Adware, or advertising-supported software, is software that generates revenue for its developer by automatically generating online advertisements in the user interface of the software or on a screen presented to the user during the installation process.
Affiliate marketing is a type of performance-based marketing in which a business rewards one or more affiliates for each visitor or customer brought by the affiliate's own marketing efforts.
An air gap, air wall or air gapping is a network security measure employed on one or more computers to ensure that a secure computer network is physically isolated from unsecured networks, such as the public Internet or an unsecured local area network.
Air gap malware is malware that is designed to defeat the air-gap isolation of secure computer systems using various.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Antivirus software, or anti-virus software (abbreviated to AV software), also known as anti-malware, is a computer program used to prevent, detect, and remove malware.
The Apple II (stylized as Apple.
Authentication (from authentikos, "real, genuine", from αὐθέντης authentes, "author") is the act of confirming the truth of an attribute of a single piece of data claimed true by an entity.
A backdoor is a method, often secret, of bypassing normal authentication or encryption in a computer system, a product, or an embedded device (e.g. a home router), or its embodiment, e.g. as part of a cryptosystem, an algorithm, a chipset, or a "homunculus computer" (such as that as found in Intel's AMT technology).
Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) was a Unix operating system derivative developed and distributed by the Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG) of the University of California, Berkeley, from 1977 to 1995.
A boot sector is a region of a hard disk, floppy disk, optical disc, or other data storage device that contains machine code to be loaded into random-access memory (RAM) by a computer system's built-in firmware.
In computing, booting is starting up a computer or computer appliance until it can be used.
A botnet is a number of Internet-connected devices, each of which is running one or more bots.
In telecommunications, broadband is wide bandwidth data transmission which transports multiple signals and traffic types.
A browser exploit is a form of malicious code that takes advantage of a flaw or vulnerability in an operating system or piece of software with the intent to breach browser security to alter a user's browser settings without their knowledge.
Browser hijacking is a form of unwanted software that modifies a web browser's settings without a user's permission, to inject unwanted advertising into the user's browser.
In information security and programming, a buffer overflow, or buffer overrun, is an anomaly where a program, while writing data to a buffer, overruns the buffer's boundary and overwrites adjacent memory locations.
A CD-ROM is a pre-pressed optical compact disc which contains data.
Child pornography is pornography that exploits children for sexual stimulation.
Click fraud is a type of fraud that occurs on the Internet in pay-per-click (PPC) online advertising.
Command Prompt, also known as cmd.exe or cmd (after its executable file name), is the command-line interpreter on Windows NT, Windows CE, OS/2 and eComStation operating systems.
The Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) system provides a reference-method for publicly known information-security vulnerabilities and exposures.
Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format that was co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982.
This is a non-exhaustive list of notable antivirus and Internet Security software, in the form of comparison tables, according to their platform (e.g. desktop, mobile, server, etc.) and their operating systems (e.g. Windows, OS X, Linux, Solaris, Android, iOS, Ubuntu Touch, Windows Phone, etc.).
Computability theory, also known as recursion theory, is a branch of mathematical logic, of computer science, and of the theory of computation that originated in the 1930s with the study of computable functions and Turing degrees.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.
Cybersecurity, computer security or IT security is the protection of computer systems from theft of or damage to their hardware, software or electronic data, as well as from disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.
A computer virus is a type of malicious software program ("malware") that, when executed, replicates itself by modifying other computer programs and inserting its own code.
A computer worm is a standalone malware computer program that replicates itself in order to spread to other computers.
The CryptoLocker ransomware attack was a cyberattack using the CryptoLocker ransomware that occurred from 5 September 2013 to late May 2014.
Cyber spying, or cyber espionage, is the act or practice of obtaining secrets and information without the permission and knowledge of the holder of the information from individuals, competitors, rivals, groups, governments and enemies for personal, economic, political or military advantage using methods on the Internet, networks or individual computers through the use of proxy servers, cracking techniques and malicious software including Trojan horses and spyware.
A cyberattack is any type of offensive maneuver that targets computer information systems, infrastructures, computer networks, or personal computer devices.
In computing, a denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) is a cyber-attack in which the perpetrator seeks to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users by temporarily or indefinitely disrupting services of a host connected to the Internet.
In computing, directory service or name service maps the names of network resources to their respective network addresses.
Drive-by download means two things, each concerning the unintended download of computer software from the Internet.
An email attachment is a computer file sent along with an email message.
Email spam, also known as junk email, is a type of electronic spam where unsolicited messages are sent by email.
In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot.
ESET is an IT security company that offers anti-virus and firewall products such as ESET NOD32.
In computing, executable code or an executable file or executable program, sometimes simply referred to as an executable or binary, causes a computer "to perform indicated tasks according to encoded instructions," as opposed to a data file that must be parsed by a program to be meaningful.
Extortion (also called shakedown, outwrestling and exaction) is a criminal offense of obtaining money, property, or services from an individual or institution, through coercion.
The social media platform and social networking service Facebook has been affected multiple times over its history by intentionally harmful software.
File binders are utility software that allow a user to "bind" multiple files together resulting in a single executable.
In computer science, a fingerprinting algorithm is a procedure that maps an arbitrarily large data item (such as a computer file) to a much shorter bit string, its fingerprint, that uniquely identifies the original data for all practical purposesA.
In computing, a firewall is a network security system that monitors and controls incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules.
A floppy disk, also called a floppy, diskette, or just disk, is a type of disk storage composed of a disk of thin and flexible magnetic storage medium, sealed in a rectangular plastic enclosure lined with fabric that removes dust particles.
Frederick B. Cohen (born 1956) is an American computer scientist and best known as the inventor of computer virus defense techniques.
HTML email is the use of a subset of HTML to provide formatting and semantic markup capabilities in email that are not available with plain text: Text can be linked without displaying a URL, or breaking long URLs into multiple pieces.
The IBM Personal Computer, commonly known as the IBM PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform.
Identity theft is the deliberate use of someone else's identity, usually as a method to gain a financial advantage or obtain credit and other benefits in the other person's name, and perhaps to the other person's disadvantage or loss.
Industrial espionage, economic espionage, corporate spying or corporate espionage is a form of espionage conducted for commercial purposes instead of purely national security.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
The Jargon File is a glossary and usage dictionary of slang used by computer programmers.
John von Neumann (Neumann János Lajos,; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath.
The kernel is a computer program that is the core of a computer's operating system, with complete control over everything in the system.
Linux malware includes viruses, trojans, worms and other types of malware that affect the Linux operating system.
Machine code is a computer program written in machine language instructions that can be executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU).
The Macintosh (pronounced as; branded as Mac since 1998) is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984.
macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.
A macro (short for "macroinstruction", from Greek μακρός 'long') in computer science is a rule or pattern that specifies how a certain input sequence (often a sequence of characters) should be mapped to a replacement output sequence (also often a sequence of characters) according to a defined procedure.
In computing terminology, a macro virus is a virus that is written in a macro language: a programming language which is embedded inside a software application (e.g., word processors and spreadsheet applications).
Microsoft Windows Malicious Software Removal Tool is a freely distributed virus removal tool developed by Microsoft for the Microsoft Windows operating system.
Malvertising (a portmanteau of "malicious advertising") is the use of online advertising to spread malware.
A master boot record (MBR) is a special type of boot sector at the very beginning of partitioned computer mass storage devices like fixed disks or removable drives intended for use with IBM PC-compatible systems and beyond.
Microsoft Safety Scanner is a free virus scanner similar to Windows Malicious Software Removal Tool that can be used to scan a system for computer viruses and other forms of malware.
Microsoft Security Essentials (MSE) is an antivirus software (AV) that provides protection against different types of malicious software, such as computer viruses, spyware, rootkits, and trojan horses.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
Microsoft Word (or simply Word) is a word processor developed by Microsoft.
The Morris worm or Internet worm of November 2, 1988, was one of the first computer worms distributed via the Internet.
MS-DOS (acronym for Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system for x86-based personal computers mostly developed by Microsoft.
The National Vulnerability Database is the U.S. government repository of standards-based vulnerability management data represented using the Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP).
The NSA ANT catalog is a 50-page classified document listing technology available to the United States National Security Agency (NSA) Tailored Access Operations (TAO) by the Advanced Network Technology (ANT) Division to aid in cyber surveillance.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
Patch Tuesday (also known as Update Tuesday) is an unofficial term used to refer to when Microsoft regularly releases security patches for its software products.
Phishing is the fraudulent attempt to obtain sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details (and money), often for malicious reasons, by disguising as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication.
In computing, a plug-in (or plugin, add-in, addin, add-on, addon, or extension) is a software component that adds a specific feature to an existing computer program.
The Portable Executable (PE) format is a file format for executables, object code, DLLs, FON Font files, and others used in 32-bit and 64-bit versions of Windows operating systems.
A portmanteau or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words,, p. 644 in which parts of multiple words or their phones (sounds) are combined into a new word, as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog, or motel, from motor and hotel.
A potentially unwanted program (PUP) or potentially unwanted application (PUA) is software that a user may perceive as unwanted.
In computing, privilege is defined as the delegation of authority over a computer system.
In computing, a process is an instance of a computer program that is being executed.
Ransomware is a type of malicious software from cryptovirology that threatens to publish the victim's data or perpetually block access to it unless a ransom is paid.
In computing, the term remote desktop refers to a software or operating system feature that allows a personal computer's desktop environment to be run remotely on one system (usually a PC, but the concept applies equally to a server), while being displayed on a separate client device.
In computer storage, some types of removable media are designed to be read to or written to by removable readers, writers and drives.
Riskware, a portmanteau of risk and software, is a word used to describe software whose installation and execution poses a possible yet not definite risk to a host computer.
A root kit is a collection of computer software, typically malicious, designed to enable access to a computer or areas of its software that is not otherwise allowed (for example, to an unauthorized user) and often masks its existence or the existence of other software.
Safe mode is a diagnostic mode of a computer operating system (OS).
Scareware is a form of malware which uses social engineering to cause shock, anxiety, or the perception of a threat in order to manipulate users into buying unwanted software.
A scripting or script language is a programming language that supports scripts: programs written for a special run-time environment that automate the execution of tasks that could alternatively be executed one-by-one by a human operator.
A security bug or security defect is a software bug that can be exploited to gain unauthorized access or privileges on a computer system.
A security hacker is someone who seeks to breach defenses and exploit weaknesses in a computer system or network.
In computing, a server is a computer program or a device that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients".
Shamoon, also known as W32.DisTrack, is a modular computer virus discovered by Seculert in 2012, targeting recent 32-bit NT kernel versions of Microsoft Windows.
Single sign-on (SSO) is a property of access control of multiple related, yet independent, software systems.
Social engineering, in the context of information security, refers to psychological manipulation of people into performing actions or divulging confidential information.
A software bug is an error, flaw, failure or fault in a computer program or system that causes it to produce an incorrect or unexpected result, or to behave in unintended ways.
is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Kōnan, Minato, Tokyo.
A scandal erupted in 2005 regarding Sony BMG's implementation of deceptive, illegal, and harmful copy protection measures on about 22 million CDs.
Spyware is software that aims to gather information about a person or organization sometimes without their knowledge, that may send such information to another entity without the consumer's consent, that asserts control over a device without the consumer's knowledge, or it may send such information to another entity with the consumer's consent, through cookies.
Stegomalware is a type of malware that uses steganography to hinder detection.
Stuxnet is a malicious computer worm, first uncovered in 2010.
SunOS is a Unix-branded operating system developed by Sun Microsystems for their workstation and server computer systems.
In computing, the superuser is a special user account used for system administration.
A system administrator, or sysadmin, is a person who is responsible for the upkeep, configuration, and reliable operation of computer systems; especially multi-user computers, such as servers.
System File Checker (SFC) is a utility in Microsoft Windows that allows users to scan for and restore corruptions in Windows system files.
System Restore is a feature in Microsoft Windows that allows the user to revert their computer's state (including system files, installed applications, Windows Registry, and system settings) to that of a previous point in time, which can be used to recover from system malfunctions or other problems.
Targeted threats are a class of malware destined for one specific organization or industry.
A task manager is a system monitor program used to provide information about the processes and programs running on a computer, as well as the general status of the computer.
In computer security, a threat is a possible danger that might exploit a vulnerability to breach security and therefore cause possible harm.
The Trojan Horse is a tale from the Trojan War about the subterfuge that the Greeks used to enter the independent city of Troy and win the war.
In computing, a Trojan horse, or Trojan, is any malicious computer program which misleads users of its true intent.
Troy (Τροία, Troia or Τροίας, Troias and Ἴλιον, Ilion or Ἴλιος, Ilios; Troia and Ilium;Trōia is the typical Latin name for the city. Ilium is a more poetic term: Hittite: Wilusha or Truwisha; Truva or Troya) was a city in the far northwest of the region known in late Classical antiquity as Asia Minor, now known as Anatolia in modern Turkey, near (just south of) the southwest mouth of the Dardanelles strait and northwest of Mount Ida.
Typosquatting, also called URL hijacking, a sting site, or a fake URL, is a form of cybersquatting, and possibly brandjacking which relies on mistakes such as typos made by Internet users when inputting a website address into a web browser.
The United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT) is an organization within the Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS) National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD).
The Universal Time-Sharing System (UTS) was an operating system for the XDS Sigma series of computers, succeeding Batch Processing Monitor (BPM)/Batch Time-Sharing Monitor (BTM).
Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
VAX is a discontinued instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in the mid-1970s.
In computer security, a vulnerability is a weakness which can be exploited by a Threat Actor, such as an attacker, to perform unauthorized actions within a computer system.
Windows Defender (called Windows Defender Antivirus in Windows 10 Creators Update) is an anti-malware component of Microsoft Windows.
Windows Update is a Microsoft service for the Windows 9x and Windows NT families of operating system, which automates downloading and installing software updates over the Internet.
Yahoo! is a web services provider headquartered in Sunnyvale, California and wholly owned by Verizon Communications through Oath Inc..
In computer science, a zombie is a computer connected to the Internet that has been compromised by a hacker, computer virus or trojan horse program and can be used to perform malicious tasks of one sort or another under remote direction.
Attackware, Badware, Computer contaminant, Data stealing malware, Evasive malware, Hostile code, Jokeware, Junkware, MalSite, Malaware, Malicious Web Site, Malicious code, Malicious executable, Malicious executables, Malicious exploit, Malicious software, Malware types, Malwarelist, PE infection, Pestware, Poisoned file, Potentially-unwanted Programs, Scumware, Stealthware.