the Mali Empire, following his father Kankan Musa I's death in 1337.
Maghan III, also known as Mahmud I, was mansa of the Mali Empire from 1390 to about 1400.
Mansa Mahmud II, also known as Mamadou, was mansa ("king of kings") of the Mali Empire from 1481 to 1496.
Mansa Mahmud III, also known as Mamadou II, was mansa ("king of kings") of the Mali Empire from 1496 to 1559.
Mansa Mahmud IV (also known as Mansa Mamadou III, Mali Mansa Mamadou and Niani Mansa Mamadou) was the last great emperor of the Mali Empire according to the Tarikh al-Sudan.
Mail or maille (also chain mail(le) or chainmail(le)) is a type of armour consisting of small metal rings linked together in a pattern to form a mesh.
Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.
The Mamluk Sultanate (سلطنة المماليك Salṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz.
The Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library is a private manuscript library in Timbuktu, Mali.
The Manding languages (sometimes spelt Manden) are mutually intelligible dialects or languages in West Africa of the Mande family.
The Mandinka language (Mandi'nka kango), or Mandingo, is a Mandé language spoken by the Mandinka people of the Casamance region of Senegal, the Gambia, and northern Guinea-Bissau.
The Mandinka (also known as Mandenka, Mandinko, Mandingo, Manding or Malinke) are an African ethnic group with an estimated global population of 11 million (the other three largest ethnic groups in Africa being the unrelated Fula, Hausa and Songhai peoples).
Maninka (Malinke), or more precisely Eastern Maninka, is the name of several closely related languages and dialects of the southeastern Manding subgroup of the Mande branch of the Niger–Congo languages.
Mansa is a Mandinka word meaning "sultan" (king) or "emperor".
Mari Diata II was mansa of the Mali Empire from 1360 to 1374.
The Marinid dynasty (Berber: Imrinen, المرينيون Marīniyūn) or Banu abd al-Haqq was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Zenata Berber descent that ruled Morocco from the 13th to the 15th century.
Marrakesh (or; مراكش Murrākuš; ⴰⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ Meṛṛakec), also known by the French spelling Marrakech, is a major city of the Kingdom of Morocco.
Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.
Méma is a region in Mali, Africa.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The military history of the Mali Empire is that of the armed forces of the Mali Empire, which dominated Western Africa from the mid 13th to the late 15th century.
Millets (/ˈmɪlɪts/) are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food.
Mithqāl (مثقال) is a unit of mass equal to 4.25 grams which is mostly used for measuring precious metals, such as gold, and other commodities, like saffron.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
The Mossi (or Mole, Mosse, sing. Moaaga) are a people in central Burkina Faso, living mostly in the villages of the Nazinon and Nakanbe (formerly Volta) River Basin. The Mossi are the largest ethnic group in Burkina Faso, constituting more than 40% of the population, or about 6.2 million people. The other 60% of Burkina Faso's population is composed of more than 60 ethnic groups, mainly the Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo and Fulani. The Mossi speak the Mòoré language.
A mudbrick or mud-brick is a brick, made of a mixture of loam, mud, sand and water mixed with a binding material such as rice husks or straw.
A muezzin (müezzin from مؤذن) is the person appointed at a mosque to lead and recite the call to prayer for every event of prayer and worship in the mosque.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Abu Abdullah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani as-Sabti, or simply al-Idrisi (أبو عبد الله محمد الإدريسي القرطبي الحسني السبتي; Dreses; 1100 – 1165), was an Arab Muslim geographer, cartographer and Egyptologist who lived in Palermo, Sicily at the court of King Roger II.
Musa I or Mansa Musa was the tenth Mansa, which translates to "sultan", "conqueror", or "emperor", of the wealthy West African Mali Empire.
Musa II was mansa of the Mali Empire from 1374 to 1387.
Mansa Musa III, also known as Foamed Musa or Sérébandjougou was the 13th mansa (emperor) of the Mali Empire.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
Niani is a village in Guinea.
Niger, also called the Niger officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa named after the Niger River.
The Niger River is the principal river of West Africa, extending about.
The term "Old World" is used in the West to refer to Africa, Asia and Europe (Afro-Eurasia or the World Island), regarded collectively as the part of the world known to its population before contact with the Americas and Oceania (the "New World").
Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication where in knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally from one generation to another.
Ouaddaï Highlands is an area in east of Chad along the border with Sudan.
Oualata or Walata (ولاته) (also Biru in 17th century chronicles) is a small oasis town in southeast Mauritania, located at the eastern end of the Aoukar basin.
Pasha or Paşa (پاشا, paşa), in older works sometimes anglicized as bashaw, was a higher rank in the Ottoman political and military system, typically granted to governors, generals, dignitaries and others.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
Prophets in Islam (الأنبياء في الإسلام) include "messengers" (rasul, pl. rusul), bringers of a divine revelation via an angel (Arabic: ملائكة, malāʾikah);Shaatri, A. I. (2007).
Pulaar is a Fula language spoken primarily as a first language by the Fula and Toucouleur peoples in the Senegal River valley area traditionally known as Futa Tooro and further south and east.
R. is an abbreviation of the Latin word Rex (King) or Regina (Queen).
Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The term (الصحابة meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") refers to the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
The Sahel is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of transition in Africa between the Sahara to the north and the Sudanian Savanna to the south.
Mansa Sakura or Mansa Sakoura (died c. 1300) was the sixth mansa of the Mali Empire.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
Mansa Sandaki or Sandaki Mari Djata, also known as Sandiki or Santigi, was a mansa of the Mali Empire from 1389 to 1390.
Sankoré Madrasah, The University of Sankoré, or Sankore Masjid is one of three ancient centers of learning located in Timbuktu, Mali, West Africa.
Ségou (also Segou, Segu, Seku) is a town and an urban commune in south-central Mali that lies northeast of Bamako on the River Niger.
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
The Senegal River (نهر السنغال, Fleuve Sénégal) is a long river in West Africa that forms the border between Senegal and Mauritania.
Shell money is a medium of exchange similar to coin money and other forms of commodity money, and was once commonly used in many parts of the world.
Shihāb al-Dīn Abū al-‘Abbās Aḥmad b. Faḍl Allāh al-'Umarī (شهاب الدين أبو العبّاس أحمد بن فضل الله العمري), or simply al-‘Umarī, (1300 – 1349) was an Arab historian, born in Damascus.
Siguiri is a city in northeastern Guinea on the River Niger.
Sijilmasa (سجلماسة; also transliterated Sijilmassa, Sidjilmasa, Sidjilmassa and Sigilmassa) was a medieval city and trade entrepôt at the northern edge of the Sahara Desert in Morocco.
The Songhai Empire (also transliterated as Songhay) was a state that dominated the western Sahel in the 15th and 16th century.
The Songhai people (also Songhay or Sonrai) are an ethnic group in West Africa who speak the various Songhai languages.
The Soninke, also called Sarakole, Seraculeh, or Serahuli, are a West African ethnic group found in eastern Senegal and its capital Dakar, northwestern Mali and Foute Djalon in Guinea, and southern Mauritania.
The Wangara (also known as Wakore, Wankori, Ouankri, Wangarawa) were Soninke clans specialized in Silent Trade, scholarship from the University of Timbuktu and a type of Sharia law called the Suwarian Tradition.
Sunni Ali, also known as Sunni Ali Ber, was born Ali Kolon.
The Sosso Empire was a twelfth-century Kaniaga kingdom of West Africa.
Soumaoro Kanté (var.: Sumanguru Kanté) was a 13th-century king of the Sosso people.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
The Sudan is the geographic region to the south of the Sahara, stretching from Western to eastern Central Africa.
Sudano-Sahelian architecture refers to a range of similar indigenous architectural styles common to the African peoples of the Sahel and Sudanian grassland (geographical) regions of West Africa, south of the Sahara, but north of the fertile forest regions of the coast.
Suleyman Keita was mansa of the Mali Empire from 1341 to 1360.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
Sundiata Keita (Mandinka, Malinke, Bambara) (1217 – c. 1255) (also known as Manding Diara, Lion of Mali, Sogolon Djata, son of Sogolon, Nare Maghan and Sogo Sogo Simbon Salaba) was a puissant prince and founder of the Mali Empire.
Taghaza (also Teghaza) is an abandoned salt-mining centre located in a salt pan in the desert region of northern Mali.
Takedda was a town and former kingdom located in the present-day Western Sahara in Niger.
Takrur, Tekrur or Tekrour (800 – c. 1285) was an ancient state of West Africa, which flourished roughly parallel to the Ghana Empire.
The Tarikh al-Sudan (also Tarikh es-Sudan - the "History of the Sudan") is a West African chronicle written in Arabic in around 1655 by Abd al-Sadi.
Timbuktu, also spelt Tinbuktu, Timbuctoo and Timbuktoo (Tombouctou; Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu), is an ancient city in Mali, situated north of the Niger River.
Tiramakhan Traore (variations: Tiramakhan Traoré or Tirimakhan Trawally) was a 13th-century general in the Mali Empire who served under Sunjata Keita.
The Toucouleur people, also called Tukulor or Haalpulaar are a West African ethnic group native to Futa Tooro region of Senegal.
The traditional African religions (or traditional beliefs and practices of African people) are a set of highly diverse beliefs that include various ethnic religions.
Trans-Saharan trade requires travel across the Sahara (north and south) to reach sub-Saharan Africa from the North African coast, Europe, to the Levant.
A tributary state is a term for a pre-modern state in a particular type of subordinate relationship to a more powerful state which involved the sending of a regular token of submission, or tribute, to the superior power.
Tripoli (طرابلس,; Berber: Oea, or Wy't) is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.1 million people in 2015.
The Tuareg people (also spelt Twareg or Touareg; endonym: Kel Tamasheq, Kel Tagelmust) are a large Berber ethnic confederation.
The Twelve Doors of Mali were the possessions of the Mansa (emperor) of the medieval Mali Empire which was established in c..
Mansa Uli (Ouli), also known as Ali or Wali in Arab sources, was the second mansa of the Mali Empire.
Mansa Uli II (French: "Ouli II"), also known as Gbèré, was the twentieth mansa ("king of kings") of the Mali Empire.
Wassoulou is a cultural area and historical region in the Wassoulou River Valley of West Africa.
Mansa Wati (French: "Ouati") was the third mansa of the Mali Empire reigning from 1270 to 1274.
Sir William Muir, KCSI (27 April 1819 – 11 July 1905) was a Scottish Orientalist, scholar of Islam, and colonial administrator, serving as Principal of the University of Edinburgh and Lieutenant Governor of the North-West Provinces of India.
The Wolof people are a West African ethnic group found in northwestern Senegal, The Gambia and southwestern coastal Mauritania.
A working animal is an animal, usually domesticated, that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks.
Yatenga is one of the provinces of Burkina Faso, located in the Nord Region of the country.
The Za Dynasty or Zuwa Dynasty were rulers of a medieval kingdom based in the towns of Kukiya and Gao on the Niger River in what is today modern Mali.
Ancient Mali, Empire of Mali, Empire of Manden, Kingdom of Mali, Mali empire, Mali kingdom, Malian Empire, Malinese Empire, Malinke Empire, Mande Empire, Manden Kurufa, Manden Kurufaba, Manden Kurufu, Mandin, Manding Empire, Mandingo Empire, Name of Mali, Niani, Mali Empire, Nianiba, Regnum Senegae, The Mali Empire.