233 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Abdullah Pasha ibn Ali, Abkhazians, Adana, Aden, Afonso de Albuquerque, Al-Adil I, Al-Adil Kitbugha, Al-Ashraf Khalil, Al-Ashraf Kujuk, Al-Ashraf Qansuh Al-Ghuri, Al-Ashraf Sha'ban, Al-Basasiri, Al-Kamil Sha'ban, Al-Mansur Abu Bakr, Al-Mansur Ali, Al-Mansur Ali II, Sultan of Egypt, Al-Mansur Qalawun, Al-Maqrizi, Al-Mu'tasim, Al-Muazzam Turanshah, Al-Musta'in (Cairo), Al-Mutawakkil, Al-Muwaffaq, Al-Muzaffar Hajji, Al-Said Barakah, Ala ud din Masud, Albanians, Ali Bey al-Kabir, An-Nasir Ahmad, Sultan of Egypt, An-Nasir Faraj, An-Nasir Muhammad, Anarchy at Samarra, Antioch, Arabian Peninsula, Arabic, Aram Shah, Armenians, As-Salih Ayyub, As-Salih Ismail, Sultan of Egypt, Atabeg, Aybak, Ayyubid dynasty, Badi VII, Badr al-Jamali, Baghdad, Bahri dynasty, Baibars, Baibars II, Balkans, ..., Barquq, Barsbay, Battle of Ain Jalut, Battle of Chaldiran, Battle of Chaul, Battle of Diu (1509), Battle of Marj Dabiq, Battle of the Nile, Battle of the Pyramids, Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar, Bayezid I, Bayezid II, Bey, Beylik of Dulkadir, Black Guard, Brazil, Burji dynasty, Buyid dynasty, Caesarea, Cairo, Cape of Good Hope, Carle Vernet, Caste, Caucasus, Chasseur, Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Circassians, Citadel, Constantinople, Copts, Crusades, Cumans, Damietta, David Ayalon, Dawud Pasha of Baghdad, Desertion, Devshirme, Diu, India, Dongola, Egypt, Egypt in the Middle Ages, Emir, Eunuch, Fatimid Caliphate, Feudalism, First Battle of Homs, Francisco Goya, French Directory, French First Republic, Funj people, Funj Sultanate, Geneva, Georgian language, Georgians, Ghaznavids, Ghilman, Ghiyas ud din Balban, Ghulam, Greater Khorasan, Greeks, Greenwood Publishing Group, Gujarat, Gujarat Sultanate, Historical reenactment, History of Jerusalem during the Middle Ages, Hulagu Khan, Ibrahim Bey, Ikhshidid dynasty, Ilkhanate, Iltutmish, Imperial Guard (Napoleon I), In Our Time (radio series), India, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Infantry square, Iran, Iraq, Islam in Spain, Ismail I, Jacques-François Menou, Jacques-Nicolas Paillot de Montabert, Janissaries, Jazzar Pasha, Jean Rapp, Jean-Baptiste Kléber, Jeddah, Khwarazmian dynasty, Kingdom of Cyprus, Kipchaks, Kitbuqa, Kordofan, Kozhikode, Kurultai, Lajin, Levant, List of Abbasid caliphs, Louis IX of France, Lourenço de Almeida, Mameluco, Mameluke sword, Mamelukes of the Imperial Guard, Mamluk architecture, Mamluk dynasty (Delhi), Mamluk dynasty (Iraq), Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo), Manuel I of Portugal, Möngke Khan, Mecca, Mongol Empire, Muhammad Ali of Egypt, Muhammad Ali's seizure of power, Muiz ud din Bahram, Muiz ud din Qaiqabad, Musket, Napoleon, Nasir ud din Mahmud, Nile, North Caucasus, Order of battle of the Armée d'Orient (1798), Orontes River, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Turkish language, Pasha, Philibert Berthelier (Geneva patriot), Pope Julius II, Portuguese language, Qaitbay, Qutb al-Din Aibak, Qutuz, Razia Sultana, Reconquista, Red Sea, Regent, Regiment, Republic of Venice, Roda Island, Romanization of Arabic, Roustam Raza, Royal Navy, Rukn ud din Firuz, Russian Empire, Safavid dynasty, Said Pasha of Baghdad, Saladin, Samarra, Saqaliba, Savoy, Second Battle of Homs, Selim I, Seljuq dynasty, Seventh Crusade, Shajar al-Durr, Shamsuddin Kayumars, Siege of Acre (1799), Siege of Baghdad (1258), Solamish, South Slavs, Sublime Porte, Sudan, Sulayman Pasha al-Adil, Sultan, Sultan of Egypt, Syria, Tarsus, Mersin, The Second of May 1808, Thomas F. Madden, Timur, Transoxiana, Tuman bay I, Tuman bay II, Turkic peoples, Turkish language, Turkish people, United States Marine Corps, University of Chicago, University of Michigan Press, Upper Egypt, Vasco da Gama, Venice, White people, World Digital Library, Yemen, Zamorin of Calicut. Expand index (183 more) » « Shrink index
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abdullah Pasha ibn Ali (commonly referred to simply as Abdullah Pasha; 1801–?) was the Ottoman governor (wali) of Sidon Eyalet between May 1820 and May 1832, with a nine-month interruption in 1822–23.
Abkhazians or the Abkhaz (Abkhaz: Аҧсуа, Apswa; აფხაზები) are a Northwest Caucasian ethnic group, mainly living in Abkhazia, a disputed region on the Black Sea coast.
Adana (Ադանա) is a major city in southern Turkey.
Aden (عدن Yemeni) is a port city in Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of Bab-el-Mandeb.
Afonso de Albuquerque, Duke of Goa (1453 – 16 December 1515) (also spelled Aphonso or Alfonso), was a Portuguese general, a "great conqueror",, Vol.
Al-Adil I (العادل, in full al-Malik al-Adil Sayf ad-Din Abu-Bakr Ahmed ibn Najm ad-Din Ayyub, الملك العادل سيف الدين أبو بكر بن أيوب,‎ "Ahmed, son of Najm ad-Din Ayyub, father of Bakr, the King, the Just, Sword of the Faith"; 1145–1218) was an Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt and Syria of Kurdish descent.
Kitbugha (كتبغا), royal name: al-Malik al-Adil Zayn-ad-Din Kitbugha Ben Abd-Allah al-Mansuri al-Turki al-Mughli; الملك العادل زين الدين كتبغا بن عبد الله المنصورى التركى المغلى) (died 1297 CE) was the 10th Mamluk sultan of Egypt from December 1294 to November 1296.
Al-Ashraf Salāh ad-Dīn Khalil ibn Qalawūn (الملك الأشرف صلاح الدين خليل بن قلاوون; c. 1260s – 14 December 1293) was the eighth Mamluk sultan between November 1290 until his assassination in December 1293.
Al-Ashraf Ala'a ad-Din Kujuk ibn Muhammad ibn Qalawun (الأشرف علاءالدين كجك), better known as al-Ashraf Kujuk (also spelled Küchük), (1336 – September 1345) was the Mamluk sultan from August 1341 to January 1342.
Al-Ashraf Qansuh Al-Ghuri (الأشرف قانصوه الغوري) was the second-to-last of the Mamluk Sultans.
Al-Ashraf Zayn ad-Din Abu al-Ma'ali Sha'ban ibn Husayn ibn Muhammad ibn Qalawun, better known as al-Ashraf Sha'ban or Sha'ban II, was a Mamluk sultan of the Bahri dynasty in 1363–1377.
Basasiri (died 1059) was a Turkish slave who rose to become a general in Iraq, and staged a revolt against the Seljuks.
Al-Kamil Sayf ad-Din Sha'ban ibn Muhammad ibn Qalawun, better known as al-Kamil Sha'ban, was the Mamluk sultan of Egypt between August 1345 and January 1346.
Al-Malik al-Mansur Sayf ad-Din Abu Bakr (الملك المنصور سيف الدين أبو بكر), better known as al-Mansur Abu Bakr (المنصور أبو بكر), (ca. 1321 – November 1341) was the Bahri Mamluk sultan in 1341.
Al-Mansur Ali (المنصور على, epithet: al-Malik al-Manṣūr Nūr ad-dīn ʾAlī ibn Aybak, Arabic: الملك المنصور نور الدين على بن أيبك) (b. c. 1244, Cairo) was the second of the Mamluk Sultans of Egypt in the Turkic, or Bahri, line.
Al-Mansur Ala' ad-Din Ali ibn Sha'ban ibn Husayn ibn Muhammad ibn Qalawun (1368 – 19 May 1381), better known as al-Mansur Ali II, was the Mamluk sultan reigning in 1377–1381.
Qalāwūn aṣ-Ṣāliḥī (قلاوون الصالحي, c. 1222 – November 10, 1290) was the seventh Bahri Mamluk sultan; he ruled Egypt from 1279 to 1290.
Taqi al-Din Abu al-Abbas Ahmad ibn 'Ali ibn 'Abd al-Qadir ibn Muhammad al-Maqrizi (1364–1442)Franz Rosenthal,.
Abū Isḥāq Muḥammad ibn Hārūn al-Rashīd (أبو إسحاق محمد بن هارون الرشيد; October 796 – 5 January 842), better known by his regnal name al-Muʿtaṣim bi’llāh (المعتصم بالله, "he who seeks refuge in God"), was the eighth Abbasid caliph, ruling from 833 to his death in 842.
Turanshah, also Turan Shah (توران شاه), (? – 2 May 1250), (epithet: al-Malik al-Muazzam Ghayath al-Din Turanshah (الملك المعظم غياث الدين توران شاه)) was a Kurdish ruler of Egypt, a son of Sultan As-Salih Ayyub.
Al-Musta'in Billah (1390 – February or March 1430) was the tenth Abbasid "shadow" caliph of Cairo, reigning under the tutelage of the Mamluk sultans from 1406 to 1414.
Abu’l-Faḍl Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad al-Muʿtaṣim bi’llāh (جعفر بن محمد المعتصم بالله; March 822 – 11 December 861), better known by his regnal name al-Mutawakkil ʿAlā ’llāh (المتوكل على الله, "He who relies on God") was an Abbasid caliph who reigned in Samarra from 847 until 861.
Abu Ahmad Talha ibn Ja'far (أبو أحمد طلحة بن جعفر) (842 – June 2, 891), better known by his laqab as al-Muwaffaq bi-Allah ("Blessed of God"), was an Abbasid prince and military leader, who acted as the virtual regent of the Abbasid Caliphate for most of the reign of his brother, Caliph al-Mu'tamid.
Al-Muzaffar Sayf ad-Din Hajji ibn Muhammad ibn Qalawun, better known as al-Muzaffar Hajji, (1331–December 1347) was the Bahri Mamluk sultan of Egypt and the sixth son of an-Nasir Muhammad (d. 1341) to hold office, ruling from September 1346 and December 1347.
Al-Said Barakah (1260–1280; original name: Muhammed Barakah Qan (محمد بركة قان), royal name: al-Malik al-Said Nasir al-Din Barakah (الملك السعيد ناصر الدين بركة) was a Mamluk Sultan who ruled from 1277 to 1279 after the death of his father al-Zahir Baibars al-Bunduqdari. Barakah was born in Cairo. His succession went smoothly, and al-Said set about limiting the power of the amirs from his father's administration. One, his father's viceroy, died under suspicious circumstances. Others were jailed and then released. In their place, al-Said promoted his own mamluks. He also sent Qalawun and Baysari, two of the most powerful amirs, to raid Cilician Armenia and Qal'at al-Rum in 1279, as a way of keeping them busy and away from the seat of power. Each had 10,000 troops. Al-Said's plan was to have both of them arrested on their return, but another amir, Kuvenduk, warned them of the plan, and when they returned, al-Said was forced to abdicate. His seven-year-old brother Sulamish was placed on the throne in his place, under the guardianship of Qalawun, who became the effective sultan. Exiled to Al Karak fortress, in Jordan, he died there in 1280.
Ala ud-Din Masud (fl. 1242–46) was the seventh sultan of the Mamluk dynasty (Slave dynasty).
The Albanians (Shqiptarët) are a European ethnic group that is predominantly native to Albania, Kosovo, western Macedonia, southern Serbia, southeastern Montenegro and northwestern Greece, who share a common ancestry, culture and language.
Ali Bey al-Kabir (Mgebrishvili) (علي بك الكبير) (1728 – 8 May 1773) was a Mamluk leader of Egypt from 1768 to 1769, 1772, or 1773.
An-Nasir Shihab ad-Din Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Qalawun, better known as an-Nasir Ahmad, (1316 – 16 July 1344) was the Bahri Mamluk sultan of Egypt, ruling from January to June 1342.
Nasir-ad-Din Faraj (Urdu; Arabic; Persian:; r. 1399–1411 CE) was born in 1386 and succeeded his father Sayf-ad-Din Barquq as the second Sultan of the Burji dynasty of the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt in July 1399 with the title Al-Nasir.
Al-Malik an-Nasir Nasir ad-Din Muhammad ibn Qalawun (الملك الناصر ناصر الدين محمد بن قلاوون), commonly known as an-Nasir Muhammad (الناصر محمد), or by his kunya: Abu al-Ma'ali (أبو المعالى) or as Ibn Qalawun (1285–1341) was the ninth Turkic Mamluk sultan of Egypt who ruled for three reigns: December 1293–December 1294, 1299–1309, and 1310 until his death in 1341.
The term "Anarchy at Samarra" refers to the period 861–870 in the history of the Abbasid Caliphate, which was marked by extreme internal instability and the violent succession of four caliphs, who became puppets in the hands of powerful rival military groups.
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Aram Shah was the second sultan of the Mamluk dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Al-Malik as-Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub (الملك الصالح نجم الدين ايوب; Cairo, 5 November 1205 – 22 November 1249 in Al Mansurah), nickname: Abu al-Futuh (أبو الفتوح), also known as al-Malik al-Salih, was the Kurdish Ayyubid ruler of Egypt from 1240 to 1249.
As-Salih Imad ad-Din Abu'l Fida Isma'il, better known as as-Salih Isma'il, (1326–4 August 1345) was the Bahri Mamluk sultan of Egypt between June 1342 and August 1345.
Atabeg, Atabek, or Atabey is a hereditary title of nobility of a Turkic origin, indicating a governor of a nation or province who was subordinate to a monarch and charged with raising the crown prince.
Izz al-Din AybakThe name Aybeg or Aibak or Aybak is a combination of two Turkic words, "Ay".
The Ayyubid dynasty (الأيوبيون; خانەدانی ئەیووبیان) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin founded by Saladin and centred in Egypt.
Badi VII (reigned 1805–1821) was the last ruler of the Kingdom of Sennar.
Abū'l-Najm Badr ibn ʿAbdallāh al-Jamālī al-Mustanṣirī, better known as Badr al-Jamali (بدر الجمالى) was a vizier and prominent statesman for the Fatimid Caliphate under Caliph al-Mustansir.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
The Bahri dynasty or Bahriyya Mamluks (translit) was a Mamluk dynasty of mostly Cuman-Kipchak Turkic origin that ruled the Egyptian Mamluk Sultanate from 1250 to 1382.
Baibars or Baybars (الملك الظاهر ركن الدين بيبرس البندقداري, al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Rukn al-Dīn Baybars al-Bunduqdārī) (1223/1228 – 1 July 1277), of Turkic Kipchak origin — nicknamed Abu al-Futuh and Abu l-Futuhat (Arabic: أبو الفتوح; English: Father of Conquest, referring to his victories) — was the fourth Sultan of Egypt in the Mamluk Bahri dynasty.
Not to be confused with his more famous namesake, Baibars al-Bunduqdari Baibars al-Jashankir (بيبرس الجاشنكير; died 1310) or Baibars II, royal name al-Malik al-Muzaffar Rukn al-Din Baibars al-Jashankir al-Mansuri(الملك المظفر ركن الدين بيبرس الجاشنكير المنصورى), also known as Abu al-Fath (أبوالفتح), was the 12th Mamluk Sultan of Mamluk Egypt in 1309–1310.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Al-Malik Az-Zahir Sayf ad-Din Barquq (الملك الظاهر سيف الدين برقوق) (ruled 1382–1389 and 1390 –1399) was the first Sultan of the Mamluk Burji dynasty.
Al-Ashraf Sayf-ad-Din Barsbay was the ninth Burji Mamluk sultan of Egypt from AD 1422 to 1438.
The Battle of Ain Jalut (Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the "Spring of Goliath", or Harod Spring, in Hebrew: מעין חרוד) took place in September 1260 between Muslim Mamluks and the Mongols in the southeastern Galilee, in the Jezreel Valley, in the vicinity of Nazareth, not far from the site of Zir'in.
The Battle of Chaldiran (جنگ چالدران; Çaldıran Muharebesi) took place on 23 August 1514 and ended with a decisive victory for the Ottoman Empire over the Safavid Empire.
The Battle of Chaul was a naval battle between the Portuguese and an Egyptian Mamluk fleet in 1508 in the harbour of Chaul in India.
The Battle of Diu was a naval battle fought on 3 February 1509 in the Arabian Sea, in the port of Diu, India, between the Portuguese Empire and a joint fleet of the Sultan of Gujarat, the Mamlûk Burji Sultanate of Egypt, the Zamorin of Calicut with support of the Republic of Venice.
The Battle of Marj Dābiq (مرج دابق, meaning "the meadow of Dābiq"; Mercidabık Muharebesi) was a decisive military engagement in Middle Eastern history, fought on 24 August 1516, near the town of Dabiq, 44 km north of Aleppo (modern Syria).
The Battle of the Nile (also known as the Battle of Aboukir Bay; Bataille d'Aboukir) was a major naval battle fought between the British Royal Navy and the Navy of the French Republic at Aboukir Bay on the Mediterranean coast off the Nile Delta of Egypt from 1 to 3 August 1798.
The Battle of the Pyramids, also known as the Battle of Embabeh, was a major engagement fought on July 21, 1798 during the French Invasion of Egypt.
The Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar, also known as the Third Battle of Homs, was a Mongol victory over the Mamluks in 1299.
Bayezid I (بايزيد اول; I. (nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman Turkish: یلدیرم), "Lightning, Thunderbolt"); 1360 – 8 March 1403) was the Ottoman Sultan from 1389 to 1402.
Bayezid II (3 December 1447 – 26 May 1512) (Ottoman Turkish: بايزيد ثانى Bāyezīd-i s̱ānī, Turkish: II. Bayezid or II. Beyazıt) was the eldest son and successor of Mehmed II, ruling as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512.
“Bey” (بك “Beik”, bej, beg, بيه “Beyeh”, بیگ “Beyg” or بگ “Beg”) is a Turkish title for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders or rulers of various sized areas in the Ottoman Empire.
The Anatolian beylik of Dulkadir (Modern Turkish: Dulkadiroğulları Beyliği), was one of the frontier principalities established by the Oghuz, Turcoman clans Bayat, Afshar and Begdili after the decline of Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm.
The Black Guard (عبيد البوخاري, meaning "slaves of al-Bukhari"), were the corps of West African and Moroccan soldiers assembled by the Alaouite sultan of Morocco, Moulay Ismail (reigned 1672–1727).
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The Burji dynasty (المماليك البرجية) was a Circassian Mamluk dynasty which ruled Egypt from 1382 until 1517, during the Mamluk Sultanate.
The Buyid dynasty or the Buyids (آل بویه Āl-e Buye), also known as Buwaihids, Bowayhids, Buyahids, or Buyyids, was an Iranian Shia dynasty of Daylamite origin.
Caesarea (קֵיסָרְיָה, Kaysariya or Qesarya; قيسارية, Qaysaria; Καισάρεια) is a town in north-central Israel.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.
. Antoine Charles Horace Vernet aka.
Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a lifestyle which often includes an occupation, status in a hierarchy, customary social interaction, and exclusion.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Chasseur, a French term for "hunter", is the designation given to certain regiments of French and Belgian light infantry (chasseurs à pied) or light cavalry (chasseurs à cheval) to denote troops trained for rapid action.
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre (كَنِيسَةُ ٱلْقِيَامَة Kanīsatu al-Qiyāmah; Ναὸς τῆς Ἀναστάσεως Naos tes Anastaseos; Սուրբ Հարության տաճար Surb Harut'yan tač̣ar; Ecclesia Sancti Sepulchri; כנסיית הקבר, Knesiyat ha-Kever; also called the Church of the Resurrection or Church of the Anastasis by Orthodox Christians) is a church in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem.
The Circassians (Черкесы Čerkesy), also known by their endonym Adyghe (Circassian: Адыгэхэр Adygekher, Ады́ги Adýgi), are a Northwest Caucasian nation native to Circassia, many of whom were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russian–Circassian War in 1864.
A citadel is the core fortified area of a town or city.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
The Copts (ⲚⲓⲢⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ̀ⲛ̀Ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲓ̀ⲁⲛⲟⲥ,; أقباط) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to North Africa who primarily inhabit the area of modern Egypt, where they are the largest Christian denomination in the country.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
The Cumans (Polovtsi) were a Turkic nomadic people comprising the western branch of the Cuman–Kipchak confederation.
Damietta (دمياط,; ⲧⲁⲙⲓⲁϯ) also known as Damiata, or Domyat, is a port and the capital of the Damietta Governorate in Egypt, a former bishopric and present multiple Catholic titular see.
David Ayalon (1914 – 25 June 1998) was an Israeli historian of Islam and the Middle East, specializing in the Mamluk dynasties of Egypt.
Dawūd Pasha (داود باشا; დაუდ ფაშა; Davud Pasha) (c.1767-1851), who was born in Tbilisi, Georgia of Georgian Christian origin, His full name was (დავით მანველაშვილი; Davit Giorgis Manvelashvili), was the last Mamluk ruler of Iraq, from c.1816 to 1831.
In military terminology, desertion is the abandonment of a duty or post without permission (a pass, liberty or leave) and is done with the intention of not returning.
Devshirme (دوشيرمه, devşirme, literally "lifting" or "collecting"), also known as the blood tax or tribute in blood, was chiefly the practice where by the Ottoman Empire sent military officers to take Christian boys, ages 8 to 18, from their families in Eastern and Southeastern Europe in order that they be raised to serve the state.
Diu is a town in Diu district in the union territory of Daman and Diu, India.
Dongola (دنقلا), also spelled Dunqulah, and formerly known as Al 'Urdi, is the capital of the state of Northern in Sudan, on the banks of the Nile, and a former Latin Catholic bishopric (14th century).
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Following the Islamic conquest in 639 AD, Lower Egypt was ruled at first by governors acting in the name of the Rashidun Caliphs and then the Ummayad Caliphs in Damascus, but in 747 the Ummayads were overthrown.
An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.
The term eunuch (εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences.
The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
The first Battle of Homs was fought on December 10, 1260, between the Ilkhanates of Persia and the forces of Egypt, in Syria. After the historic Mamluk victory over the Ilkhanates at the Battle of Ain Jalut in September 1260, Hulagu Khan of the Ilkhanate had the Ayyubid Sultan of Damascus and other Ayyubid princes executed in revenge, thus effectively ending the dynasty in Syria. However, the defeat at Ain Jalut forced the Ilkhanate armies out of Syria and the Levant. The main cities of Syria, Aleppo and Damascus were thus left open to Mamluk occupation. But Homs and Hama remained in the possession of minor Ayyubid princes. These princes, rather than the Mamluks of Cairo themselves, actually fought and won the First Battle of Homs. Due to the open war between Hulagu and his cousin Berke of the Golden Horde during the civil war of the Mongol Empire, the Ilkhanate could only afford to send 6,000 troops back into Syria to retake control of the lands. This expedition was initiated by Ilkhanate generals such as Baidu who was forced to leave Gaza when the Mamluks advanced just before the battle of Ain Jalut. After quickly recapturing Aleppo, the force travelled southwards to Homs, but were decisively defeated. This ended the first campaign into Syria by the Ilkhanate, though there were several later incursions, none of which ended with conquests lasting more than a year.
Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (30 March 1746 – 16 April 1828) was a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker.
The Directory or Directorate was a five-member committee which governed France from 1795, when it replaced the Committee of Public Safety.
In the history of France, the First Republic (French: Première République), officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution.
The Funj are an ethnic group in present-day Sudan.
The Funj Sultanate of Sennar (sometimes spelled Sinnar; also known as the Funj Monarchy, Funj Caliphate or Funj Kingdom; traditionally known in Sudan as the Blue Sultanate due to the Sudanese convention of referring to African peoples as blue) was a sultanate in what is now Sudan, northwestern Eritrea and western Ethiopia, named after the Funj ethnic group of its dynasty, or Sinnar (or Sennar) after its capital, which ruled a substantial area of northeast Africa between 1504 and 1821.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
Georgian (ქართული ენა, translit.) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians.
The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.
The Ghaznavid dynasty (غزنویان ġaznaviyān) was a Persianate Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin, at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Iran, Afghanistan, much of Transoxiana and the northwest Indian subcontinent from 977 to 1186.
Ghilman (singular غُلاَم,Other standardized transliterations: /.. plural غِلْمَان)Other standardized transliterations: /..
Ghiyas ud din Balban (reigned: 1266–1287) (غیاث الدین بلبن) was the ninth sultan of the Mamluk dynasty of Delhi.
Ghulam (غلام.) is an Arabic word meaning servant, boy, youth.
Khorasan (Middle Persian: Xwarāsān; خراسان Xorāsān), sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia and Afghanistan.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
Gujarat is a state in Western India and Northwest India with an area of, a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population in excess of 60 million.
The Gujarat Sultanate was a medieval Indian kingdom established in the early 15th century in present-day Gujarat, India.
Historical reenactment (or re-enactment) is an educational or entertainment activity in which people follow a plan to recreate aspects of a historical event or period.
The history of Jerusalem during the Middle Ages is generally one of decline; beginning as a major city in the Byzantine Empire, Jerusalem prospered during the early centuries of Muslim control (640–969), but under the rule of the Fatimid caliphate (late 10th to 11th centuries) its population declined from about 200,000 to less than half that number by the time of the Christian conquest in 1099.
Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü or Hulegu (ᠬᠦᠯᠡᠭᠦ|translit.
Ibrahim Bey, of his name Ibrahim Bey El-Greitli, chief of the Haraktas, was a bey of the province of Constantine, who reigned from July 1822 (1237 AH) to December 1824 (1239 AH).
The Ikhshidid dynasty ruled Egypt from 935 to 969.
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (ایلخانان, Ilxānān; Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.
Shams ud-Din Iltutmish was the third ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, belonging to the Mamluk dynasty.
The Imperial Guard (French: Garde Impériale) was originally a small group of elite soldiers of the French Army under the direct command of Napoleon I, but grew considerably over time.
In Our Time is a live BBC radio discussion series exploring the history of ideas, presented by Melvyn Bragg since 15 October 1998.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Historically an infantry square, also known as a hollow square, is a combat formation an infantry unit forms in close order usually when threatened with cavalry attack.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Islam was a widespread religion in what is now Spain and Portugal for nine centuries, beginning with the Umayyad conquest of Hispania and ending (at least overtly) with its prohibition by the modern Spanish state in the mid-16th century and the expulsion of the Moriscos in the early 17th century.
Ismail I (Esmāʿīl,; July 17, 1487 – May 23, 1524), also known as Shah Ismail I (شاه اسماعیل), was the founder of the Safavid dynasty, ruling from 1501 to 23 May 1524 as Shah of Iran (Persia).
Jacques-François de Menou, baron of Boussay, later Abdallah de Menou (3 September 1750 – 13 August 1810) was a French statesman of the French Revolution and general of the French Revolutionary Wars.
Jacques-Nicolas Paillot de Montabert (1771–1849) was a French painter of the early 19th century.
The Janissaries (يڭيچرى, meaning "new soldier") were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops, bodyguards and the first modern standing army in Europe.
Ahmad Pasha al-Jazzar (أحمد الجزار; Cezzar Ahmet Paşa; ca. 1720–30s7 May 1804) was the Acre-based Ottoman governor of Sidon from 1776 until his death in 1804.
General Count Jean Rapp (27 April 1771 – 8 November 1821) was a French Army officer during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.
Jean-Baptiste Kléber (9 March 1753 – 14 June 1800) was a French general during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Jeddah (sometimes spelled Jiddah or Jedda;; جدة, Hejazi pronunciation) is a city in the Hijaz Tihamah region on the coast of the Red Sea and is the major urban center of western Saudi Arabia. It is the largest city in Makkah Province, the largest seaport on the Red Sea, and with a population of about four million people, the second-largest city in Saudi Arabia after the capital city, Riyadh. Jeddah is Saudi Arabia's commercial capital. Jeddah is the principal gateway to Mecca and Medina, two of the holiest cities in Islam and popular tourist attractions. Economically, Jeddah is focusing on further developing capital investment in scientific and engineering leadership within Saudi Arabia, and the Middle East. Jeddah was independently ranked fourth in the Africa – Mid-East region in terms of innovation in 2009 in the Innovation Cities Index. Jeddah is one of Saudi Arabia's primary resort cities and was named a Beta world city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC). Given the city's close proximity to the Red Sea, fishing and seafood dominates the food culture unlike other parts of the country. In Arabic, the city's motto is "Jeddah Ghair," which translates to "Jeddah is different." The motto has been widely used among both locals as well as foreign visitors. The city had been previously perceived as the "most open" city in Saudi Arabia.
The Khwarazmian dynasty (also known as the Khwarezmid dynasty, the Anushtegin dynasty, the dynasty of Khwarazm Shahs, and other spelling variants; from ("Kings of Khwarezmia") was a PersianateC. E. Bosworth:. In Encyclopaedia Iranica, online ed., 2009: "Little specific is known about the internal functioning of the Khwarazmian state, but its bureaucracy, directed as it was by Persian officials, must have followed the Saljuq model. This is the impression gained from the various Khwarazmian chancery and financial documents preserved in the collections of enšāʾdocuments and epistles from this period. The authors of at least three of these collections—Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ (d. 1182-83 or 1187-88), with his two collections of rasāʾel, and Bahāʾ-al-Din Baḡdādi, compiler of the important Ketāb al-tawaṣṣol elā al-tarassol—were heads of the Khwarazmian chancery. The Khwarazmshahs had viziers as their chief executives, on the traditional pattern, and only as the dynasty approached its end did ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad in ca. 615/1218 divide up the office amongst six commissioners (wakildārs; see Kafesoğlu, pp. 5-8, 17; Horst, pp. 10-12, 25, and passim). Nor is much specifically known of court life in Gorgānj under the Khwarazmshahs, but they had, like other rulers of their age, their court eulogists, and as well as being a noted stylist, Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ also had a considerable reputation as a poet in Persian." Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin. The dynasty ruled large parts of Central Asia and Iran during the High Middle Ages, in the approximate period of 1077 to 1231, first as vassals of the Seljuqs and Qara-Khitan, and later as independent rulers, up until the Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia in the 13th century. The dynasty was founded by commander Anush Tigin Gharchai, a former Turkish slave of the Seljuq sultans, who was appointed as governor of Khwarezm. His son, Qutb ad-Din Muhammad I, became the first hereditary Shah of Khwarezm.Encyclopædia Britannica, "Khwarezm-Shah-Dynasty",.
The Kingdom of Cyprus was a Crusader state that existed between 1192 and 1489.
The Kipchaks were a Turkic nomadic people and confederation that existed in the Middle Ages, inhabiting parts of the Eurasian Steppe.
Kitbuqa Noyan (Хитбуха; died 1260) was a Nestorian Christian of the Mongolian Naiman tribe, a group that was subservient to the Mongol Empire.
Kordofan (كردفان) is a former province of central Sudan.
Kozhikode, or Calicut, is a city in Kerala, India on the Malabar Coast.
Kurultai (Mongolian:, Хуралдай, Khuruldai; Turkish: Kurultay),Kazakh: Құрылтай, Qurıltay; Корылтай, Qorıltay; Ҡоролтай, Qoroltay; Qurultay; Gurultaý was a political and military council of ancient Mongol and some Turkic chiefs and khans.
Lachin (Arabic: لاجين), full royal name al-Malik al-Mansour Hossam ad-Din Lachin al-Mansuri (Arabic: الملك المنصور حسام الدين لاجين المنصورى d. January 16, 1299, Cairo) was a Mamluk sultan of Egypt from 1296 to 1299.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
The Abbasid caliphs were the holders of the Islamic title of caliph who were members of the Abbasid dynasty, a branch of the Quraysh tribe descended from the uncle of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib.
Louis IX (25 April 1214 – 25 August 1270), commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France and is a canonized Catholic and Anglican saint.
Lourenço de Almeida (c.1480 - March 1508) was a Portuguese explorer and military commander.
Mameluco is a Portuguese word that denotes the first generation child of a European and an Amerindian.
A Mameluke sword is a cross-hilted, curved, scimitar-like sword historically derived from sabres used by Mamluk warriors of Mamluk Egypt from whom the sword derives its name.
The Mamelukes of the Imperial Guard was a cavalry squadron of Napoleon I's Imperial Guard.
Mamluk architecture was a flowering of Islamic art during the reign of the Mamluk Sultanate (1250–1517), which is most visible in medieval Cairo.
The Mamluk Dynasty (sometimes referred as Slave Dynasty or Ghulam Dynasty) (سلطنت مملوک), (غلام خاندان) was directed into Northern India by Qutb ud-Din Aibak, a Turkic Mamluk slave general from Central Asia.
The Mamluk dynasty of Iraq (Arabic: مماليك العراق) was a dynasty which ruled over Iraq in the 18th and early 19th centuries.
The Mamluk Sultanate (سلطنة المماليك Salṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz.
Dom Manuel I (31 May 1469 – 13 December 1521), the Fortunate (Port. o Afortunado), King of Portugal and the Algarves, was the son of Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, by his wife, the Infanta Beatrice of Portugal.
Möngke (valign / Мөнх;; January 11, 1209 – August 11, 1259) was the fourth khagan of the Mongol Empire, ruling from July 1, 1251, to August 11, 1259.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha (محمد علی پاشا المسعود بن آغا; محمد علي باشا / ALA-LC: Muḥammad ‘Alī Bāshā; Albanian: Mehmet Ali Pasha; Turkish: Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Paşa; 4 March 1769 – 2 August 1849) was an Ottoman Albanian commander in the Ottoman army, who rose to the rank of Pasha, and became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans' temporary approval.
The process of Muhammad Ali's seizure of power in Egypt was a long three-way civil war between the Ottoman Turks, Egyptian Mamluks who had ruled Egypt for centuries, and Albanian mercenaries in the service of the Ottomans.
Muiz ud-Din Bahram (r. 1240–42) was the sixth sultan of the Mamluk Dynasty.
Muiz ud din Qaiqabad (reigned 1287– 1 February 1290) was the tenth sultan of the Mamluk dynasty (Slave dynasty).
A musket is a muzzle-loaded, smoothbore long gun that appeared in early 16th century Europe, at first as a heavier variant of the arquebus, capable of penetrating heavy armor.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Nasir ud din Mahmud, Nasir ud din Firuz Shah (reigned: 1246–1266) was the eighth sultan of the Mamluk Sultanate (Slave dynasty).
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
The North Caucasus (p) or Ciscaucasia is the northern part of the Caucasus region between the Sea of Azov and Black Sea on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east, within European Russia.
The Armée d'Orient (English: Army of the Orient) was the French military force gathered by the French Directory to send on the expedition to Egypt in 1798.
The Orontes (Ὀρόντης) or Asi (العاصي, ‘Āṣī; Asi) is a northward-flowing river which begins in Lebanon and flows through Syria and Turkey before entering the Mediterranean Sea.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Ottoman Turkish (Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish:, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as, Türkçe or, Türkî, "Turkish"; Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire.
Pasha or Paşa (پاشا, paşa), in older works sometimes anglicized as bashaw, was a higher rank in the Ottoman political and military system, typically granted to governors, generals, dignitaries and others.
Philibert Berthelier (c. 1465August 23, 1519), often known just as Berthelier, was a Genevan patriot, an uncompromising enemy of the Duke of Savoy in his ambition to control Geneva.
Pope Julius II (Papa Giulio II; Iulius II) (5 December 1443 – 21 February 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, and nicknamed "The Fearsome Pope" and "The Warrior Pope".
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Sultan Al-Ashraf Sayf ad-Din Qa'it Bay (السلطان أبو النصر سيف الدين الأشرف قايتباي) (c. 1416/14181496) was the eighteenth Burji Mamluk Sultan of Egypt from 872-901 A.H. (1468-1496 C.E.). (Other transliterations of his name include Qaytbay and Kait Bey.) He was Circassian (شركسيا) by birth, and was purchased by the ninth sultan Barsbay (1422 to 1438 C.E.) before being freed by the eleventh Sultan Jaqmaq (1438 to 1453 C.E.). During his reign, he stabilized the Mamluk state and economy, consolidated the northern boundaries of the Sultanate with the Ottoman Empire, engaged in trade with other contemporaneous polities, and emerged as a great patron of art and architecture.
Quṭb al-Dīn Aibak also spelt Quṭb ud-Dīn Aibak or Qutub ud-Din Aybak, (1150–1210), was the founder of the Mamluk dynasty and the first sultan of the Delhi Sultanate.
Saif ad-Din Qutuz (سيف الدين قطز; 24 October 1260), also romanized as Kutuz, Kotuz, and fully al-Malik al-Muzaffar Saif ad-Din Qutuz (الملك المظفر سيف الدين قطز), was the third or fourth of the Mamluk Sultans of Egypt in the Turkic line.
Raziya Sultana, sometime Raziyya Sultan, (1205 – 13 October 1240) was the Sultan of Delhi from 10 November 1236 to 14 October 1240.
The Reconquista (Spanish and Portuguese for the "reconquest") is a name used to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
A regiment is a military unit.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
Roda Island or Rawdah Island,, is an island located on the Nile in central Cairo.
The romanization of Arabic writes written and spoken Arabic in the Latin script in one of various systematic ways.
Roustam Raza, also known as Roustan or Rustam (1783 – 7 December 1845), was Napoleon's mamluk bodyguard and secondary valet.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Rukn ud din Firuz was the forth sultan of the Mamluk Sultanate (Slave Dynasty), who ruled for a little over six months, which is said to be a very less time compared to other rulers and was the Governor of the Royal state of Badayun.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
Said Pasha (سعيد باشا, საიდ ფაშა) was the Mamluk ruler of Iraq between 1813 and 1816.
An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب / ALA-LC: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin (11374 March 1193), was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.
Sāmarrāʾ (سَامَرَّاء) is a city in Iraq.
Ṣaqāliba (Arabic: صقالبة, sg. ṣaqlabī) refers to Slavs, captured on the coasts of Europe in raids or wars, as well as mercenaries in the medieval Muslim world, in the Middle East, North Africa, Sicily and Al-Andalus.
Savoy (Savouè,; Savoie; Savoia) is a cultural region in Western Europe.
The Second Battle of Homs was fought in western Syria on 29 October 1281, between the armies of the Mamluk dynasty of Egypt and the Ilkhanate, a division of the Mongol Empire centered on Iran. The battle was part of Abaqa Khan's attempt at taking Syria from the Mamluks. After the Mamluk victories over Mongols at Ain Jalut in 1260 and Albistan in 1277, the Il-khan Abaqa sent his brother Möngke Temur at the head of a large army which numbered about 40-50,000 men, chiefly Armenians under Leo II and Georgians under Demetrius II. The two armies met south of Homs, a city in western Syria. In a pitched battle, the Armenians, Georgians and Oirats under King Leo II and Mongol generals routed and scattered the Mamluk left flank, but the Mamluks personally led by Sultan Qalawun destroyed the Mongol centre. Möngke Temur was wounded and fled, followed by his disorganized army. However, Qalawun chose to not pursue the defeated enemy, and the Armenian-Georgian auxiliaries of the Mongols managed to withdraw safely. The following year, Abaqa died and his successor, Tekuder, reversed his policy towards the Mamluks. He converted to Islam and forged an alliance with the Mamluk sultan.
Selim I (Ottoman Turkish: سليم اول, Modern Turkish: Birinci Selim; 1470/1 – September 1520), known as Selim the Grim or Selim the Resolute (Yavuz Sultan Selim), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520.
The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.
The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254.
Shajar al-Durr (Arabic: شجر الدر, "Tree of Pearls") (Royal name: al-Malika `Aṣmat ad-Dīn Umm-Khalīl Shajar ad-Durr (Arabic: الملكة عصمة الدين أم خليل شجر الدر) (nicknamed: أم خليل, Umm Khalil; mother of Khalil)) (? – 28 April 1257, Cairo) was the second Muslim woman (after Razia Sultana of Delhi) to become a monarch in Islamic history.
Shams ud-Din Kayumars (reigned: 1290) was the son of Muiz ud-Din Qaiqabad, the tenth sultan of the Mamluk dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate.
The Siege of Acre of 1799 was an unsuccessful French siege of the Ottoman-defended, walled city of Acre (now Akko in modern Israel) and was the turning point of Napoleon's invasion of Egypt and Syria.
The Siege of Baghdad, which lasted from January 29 until February 10, 1258, entailed the investment, capture, and sack of Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, by Ilkhanate Mongol forces and allied troops.
Badr al-Din Solamish (1272–1291; بدر الدين سُلامش, royal name: al-Malik al-Adil Badr al-Din Solamish (الملك العادل بدر الدين سُلامش)) was a Sultan of Egypt in 1279.
The South Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the South Slavic languages.
The Sublime Porte, also known as the Ottoman Porte or High Porte (باب عالی Bāb-ı Ālī or Babıali, from باب, bāb "gate" and عالي, alī "high"), is a synecdochic metonym for the central government of the Ottoman Empire.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Sulayman Pasha al-Adil (c. 1760s – August 1819; given name also spelled Suleiman or Sulaiman) was the Ottoman governor of Sidon Eyalet between 1805 and 1819, ruling from his Acre headquarters.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
Sultan of Egypt was the status held by the rulers of Egypt after the establishment of the Ayyubid dynasty of Saladin in 1174 until the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Tarsus (Hittite: Tarsa; Greek: Ταρσός Tarsós; Armenian: Տարսոն Tarson; תרשיש Ṭarśīś; طَرَسُوس Ṭarsūs) is a historic city in south-central Turkey, 20 km inland from the Mediterranean.
The Second of May 1808, also known as The Charge of the Mamelukes (in Spanish: El 2 de mayo de 1808 en Madrid, or La lucha con los mamelucos or La carga de los mamelucos), is a painting by the Spanish painter Francisco Goya.
Thomas F. Madden (born 1960) is an American historian, a former Chair of the History Department at Saint Louis University in St. Louis, Missouri, and Director of Saint Louis University's Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies.
Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.
Transoxiana (also spelled Transoxania), known in Arabic sources as (– 'what beyond the river') and in Persian as (فرارود, —'beyond the river'), is the ancient name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, southern Kyrgyzstan, and southwest Kazakhstan.
Al-Adil Sayf ad-Din Tuman bay (السلطان الملك العادل أبو النصر طومان باى الأشرفى قايتباى) was the twenty fifth Mamluk Sultan of Egypt from the Burji dynasty.
Al-Ashraf Tuman bay better known as Tuman bay II succeeded as Sultan of Egypt during the final period of Mamluk rule in Egypt, prior to its conquest by the Ottoman Empire.
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
The University of Michigan Press is part of Michigan Publishing at the University of Michigan Library.
Upper Egypt (صعيد مصر, shortened to الصعيد) is the strip of land on both sides of the Nile that extends between Nubia and downriver (northwards) to Lower Egypt.
Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira (c. 1460s – 24 December 1524), was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
White people is a racial classification specifier, used mostly for people of European descent; depending on context, nationality, and point of view, the term has at times been expanded to encompass certain persons of North African, Middle Eastern, and South Asian descent, persons who are often considered non-white in other contexts.
The World Digital Library (WDL) is an international digital library operated by UNESCO and the United States Library of Congress.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Zamorin of Calicut (Samoothiri; Portuguese: Samorim, Dutch: Samorijn, Chinese: ShamitihsiMa Huan's Ying-yai Sheng-lan: 'The Overall Survey of the Ocean's Shores'. Translated and Edited by J. V. G. Mills. Cambridge University Press for the Hakluyt Society (1970).) is the title of the Hindu monarch of the Kingdom of Calicut (Kozhikode) on Malabar Coast, India.
Malmuk, Mamaluk, Mamaluke, Mamelouk, Mamelouks, Mameluk, Mameluk Dynasty, Mameluk dynasty, Mameluke, Mameluke Empire, Mameluke Sultanate, Mameluke dynasty, Mamelukes, Mameluks, Mamluc, Mamluk Dynasty, Mamluk State, Mamluk Sultanate, Mamluk dynasty, Mamluk identity, Mamluk sultanate, Mamluke, Mamluke Sultanate, Mamluks, Mamluq, Mamluqs, Marmalukes, Marmeluke, Memluk, Memluks, The Mamluks, مماليك, مملوك, მამლუქი.