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# Manchester Mark 1

The Manchester Mark 1 was one of the earliest stored-program computers, developed at the Victoria University of Manchester from the Manchester Baby (operational in June 1948). [1]

69 relations: Accumulator (computing), Alan Turing, Algorithm, Assembly language, Base (exponentiation), Baudot code, Ben Lockspeiser, Bit, Cathode ray tube, Clock rate, Delay line memory, EDVAC, Electronic delay storage automatic calculator, ENIAC, Ferranti, Ferranti Mark 1, Ferranti Mercury, Floating-point unit, Frederic Calland Williams, General Electric Company, Geoff Tootill, Geoffrey Jefferson, History of computing hardware, IBM, IBM 701, IBM 702, Index register, Instruction set architecture, Interrupt, John von Neumann, Konrad Zuse, List of vacuum tube computers, Lister Medal, Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, Magnetic-core memory, Manchester Baby, Manchester code, Manchester computers, Max Newman, Mersenne prime, Millisecond, Ministry of Supply, Multiplication, National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom), National Research Development Corporation, Operand, Operating system, Optics, Page (computer memory), Patch panel, ... Expand index (19 more) »

## Accumulator (computing)

In a computer's central processing unit (CPU), an accumulator is a register in which intermediate arithmetic and logic results are stored.

## Alan Turing

Alan Mathison Turing (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist.

## Algorithm

In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.

## Assembly language

An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.

## Base (exponentiation)

In exponentiation, the base is the number b in an expression of the form bn.

## Baudot code

The Baudot code, invented by Émile Baudot, is a character set predating EBCDIC and ASCII.

## Ben Lockspeiser

Sir Ben Lockspeiser KCB, FRS, MIMechE, FRAeS (9 March 1891 – 18 October 1990) was a British scientific administrator and the first President of CERN.

## Bit

The bit (a portmanteau of binary digit) is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications.

## Cathode ray tube

The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.

## Clock rate

The clock rate typically refers to the frequency at which a chip like a central processing unit (CPU), one core of a multi-core processor, is running and is used as an indicator of the processor's speed.

## Delay line memory

Delay line memory is a form of computer memory, now obsolete, that was used on some of the earliest digital computers.

## EDVAC

EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) was one of the earliest electronic computers.

## Electronic delay storage automatic calculator

The electronic delay storage automatic calculator (EDSAC) was an early British computer.

## ENIAC

ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was amongst the earliest electronic general-purpose computers made.

## Ferranti

Ferranti or Ferranti International plc was a UK electrical engineering and equipment firm that operated for over a century from 1885 until it went bankrupt in 1993.

## Ferranti Mark 1

The Ferranti Mark 1, also known as the Manchester Electronic Computer in its sales literature, and thus sometimes called the Manchester Ferranti, was the world's first commercially available general-purpose electronic computer.

## Ferranti Mercury

The Mercury was an early commercial computer from the mid-1950s built by Ferranti.

## Floating-point unit

A floating-point unit (FPU, colloquially a math coprocessor) is a part of a computer system specially designed to carry out operations on floating point numbers.

## Frederic Calland Williams

Sir Frederic Calland Williams, (26 June 1911 &ndash; 11 August 1977), known as F.C. Williams or Freddie Williams, was an English engineer, a pioneer in radar and computer technology.

## General Electric Company

The General Electric Company, or GEC, was a major UK-based industrial conglomerate involved in consumer and defence electronics, communications, and engineering.

## Geoff Tootill

Geoff C. Tootill (4 March 1922 – 26 October 2017) was an electronic engineer and computer scientist who worked in the Electrical Engineering Department at the University of Manchester with Freddie Williams and Tom Kilburn developing the Manchester Baby, "the world's first wholly electronic stored-program computer".

## Geoffrey Jefferson

Sir Geoffrey Jefferson CBE, FRS (1886–1961) was a British neurologist and pioneering neurosurgeon.

## History of computing hardware

The history of computing hardware covers the developments from early simple devices to aid calculation to modern day computers.

## IBM

The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.

## IBM 701

The IBM 701 Electronic Data Processing Machine, known as the Defense Calculator while in development, was IBM’s first commercial scientific computer, which was announced to the public on April 29, 1952.

## IBM 702

The IBM 702 was IBM's response to the UNIVAC&mdash;the first mainframe computer using magnetic tapes.

## Index register

An index register in a computer's CPU is a processor register used for modifying operand addresses during the run of a program, typically for doing vector/array operations.

## Instruction set architecture

An instruction set architecture (ISA) is an abstract model of a computer.

## Interrupt

In system programming, an interrupt is a signal to the processor emitted by hardware or software indicating an event that needs immediate attention.

## John von Neumann

John von Neumann (Neumann János Lajos,; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath.

Konrad Zuse (22 June 1910 – 18 December 1995) was a German civil engineer, inventor and computer pioneer.

## List of vacuum tube computers

Vacuum tube computers, now termed first generation computers, are programmable digital computers using vacuum tube logic circuitry.

## Lister Medal

The Lister Medal is an award presented by the Royal College of Surgeons of England in recognition of contributions to surgical science.

## Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma

Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, (born Prince Louis of Battenberg; 25 June 1900 – 27 August 1979) was a British Royal Navy officer and statesman, an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and second cousin once removed of Queen Elizabeth II.

## Magnetic-core memory

Magnetic-core memory was the predominant form of random-access computer memory for 20 years between about 1955 and 1975.

## Manchester Baby

The Manchester Baby, also known as the Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM), was the world's first stored-program computer.

## Manchester code

In telecommunication and data storage, Manchester code (also known as phase encoding, or PE) is a line code in which the encoding of each data bit is either low then high, or high then low, for equal time.

## Manchester computers

The Manchester computers were an innovative series of stored-program electronic computers developed during the 30-year period between 1947 and 1977 by a small team at the University of Manchester, under the leadership of Tom Kilburn.

## Max Newman

Maxwell Herman Alexander Newman, FRS, (7 February 1897 – 22 February 1984), generally known as Max Newman, was a British mathematician and codebreaker.

## Mersenne prime

In mathematics, a Mersenne prime is a prime number that is one less than a power of two.

## Millisecond

A millisecond (from milli- and second; symbol: ms) is a thousandth (0.001 or 10−3 or 1/1000) of a second.

## Ministry of Supply

The Ministry of Supply (MoS) was a department of the UK Government formed in 1939 to co-ordinate the supply of equipment to all three British armed forces, headed by the Minister of Supply.

## Multiplication

Multiplication (often denoted by the cross symbol "×", by a point "⋅", by juxtaposition, or, on computers, by an asterisk "∗") is one of the four elementary mathematical operations of arithmetic; with the others being addition, subtraction and division.

## National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom)

The National Physical Laboratory (NPL) is the national measurement standards laboratory for the United Kingdom, based at Bushy Park in Teddington, London, England.

## National Research Development Corporation

The National Research Development Corporation (NRDC) was a non-departmental government body established by the British Government to transfer technology from the public sector to the private sector.

## Operand

In mathematics an operand is the object of a mathematical operation, i.e. it is the quantity that is operated on.

## Operating system

An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.

## Optics

Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.

## Page (computer memory)

A page, memory page, or virtual page is a fixed-length contiguous block of virtual memory, described by a single entry in the page table.

## Patch panel

A patch panel, patch bay, patch field or jack field is a device or unit featuring a number of jacks, usually of the same or similar type, for the use of connecting and routing circuits for monitoring, interconnecting, and testing circuits in a convenient, flexible manner.

## Phase modulation

Phase modulation (PM) is a modulation pattern for conditioning communication signals for transmission.

## Pilot ACE

The Pilot ACE (Automatic Computing Engine) was one of the first computers built in the United Kingdom at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the early 1950s.

## Program counter

The program counter (PC), commonly called the instruction pointer (IP) in Intel x86 and Itanium microprocessors, and sometimes called the instruction address register (IAR), the instruction counter, or just part of the instruction sequencer, is a processor register that indicates where a computer is in its program sequence.

## Punched tape

Punched tape or perforated paper tape is a form of data storage, consisting of a long strip of paper in which holes are punched to store data.

## Riemann hypothesis

In mathematics, the Riemann hypothesis is a conjecture that the Riemann zeta function has its zeros only at the negative even integers and complex numbers with real part.

## Royal Society

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.

## Stored-program computer

A stored-program computer is a computer that stores program instructions in electronic memory.

## Teleprinter

A teleprinter (teletypewriter, Teletype or TTY) is an electromechanical typewriter that can be used to send and receive typed messages through various communications channels, in both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint configurations.

## The Times

The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.

## Tom Kilburn

Tom Kilburn (11 August 1921 – 17 January 2001) was an English mathematician and computer scientist.

## Two's complement

Two's complement is a mathematical operation on binary numbers, best known for its role in computing as a method of signed number representation.

## United States Army

The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.

## University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.

## University of Manchester

The University of Manchester is a public research university in Manchester, England, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester.

## Vacuum tube

In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.

## Victoria University of Manchester

The former Victoria University of Manchester, now the University of Manchester, was founded in 1851 as Owens College.

## Watt

The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.

## Williams tube

The Williams tube, or the Williams–Kilburn tube after inventors Freddie Williams (26 June 1911 – 11 August 1977), and Tom Kilburn (11 August 1921 – 17 January 2001), is an early form of computer memory.

## Word (computer architecture)

In computing, a word is the natural unit of data used by a particular processor design.

## References

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