345 relations: Acculturation, Acheng District, Aigun, Aihui District, Aisin Gioro, Aisin-Gioro Ulhicun, American Oriental Society, Amur Acquisition, Ang'angxi District, Anhui, Animal husbandry, Anshan, Anti-Qing sentiment, Association for Asian Studies, Autonomous counties of the People's Republic of China, Autonomous regions of China, Ayuka Khan, Ögedei Khan, Balhae, Baoding, Beijing, Beilin District, Suihua, Beizhen, Benxi, Benxi Manchu Autonomous County, Bijie, Book of Wei, Boxer Rebellion, Buddhism, Caishen, Catholic Church, Changtu County, Chengde, Chengde County, Cheongsam, Chifeng, China, Chinese cabbage, Chinese economic reform, Chinese folk religion, Chinese nationalism, Chinese New Year, Chongqing, Chongzhen Emperor, Chuang Guandong, Clan Nara, Classic of Mountains and Seas, Clemens von Ketteler, Cognatic kinship, Cremation, ..., Cultural Revolution, Cungšan, Dafang County, Dalian, Dandong, Daur people, Dongfeng County, Donggang, Liaoning, Dorgon, Dragon Boat Festival, Dream of the Red Chamber, Duanfang, East China, Eight Banners, Emperor Shun, Emperor Taizong of Jin, Emperor Taizu of Jin, Emperor Yingzong of Ming, Empire of Japan, Empress Dowager Cixi, Esen Taishi, Ethnic minorities in China, Evenks, Feidong County, Fengcheng, Liaoning, Fengning Manchu Autonomous County, Fengtian clique, First Sino-Japanese War, Five Races Under One Union, Fu Jen Catholic University, Fu Ssu-nien, Fujian, Fushun, Fushun County, Liaoning, Fuxin, Fuyu County, Heilongjiang, Gansu, Gūwalgiya, Gelug, Genghis Khan, Giocangga, Gongzhuling, Goryeo, Guan Yu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guangzhou, Guizhou, Gyrfalcon, Hainan, Haixi Jurchens, Han Chinese, Harbin, Harqin Banner, Hebei, Hefei, Hegang, Heihe, Heilongjiang, Heishan County, Henan, Hinggan League, Hong Taiji, Horqin Right Front Banner, Huairou District, Huanren Manchu Autonomous County, Hubei, Huludao, Hunan, Hunchun, Hunnan District, Identity in the Eight Banners, Inner Mongolia, Jianchang County, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jianzhou Jurchens, Jiaqing Emperor, Jilin, Jilin City, Jin dynasty (1115–1234), Jin–Song Wars, Jingzhou, Jinsha County, Jinzhou, Jinzhou District, Jiu Manzhou Dang, Jizhou District, Tianjin, John Fugh, John Keay, Joseon, Judge Advocate General of the United States Army, Jurchen people, Jurchen script, Kaiyuan, Liaoning, Kangping County, Kangxi Emperor, Khitan language, Khitan people, Khitan scripts, Kitchen God, Kuancheng Manchu Autonomous County, Kuandian Manchu Autonomous County, Laishui County, Langfang, Lao She, Later Jin (1616–1636), Later Three Kingdoms, Legend of the White Snake, Li Hongzhang, Li Zicheng, Liangcheng County, Lianshan District, Liao dynasty, Liaoning, Liaoyang, Liaoyang County, Liaoyuan, Linghai, List of cities in China, List of emperors of the Qing dynasty, List of Manchu clans, Longhua County, Longtan District, Jilin City, Luanping County, Mainland China, Manchu alphabet, Manchu language, Manchu name, Manchu shamanism, Manchukuo, Manchuria, Mandarin Chinese, Manjushri, Meihekou, Mentemu, Ming dynasty, Mohe people, Mongolian name, Mongolian nobility, Mongolian script, Mongolian wrestling, Mongols, Mudanjiang, Mukden Incident, Naghachu, Nanai people, Nanfen District, Nangang District, Harbin, Narrative of the Chinese Embassy to the Khan of the Tourgouth Tartars, Nationalist government, Ning'an, Ningxia, Niohuru, North China, Northeast China, Northwest China, Nurgan Regional Military Commission, Nurhaci, Opium, Oroqen people, Outer Manchuria, Perilla, Pingquan, Prince regent, Provinces of China, Puru (artist), Puyi, Qapqal Xibe Autonomous County, Qianlong Emperor, Qianshan District, Qianxi County, Guizhou, Qing dynasty, Qinghai, Qinglong Manchu Autonomous County, Qingyuan Manchu Autonomous County, Qinhuangdao, Qiqihar, Queue (hairstyle), Republic of China (1912–1949), Researches on Manchu Origins, Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Royal and noble ranks of the Qing dynasty, Sanjiazi, Second Sino-Japanese War, Shaanxi, Shamanism, Shamanism in the Qing dynasty, Shandong, Shanghai, Shanhai Pass, Shanxi, Shenyang, Shuai jiao, Shuangcheng District, Shuangyashan, Shun dynasty, Shunzhi Emperor, Sibe people, Sichuan, Sino-Russian border conflicts, Siping, Jilin, Slash-and-burn, Society of Jesus, Solon people, Song dynasty, Songshan District, Chifeng, South Central China, Southwest China, Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio, Suibin County, Suihua, Suizhong County, Sun Yat-sen, Sunwu County, Sushen, Taejo of Goryeo, Taejo of Joseon, Taiping Rebellion, Taiwan, Taksi, Tale of the Nisan Shaman, Tang dynasty, Tangshan, Tangzhuang, The Story of the Western Wing, Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors, Tianjin, Tibet, Tibet Autonomous Region, Tibetan Buddhism, Tieling, Tieling County, Tong Jian, Tonghua, Tonghua County, Torghut, Transition from Ming to Qing, Tributary state, Tribute, Tulišen, Tumu Crisis, Tungusic languages, Tungusic peoples, Udege people, Ulanqab, University of California Press, University of Washington Press, Vassal, Vladivostok, Wafangdian, Wangkui County, Weichang Manchu and Mongol Autonomous County, Wen'an County, Wild Jurchens, Wu Sangui, Wuchang District, Xi Qia, Xiangsheng, Xibe language, Xifeng County, Liaoning, Xihu District, Benxi, Xinbin Manchu Autonomous County, Xingcheng, Xinglong County, Xinjiang, Xiuyan Manchu Autonomous County, Yalu River, Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, Yìhéquán, Yi County, Hebei, Yi County, Liaoning, Ying Lianzhi, Yitong Manchu Autonomous County, Yonghe Temple, Yongji County, Jilin, Yongle Emperor, Yongning Temple Stele, Yongzheng Emperor, Youyi County, Yuan dynasty, Yunnan, Zhang Binglin, Zhang Zuolin, Zhangwu County, Zhao Hongbo, Zhejiang, Zhonghua minzu, Zhou dynasty, Zhuanghe, Zidishu, Zuihuai, Zunhua, 2000 United States Census, 9th Infantry Regiment (United States). 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Acculturation is the process of social, psychological, and cultural change that stems from blending between cultures.
Acheng District, formerly Acheng County, (Manchu Language: Alcuka Hoton) is one of nine districts of Harbin, the capital of Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China, covering part of the southeastern suburbs.
Aigun (Manchu: aihūn hoton) was a historic Chinese town in northern Manchuria, situated on the right bank of the Amur River, some south (downstream) from the central urban area of Heihe (which, in its turn, is across the Amur from the mouth of the Zeya River and Blagoveschensk).
Aihui District is an administrative district and the seat of the prefecture-level city of Heihe, Heilongjiang Province, People's Republic of China.
Aisin Gioro is the imperial clan of Manchu emperors of the Qing dynasty.
Aisin-Gioro Ulhicun (born 1958) is a Chinese linguist of Manchu ethnicity who is known for her studies of the Manchu, Jurchen and Khitan languages and scripts.
The American Oriental Society was chartered under the laws of Massachusetts on September 7, 1842.
The Amur Annexation was the incorporation of the southeast corner of Siberia into Russia in 1858–1860.
Ang'angxi is a county-level district of the city of Qiqihar in Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China.
Anhui is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the eastern region of the country.
Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products.
Anshan is the third largest prefecture-level city in Liaoning Province, China.
Anti-Qing sentiment refers to a sentiment principally held in China against the Manchu ruling during the Qing dynasty (1644–1912), which was accused by a number of opponents of being barbarian.
The Association for Asian Studies (AAS) is a scholarly, non-political and non-profit professional association open to all persons interested in Asia and the study of Asia.
Autonomous counties and autonomous banners are autonomous administrative divisions of China.
An autonomous region (AR) is a first-level administrative division of China.
Ayuka or Ayuki Khan (1669–1724) was a Kalmyk leader under whose rule the Kalmyk Khanate reached its zenith in terms of economic, military, and politic power.
Ögedei (also Ogodei; translit, Mongolian: Ögedei, Ögüdei;; c.1185– 11 December 1241), was the third son of Genghis Khan and second Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, succeeding his father.
Balhae (698–926), also known as Parhae or Bohai was a multi-ethnic kingdom in Manchuria and the Korean peninsula.
Baoding is a prefecture-level city in central Hebei province, approximately southwest of Beijing.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
Beilin is the only district of the city of Suihua, Heilongjiang, People's Republic of China.
Beizhen is a city in west-central Liaoning province of Northeast China.
Benxi is a prefecture-level city located in the east of Liaoning province, People's Republic of China, south-southeast of the provincial capital Shenyang.
Benxi Manchu Autonomous County (Manchu:; Mölendroff: bensi manju beye dasangga siyan) is an autonomous county under the administration of the prefecture-level city Benxi, in the east of Liaoning province, China.
Bijie is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Guizhou Province, China, bordering Sichuan to the north and Yunnan to the west.
The Book of Wei, also known by its Chinese name as the Wei Shu, is a classic Chinese historical text compiled by Wei Shou from 551 to 554, and is an important text describing the history of the Northern Wei and Eastern Wei from 386 to 550.
The Boxer Rebellion (拳亂), Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement (義和團運動) was a violent anti-foreign, anti-colonial and anti-Christian uprising that took place in China between 1899 and 1901, toward the end of the Qing dynasty.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Caishen is the Chinese god of prosperity worshipped in the Chinese folk religion and Taoism.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Changtu County is a county in the northeast of Liaoning province, China, bordering Jilin to the northeast and Inner Mongolia in the northwest.
Chengde, previously known as Jehol or Rehe, is a prefecture-level city in Hebei province, situated northeast of Beijing.
Chengde County is a county in the northeast of Hebei province, People's Republic of China.
The cheongsam (from Cantonese;, or) is a body-hugging one-piece Chinese dress for women, also known as qipao (from Mandarin) or qípáo, and was ROC's mandarin gown.
Chifeng, also known as Ulankhad (style (Улаанхад хот) Ulaɣanqada qota, "red cliff"), is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa, subspecies pekinensis and chinensis) can refer to two groups of Chinese leaf vegetables often used in Chinese cuisine: the Pekinensis Group (napa cabbage) and the Chinensis Group (bok choy).
The Chinese economic reform refers to the program of economic reforms termed "Socialism with Chinese characteristics" in the People's Republic of China (PRC) that was started in December 1978 by reformists within the Communist Party of China, led by Deng Xiaoping.
Chinese folk religion (Chinese popular religion) or Han folk religion is the religious tradition of the Han people, including veneration of forces of nature and ancestors, exorcism of harmful forces, and a belief in the rational order of nature which can be influenced by human beings and their rulers as well as spirits and gods.
Chinese nationalism is the form of nationalism in China which asserts that the Chinese people are a nation and promotes the cultural and national unity of the Chinese.
Chinese New Year, usually known as the Spring Festival in modern China, is an important Chinese festival celebrated at the turn of the traditional lunisolar Chinese calendar.
Chongqing, formerly romanized as Chungking, is a major city in southwest China.
The Chongzhen Emperor (6 February 1611 – 25 April 1644), personal name Zhu Youjian, was the 17th and last emperor of the Ming dynasty in China, reigning from 1627–1644.
Chuang Guandong (IPA:; literally "Crashing into Guandong" with Guandong being an older name for Manchuria) is descriptive of the rush into Manchuria of the Han Chinese population, especially from the Shandong Peninsula and Zhili, during the hundred-year period starting at the last half of the 19th century.
Nara (Manchu:, Wade-Giles: nara hala, Chinese: 納喇氏, 納蘭氏 or 那拉氏, also Nala, Nalan) is a clan name shared by a number of royal Manchu clans.
The Classic of Mountains and Seas or Shan Hai Jing, formerly romanized as the Shan-hai Ching, is a Chinese classic text and a compilation of mythic geography and myth.
Clemens August Freiherr von Ketteler (22 November 1853 – 20 June 1900) was a German career diplomat.
Cognatic kinship is a mode of descent calculated from an ancestor or ancestress counted through any combination of male and female links, or a system of bilateral kinship where relations are traced through both a father and mother.
Cremation is the combustion, vaporization, and oxidation of cadavers to basic chemical compounds, such as gases, ashes and mineral fragments retaining the appearance of dry bone.
The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976.
Cungšan was a chieftain of the Jurchen Jianzhou Left Guard.
Dafang is a county of Guizhou province, China.
Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning Province, China.
Dandong, formerly known as Andong, is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Liaoning province, People's Republic of China.
The Daur people (Khalkha Mongolian: Дагуур/Daguur;; the former name "Dahur" is considered derogatory) are a Mongolic-speaking ethnic group in northeastern China.
Dongfeng County is located in southwestern Jilin province, China and is under the administration of Liaoyuan City.
Donggang is a city in the southeast of Liaoning Province in Northeast China.
Dorgon (Manchu:, literally "badger"; 17 November 1612 – 31 December 1650), formally known as Prince Rui, was a Manchu prince and regent of the early Qing dynasty.
The Duanwu Festival, also often known as the Dragon Boat Festival, is a traditional holiday originating in China, occurring near the summer solstice.
Dream of the Red Chamber, also called The Story of the Stone, composed by Cao Xueqin, is one of China's Four Great Classical Novels.
Duanfang (20 April 1861 – 27 November 1911), courtesy name Wuqiao, was a Manchu politician, educator and collector who lived in the late Qing dynasty.
East China or Eastern China is a geographical and a loosely defined cultural region that covers the eastern coastal area of China.
The Eight Banners (in Manchu: jakūn gūsa) were administrative/military divisions under the Qing dynasty into which all Manchu households were placed.
Shun, also known as Emperor Shun and Chonghua, was a legendary leader of ancient China, regarded by some sources as one of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors.
Emperor Taizong of Jin (25 November 1075 – 9 February 1135), personal name Wuqimai, sinicised name Wanyan Sheng, was the second emperor of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, which ruled northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries.
Emperor Taizu of Jin (August 1, 1068 – September 19, 1123), personal name Aguda, sinicised name Min, was the founder and first emperor of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, which ruled northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries.
Zhu Qizhen (29 November 1427 – 23 February 1464) was the sixth and eighth emperor of the Ming dynasty.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
Empress Dowager Cixi1 (Manchu: Tsysi taiheo; 29 November 1835 – 15 November 1908), of the Manchu Yehenara clan, was a Chinese empress dowager and regent who effectively controlled the Chinese government in the late Qing dynasty for 47 years from 1861 until her death in 1908.
Esen Taishi (d. 1455) was a powerful Oirat Taishi and de facto ruler of the Northern Yuan in 15th century Mongolia.
Ethnic minorities in China are the non-Han Chinese population in the People's Republic of China (PRC).
The Evenks (also spelled Ewenki or Evenki) (autonym: Эвэнкил Evenkil; Эвенки Evenki; Èwēnkè Zú; formerly known as Tungus or Tunguz; Хамниган Khamnigan) are a Tungusic people of Northern Asia.
Feidong County is a county to the east of Hefei, Anhui Province, People's Republic of China.
Fengcheng is a city in the southeast of Liaoning Province in Northeast China.
Fengning Manchu Autonomous County (Manchu:; Mölendroff: fengning manju beye dasangga siyan) is a Manchu autonomous county of northern Hebei province, bordering Beijing to the southwest and Inner Mongolia to the north, and lying under the administration of Chengde City.
The Fengtian Clique was one of several mutually hostile cliques or factions that split from the Beiyang Clique in the Republic of China's Warlord Era.
The First Sino-Japanese War (25 July 1894 – 17 April 1895) was fought between Qing dynasty of China and Empire of Japan, primarily for influence over Joseon.
Five Races Under One Union was one of the major principles upon which the Republic of China was founded in 1911 at the time of the Xinhai Revolution.
Fu Jen Catholic University (FJU, FJCU or Fu Jen) is a top private university in New Taipei, Taiwan.
Fu Ssu-nien (26 March 1896 – 20 December 1950), was a famous Chinese educator and linguist, and one of the leaders of the May Fourth Movement in 1919.
Fujian (pronounced), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China.
Fushun (formerly romanised as Fouchouen, using French spelling, also as Fuxi (撫西)) is a prefecture level city in Liaoning province, China, about east of Shenyang, with a population of 2,138,090 inhabitants (2010 census) and a total area of, of which is the city proper.
Fushun County, is one of the three counties under the administration of Fushun City, in the east of Liaoning province in Northeast China.
Fuxin is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Liaoning province, People's Republic of China.
Fuyu is a county of western Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China, under the administration of Qiqihar City, the downtown of which is to the southwest.
Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.
Guwalgiya (Manchu) was one of the most powerful Manchu clans.
The Gelug (Wylie: dGe-Lugs-Pa) is the newest of the schools of Tibetan Buddhism.
Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
Giocangga (Manchu) (died 1582) was the grandfather of Nurhaci, the man who was to unify the Jurchen peoples and begin building what later became the Manchu state.
Gongzhuling (literally "Princess Ridge") is a city in western Jilin province of Northeast China located halfway between Siping City and Changchun, along the main railway line in the Northeast.
Goryeo (918–1392), also spelled as Koryŏ, was a Korean kingdom established in 918 by King Taejo.
Guan Yu (died January or February 220), courtesy name Yunchang, was a general serving under the warlord Liu Bei in the late Eastern Han dynasty.
Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.
Guangxi (pronounced; Zhuang: Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is a Chinese autonomous region in South Central China, bordering Vietnam.
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.
Guizhou, formerly romanized as Kweichow, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country.
The gyrfalcon is a bird of prey (Falco rusticolus), the largest of the falcon species. The abbreviation gyr is also used. It breeds on Arctic coasts and tundra, and the islands of northern North America, Europe, and Asia. It is mainly a resident there also, but some gyrfalcons disperse more widely after the breeding season, or in winter. Individual vagrancy can take birds for long distances. Its plumage varies with location, with birds being coloured from all-white to dark brown. These colour variations are called morphs. Like other falcons, it shows sexual dimorphism, with the female much larger than the male. For centuries, the gyrfalcon has been valued as a hunting bird. Typical prey includes the ptarmigan and waterfowl, which it may take in flight; it also takes fish and mammals.
Hainan is the smallest and southernmost province of the People's Republic of China (PRC), consisting of various islands in the South China Sea.
The Haixi Jurchens were a grouping of the Jurchens as identified by the Chinese of the Ming Dynasty.
The Han Chinese,.
Harbin is the capital of Heilongjiang province, and largest city in the northeastern region of the People's Republic of China.
Harqin Banner (Mongolian: Qaračin qosiɣu) is a banner of southeastern Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China.
Hebei (postal: Hopeh) is a province of China in the North China region.
Hefei is the capital and largest city of Anhui Province in China.
Hegang (also known as Haoli and Heligang), is a prefecture-level city in Heilongjiang province of the People's Republic of China, situated in the southeastern section of the Lesser Khingan Range, facing Jiamusi across the Songhua River to the south and Russia's Jewish Autonomous Oblast across the Amur River to the north.
Heihe ("Black River") is a prefecture-level city of northern Heilongjiang province, China, located on the Russian border, on the south bank of the Heilong Jiang, across the river from Blagoveshchensk.
Heilongjiang (Wade-Giles: Heilungkiang) is a province of the People's Republic of China.
Heishan is a county of north-central Liaoning, People's Republic of China.
Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country.
The Hinggan League (p; ᠬᠢᠩᠭ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠠᠢᠮᠠᠭ, tr. Hinggan Aimag) is a prefecture-level subdivision of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China.
Hong Taiji (28November 159221 September1643), sometimes written as Huang Taiji and also referred to as Abahai in Western literature, was an Emperor of the Qing dynasty.
Horqin Right Front Banner (Mongolian) is a banner in the east of Inner Mongolia, China, bordering Jilin province to the southeast.
Huairou District is situated in northern Beijing about 50 kilometers from the city center (about a 1½ to 2 hour drive).
Huanren Manchu Autonomous County (Manchu:; Mölendroff: huwanren manju beye dasangga siyan), formerly Huairen County, is a county under the administration of Benxi City, in eastern Liaoning province, People's Republic of China, bordering Jilin to the east.
Hubei is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the Central China region.
Huludao is a prefecture-level city in southwestern Liaoning province, People's Republic of China, bordering Hebei to the southwest.
Hunan is the 7th most populous province of China and the 10th most extensive by area.
Hunchun is a county-level city in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, far eastern Jilin province, Northeast China.
Hunnan District, formerly Dongling District until July 2014, is one of nine districts of Shenyang, the capital of Liaoning province, People's Republic of China, and forms part of the eastern and southeastern suburbs.
Identity in the Eight Banners considers the subject of how identity was interpreted in China prior to and during the Manchu-led Qing dynasty (1644–1912).
Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (Ѳвѳр Монголын Ѳѳртѳѳ Засах Орон in Mongolian Cyrillic), is one of the autonomous regions of China, located in the north of the country.
Jianchang is a county of Huludao City in the southwest of Liaoning province, China.
Jiangsu, formerly romanized as Kiangsu, is an eastern-central coastal province of the People's Republic of China.
Jiangxi, formerly spelled as Kiangsi Gan: Kongsi) is a province in the People's Republic of China, located in the southeast of the country. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze river in the north into hillier areas in the south and east, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to the northwest. The name "Jiangxi" derives from the circuit administrated under the Tang dynasty in 733, Jiangnanxidao (道, Circuit of Western Jiangnan; Gan: Kongnomsitau). The short name for Jiangxi is 赣 (pinyin: Gàn; Gan: Gōm), for the Gan River which runs across from the south to the north and flows into the Yangtze River. Jiangxi is also alternately called Ganpo Dadi (贛鄱大地) which literally means the "Great Land of Gan and Po".
The Jianzhou Jurchens (Chinese: 建州女真) were one of the three major groups of Jurchens as identified by the Ming dynasty.
The Jiaqing Emperor (13 November 1760 – 2 September 1820), personal name Yongyan, was the seventh emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the fifth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1796 to 1820.
Jilin, formerly romanized as Kirin is one of the three provinces of Northeast China.
Jilin City (postal: Kirin) Is the second-largest city and former capital of Jilin province in northeast China.
The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin, lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China.
Map showing the Song-Jurchen Jin wars The Jin–Song Wars were a series of conflicts between the Jurchen Jin dynasty (1115–1234) and Han Chinese Song dynasty (960–1279).
Jingzhou is a prefecture-level city in southern Hubei, China, located on the banks of the Yangtze River.
Jinsha (() is a county of Guizhou province, China. It is under the administration of Bijie City.
Jinzhou is a prefecture-level city of Liaoning province, People's Republic of China.
Jinzhou District is one of the seven districts of Dalian, Liaoning province, People's Republic of China.
Jiu Manzhou Dang (Manchu: Fe Manju Dangse) is a set of Manchu archives stored at the National Palace Museum in Taipei, Taiwan.
Jizhou District is a district in the far north of the municipality of Tianjin, People's Republic of China, holding cultural and historical significance (e.g., the Buddhist Temple of Solitary Joy) formerly a county known as Jixian.
Major General John Liu Fugh (September 12, 1934 – May 11, 2010) was the first Chinese American to attain general officer status in the U.S. Army.
John Stanley Melville Keay FRGS, widely known as John Keay, (pronounced 'Kay') is a British historian, journalist, radio presenter and lecturer specialising in popular histories of India, the Far East and China, often with a particular focus on their colonisation and exploration by Europeans.
The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, 조선; officially the Kingdom of Great Joseon, 대조선국) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries.
The Judge Advocate General of the United States Army (TJAG) is the commanding officer of the Judge Advocate General's Corps of the United States Army.
The Jurchen (Manchu: Jušen; 女真, Nǚzhēn), also known by many variant names, were a Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until around 1630, at which point they were reformed and combined with their neighbors as the Manchu.
Jurchen script (Jurchen) was the writing system used to write the Jurchen language, the language of the Jurchen people who created the Jin Empire in northeastern China in the 12th–13th centuries.
Kaiyuan is a county-level city in the northeast of Liaoning, People's Republic of China, bordering Jilin for a small section to the north.
Kangping County is under the administration of Shenyang, the capital of Liaoning province, People's Republic of China, bordering Inner Mongolia to the northwest, and is north of downtown Shenyang.
The Kangxi Emperor (康熙; 4 May 165420 December 1722), personal name Xuanye, was the fourth emperor of the Qing dynasty, the first to be born on Chinese soil south of the Shanhai Pass near Beijing, and the second Qing emperor to rule over that part of China, from 1661 to 1722.
Khitan or Kitan (in large script or in small, Khitai;, Qìdānyǔ), also known as Liao, is a now-extinct language once spoken by the Khitan people (4th to 13th century).
The Khitan people were a nomadic people from Northeast Asia who, from the 4th century, inhabited an area corresponding to parts of modern Mongolia, Northeast China and the Russian Far East.
The Khitan scripts were the writing systems for the now-extinct Para-Mongolic Khitan language used in the 10th-12th century by the Khitan people who had established the Liao dynasty in Northeast China.
In Chinese folk religion, Chinese mythology and Taoism; the Kitchen God also known as the Stove God, named Zao Jun, Zao Shen, or Zhang Lang, is the most important of a plethora of Chinese domestic gods that protect the hearth and family.
Kuancheng Manchu Autonomous County (Manchu:; Mölendroff: kuwanceng manju beye dasangga siyan) is a Manchu autonomous county of northeastern Hebei province, China, on the banks of the Luan River, bordering Liaoning to the east.
Kuandian Manchu Autonomous County (Manchu:; Mölendroff: kuwandiyan manju beye dasangga siyan), is a county of eastern Liaoning province, People's Republic of China, bordering North Korea to the southeast and Jilin in the northeast.
Laishui County is a county in central Hebei province, China, bordering the Municipality of Beijing to the north and in the basin of the Juma River.
Langfang, is a prefecture-level city of Hebei Province, which was known as Tianjin Prefecture until 1973.
Shu Qingchun (3 February 189924 August 1966), courtesy name Sheyu, best known by his pen name Lao She, was a Chinese novelist and dramatist.
Later Jin (Manju i Yargiyan Kooli (滿洲實錄). Zhonghua Book Company, p. 283.; literally: "Gold State"; 1616–1636) was a khanate established by the Jurchen khan, Nurhaci in Manchuria during 1616–1636, and was the predecessor of the Qing dynasty.
The Later Three Kingdoms of Korea (892–936) consisted of Silla, Hubaekje ("Later Baekje") and Hugoguryeo ("Later Goguryeo", it was replaced by Goryeo).
The Legend of the White Snake, also known as Madame White Snake, is a Chinese legend.
Li Hongzhang, Marquess Suyi (also romanised as Li Hung-chang) (15 February 1823 – 7 November 1901),, was a Chinese politician, general and diplomat of the late Qing dynasty.
Li Zicheng (22 September 1606 – 1645), born Li Hongji, also known by the nickname, "Dashing King", was a Chinese rebel leader who overthrew the Ming dynasty in 1644 and ruled over China briefly as the emperor of the short-lived Shun dynasty before his death a year later.
Liangcheng County (Mongolian: Лиыанчан сиыан Liyaŋčaŋ siyan) is a county of south-central Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China, bounded by Shanxi province to the south.
Lianshan District is a district under the administration of the city of Huludao, Liaoning, People's Republic of China.
The Liao dynasty (Khitan: Mos Jælud), also known as the Liao Empire, officially the Great Liao, or the Khitan (Qidan) State (Khitan: Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur), was an empire in East Asia that ruled from 907 to 1125 over present-day Mongolia and portions of the Russian Far East, northern China, and northeastern Korea.
Liaoning is a province of China, located in the northeast of the country.
Liaoyang is a prefecture-level city of east-central Liaoning province, China, situated on the Taizi River and, together with Anshan, forms a metro area of 2,057,200 inhabitants in 2010.
Liaoyang County is a county in east-central Liaoning province of Northeast China.
Liaoyuan is a prefecture-level city in Jilin province, People's Republic of China.
Linghai is a county-level city in the west of Liaoning province, Northeast China.
According to the administrative divisions of China including Hong Kong and Macau, there are three levels of cities, namely provincial-level (consists of municipalities and SARs), prefectural-level cities, and county-level cities.
The Qing dynasty (1644–1912) was the last imperial dynasty of China.
This is an alphabetical list of Manchu clans.
Longhua County is a county in the northeast of Hebei province, China, bordering Inner Mongolia to the east.
Longtan District is a district of Jilin City, Jilin, People's Republic of China.
Luanping County is a county of northeastern Hebei province, with the Great Wall demarcating its border with Miyun County, Beijing to the southwest.
Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
The Manchu alphabet is the alphabet used to write the now nearly-extinct Manchu language; a similar script is used today by the Xibe people, who speak a language variably considered as either a dialect of Manchu or a closely related, mutually intelligible, language.
Manchu (Manchu: manju gisun) is a critically endangered Tungusic language spoken in Manchuria; it was the native language of the Manchus and one of the official languages of the Qing dynasty (1636–1911) of China.
Manchu names are the names of the Manchu people in their own language.
Manchu folk religion is the ethnic religion practiced by most of the Manchu people, the major of the Tungusic peoples, in China.
Manchukuo was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945.
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
Mañjuśrī is a bodhisattva associated with prajñā (insight) in Mahayana Buddhism.
Meihekou is a city of 600,000 in southwestern Jilin province, People's Republic of China.
Möngke Temür or Dudu Mengtemu (Manchu) (1370 – 1433) was the Jurchen chieftain of the Odoli tribe, one of the three tribes of the lower Sunggari river valley in Manchuria.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
The Mohe, Malgal, or Mogher were a Tungusic people who lived primarily in modern Northeast Asia.
Mongolian names have gone through certain revolutions in the history of Mongolia.
The Mongolian nobility (язгууртан сурвалжтан; yazgurtan survaljtan) arose between the 10th and 12th centuries, became prominent in the 13th century, and essentially governed Mongolia until the early 20th century.
The classical or traditional Mongolian script (in Mongolian script: Mongγol bičig; in Mongolian Cyrillic: Монгол бичиг Mongol bichig), also known as Hudum Mongol bichig, was the first writing system created specifically for the Mongolian language, and was the most successful until the introduction of Cyrillic in 1946.
Mongolian wrestling, known as Bökh (Mongolian script:; Mongolian Cyrillic: Бөх or Үндэсний бөх), is the folk wrestling style of Mongols in Mongolia, Inner Mongolia and other regions where touching the ground with anything other than a foot loses the match.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Mudanjiang (Manchu: Mudan bira) is a prefecture-level city in southernmost Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China.
The Mukden Incident, or Manchurian Incident, was a staged event engineered by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the Japanese invasion in 1931 of northeastern China, known as Manchuria.
Naghachu (script, d. 1388), also written as Nahacu, was a Uriankhai leader and general of the Northern Yuan dynasty in Manchuria, which was under Liaoyang province of the former Yuan dynasty.
The Nanai people are a Tungusic people of the Far East, who have traditionally lived along Heilongjiang (Amur), Songhuajiang (Sunggari) and Ussuri rivers on the Middle Amur Basin.
Nanfen District is a District under the administration of Benxi City, Liaoning province, People's Republic of China.
Nangang District is one of nine districts of Harbin, the capital of Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China, forming part of the city's urban core.
Narrative of the Chinese Embassy to the Khan of the Tourgouth Tartars, in the years 1712, 13, 14, and 15 is a record of the travel to Kalmykia, written by Tulišen, a Manchu official who lived in the Qing dynasty.
The Nationalist government, officially the National Government of the Republic of China, refers to the government of the Republic of China between 1 July 1925 to 20 May 1948, led by the Kuomintang (KMT, Chinese Nationalist Party).
Ning'an (Chinese: 宁安; Pinyin: Níng'ān) is a city located approximately 20 km southwest of Mudanjiang, in Heilongjiang province of China.
Ningxia (pronounced), officially the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest part of the country.
The Niohuru (Manchu:; in Manchu) were a prominent Manchu clan during the Qing dynasty.
North China (literally "China's north") is a geographical region of China, lying North of the Qinling Huaihe Line.
Northeast China or Dongbei is a geographical region of China.
Northwestern China includes the autonomous regions of Xinjiang and Ningxia and the provinces of Shaanxi, Gansu, and Qinghai.
The Nurgan Regional Military Commission was a Chinese administrative seat established in Manchuria during the Ming dynasty, located on the banks of the Amur River, about 100 km from the sea, at modern Tyr, Russia.
Nurhaci (alternatively Nurhachi; 21 February 1559 – 30 September 1626) was a Jurchen chieftain of Jianzhou, a vassal of Ming, who rose to prominence in the late 16th century in Manchuria.
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).
The Oroqen people (Mongolian:; also spelt Orochen or Orochon) are an ethnic group in northern China.
Outer Manchuria or Outer Northeast China (Chinese: 外满洲 (Wài Mǎnzhōu) or 外东北 (Wài Dōngběi); Russian: Приаму́рье or Priamurye) is an unofficial term for a territory in Northeast Asia that was formerly part of the Chinese Qing dynasty and now belongs to Russia.
Perilla is a genus consisting of one major Asiatic crop species Perilla frutescens and a few wild species in nature belonging to the mint family, Lamiaceae.
Pingquan is a county-level city of northeastern Hebei province, China, bordering Liaoning to the east.
A prince regent, or prince-regent, is a prince who rules a monarchy as regent instead of a monarch, e.g., as a result of the Sovereign's incapacity (minority or illness) or absence (remoteness, such as exile or long voyage, or simply no incumbent).
Provincial-level administrative divisions or first-level administrative divisions, are the highest-level Chinese administrative divisions.
Puru 溥儒, (August 30, 1896 - November 18, 1963), also known as Pu Xinyu 溥心畬, Xinyu being his courtesy name, and Xishan Yishi 西山逸士 (Hermit of West Mountain), which is his sobriquet.
Puyi or Pu Yi (7 February 190617 October 1967), of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, was the last Emperor of China and the twelfth and final ruler of the Qing dynasty.
Qapqal Xibe Autonomous County (Xibe: Cabcal Sibe beye dasangga siyan, also transliterated as Chapchal, Uyghur: Чапчал Шибә Аптоном Наһийиси, Kazakh: S'aps'al Si'be ay'tonomyi'alyq ay'dany) in Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture in northern Xinjiang is the only Xibe autonomous county of the People's Republic of China.
The Qianlong Emperor (25 September 1711 – 7 February 1799) was the sixth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper.
Qianshan District is a district of Anshan City, Liaoning, People's Republic of China.
Qianxi is a county of western Guizhou province, People's Republic of China.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Qinghai, formerly known in English as Kokonur, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest of the country.
Qinglong Manchu Autonomous County (Manchu:; Mölendroff: cinglung manju beye dasangga siyan) is a Manchu autonomous county of northeastern Hebei province, China, bordering Liaoning to the north and east and located in the eastern part of the Yan Mountains.
Qingyuan Manchu Autonomous County (Manchu:; Mölendroff: cingyuwan manju beye dasangga siyan), or simply Qingyuan County (清原县) is one of the three counties under the administration of Fushun City, in the east of Liaoning, People's Republic of China, and is also one of the 11 Manchu autonomous counties and one of 117 autonomous counties nationally.
Qinhuangdao (秦皇岛) is a port city on the coast of China in northeastern Hebei province.
Qiqihar is the second largest city in the Heilongjiang province of China, located in the west central part of the province.
The queue or cue is a Qing dynasty hairstyle most often worn by Chinese men.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
Researches on Manchu Origins, also known as Manzhou Yuanliu Kao, is an important history book published by the Qing Dynasty government in 1777.
Romance of the Three Kingdoms is a 14th-century historical novel attributed to Luo Guanzhong.
The Qing dynasty (1644–1912) of China developed a complicated peerage system for royal and noble ranks.
Sanjiazi ((Manchu:, Möllendorff: ilan boo) is a village or Ilanbotokso in Youyi Daur, Manchu, and Kirghiz Ethnic Township (友谊达斡尔族满族柯尔克孜族乡), Fuyu County, Qiqihar Prefecture, Heilongjiang province. The village is about 22 km southwest of the administrative center of Fuyu, and about 6 km west of the main road from Qiqihar.
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.
Shaanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China.
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.
Shamanism was the dominant religion of the Jurchen people of northeast Asia and of their descendants, the Manchu people.
Shandong (formerly romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the East China region.
Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.
Shanhai Pass is one of the major passes in the Great Wall of China.
Shanxi (postal: Shansi) is a province of China, located in the North China region.
Shenyang, formerly known by its Manchu name Mukden or Fengtian, is the provincial capital and the largest city of Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China, as well as the largest city in Northeast China by urban population.
Shuai jiao is the term pertaining to the ancient jacket wrestling Kung-Fu style of Beijing, Tianjin and Baoding of Hebei Province in the North China Plain which was codified by Shan Pu Ying (善撲营 The Battalion of Excellency in Catching) of the Nei Wu Fu (内務府, Internal Administration Unit of Imperial Household Department).
Shuangcheng District is one of nine districts of Harbin, the capital of Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China, covering part of the southwestern suburbs.
Shuangyashan is a coal mining prefecture-level city located in the eastern part Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China, bordering Russia's Khabarovsk and Primorsky krais to the east. The city's name means a pair-of-ducks mountains and refers to two peaks northeast of the city. In 2007 it had a GDP of RMB 20.6 billion with a 14.2% growth rate.
The Shun dynasty, or Great Shun, was a short-lived dynasty created in the Ming-Qing transition from Ming to Qing rule in Chinese history.
The Shunzhi Emperor; Manchu: ijishūn dasan hūwangdi; ᠡᠶ ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ |translit.
The Sibe or Xibo are a Tungusic people living mostly in Xinjiang, Jilin (bordering North Korea) and Shenyang in Liaoning.
Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south.
The Sino-Russian border conflicts (1652–1689) were a series of intermittent skirmishes between the Qing dynasty, with assistance from the Joseon dynasty of Korea, and the Tsardom of Russia by the Cossacks in which the latter tried and failed to gain the land north of the Amur River with disputes over the Amur region.The hostilities culminated in the Qing siege of the Cossack fort of Albazin (1686) and resulted in the Treaty of Nerchinsk in 1689 which gave the land to China.
Siping, formerly Ssupingkai, is a prefecture-level city in the west of Jilin province, People's Republic of China.
Slash-and-burn agriculture, or fire–fallow cultivation, is a farming method that involves the cutting and burning of plants in a forest or woodland to create a field called a swidden.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
The Solon people are a subgroup of the Ewenki (Evenk) people of northeastern Asia.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
Songshan District, Chifeng (Mongolian: Сүн шан тоори Süŋ šan toɣoriɣ) is a district of the city of Chifeng, Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China.
South Central China is a region of the People's Republic of China defined by governmental bureaus that includes the province of Guangdong, Hainan, Henan, Hubei, and Hunan, and the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, however the two provincial-level special administrative regions (SAR) are also often included under South Central China: Hong Kong and Macau.
Southwest China is a region of the People's Republic of China defined by governmental bureaus that includes the municipality of Chongqing, the provinces of Sichuan, Yunnan and Guizhou, and the Tibet Autonomous Region.
Liaozhai Zhiyi (Liaozhai), translated variously as Strange Tales from a Chinese Studio or Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio is a collection of Classical Chinese stories by Pu Songling comprising close to five hundred "marvel tales" in the zhiguai and chuanqi styles which serve to implicitly criticise societal issues then.
Suibin County is a county of eastern Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China.
Suihua is a prefecture-level city in west-central Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China, adjacent to Yichun to the east, Harbin, the provincial capital, to the south, Daqing to the west and Heihe to the north.
Suizhong County is a county of southwestern Liaoning, People's Republic of China.
Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)Singtao daily.
Sunwu County is a county under the administration of Heihe City in the north of Heilongjiang province, China, situated on the bank of Amur River, which demarcates the Sino-Russian border.
Sushen is the modern Chinese name for an ancient ethnic group of people who lived in the northeastern part of China (in the area of modern Jilin and Heilongjiang) and what is in modern times the Russian Maritime Province and some other Siberian provinces.
Taejo of Goryeo (31 January 877 – 4 July 943), also known as Taejo Wang Geon (Wang Kǒn, 왕건), was the founder of the Goryeo dynasty, which ruled Korea from the 10th to the 14th century.
Taejo of Joseon (27 October 1335 – 24 May 1408), born Yi Seong-gye, whose changed name is Yi Dan, was the founder and the first king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea reigning from 1392 to 1398, and the main figure in overthrowing the Goryeo Dynasty.
The Taiping Rebellion, also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion or total civil war in China that was waged from 1850 to 1864 between the established Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom under Hong Xiuquan.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Taksi (Manchu) was a Jurchen chieftain and father of Nurhaci, founder of the Qing Dynasty, and the fourth son of Giocangga.
The Tale of the Nisan Shaman (also spelled "Nishan") is a Manchu folk tale about a female shaman who resurrects the son of a rich landowner.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Tangshan is a largely industrial prefecture-level city in northeastern Hebei province, China.
A tangzhuang is a kind of pseudo-traditional Chinese jacket with a straight collar.
The Story of the Western Wing, also translated as Romance of the Western Chamber, is one of the most famous Chinese dramatic works.
The Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors were a group of mythological rulers or deities in ancient northern China who in later history have been assigned dates in a period from circa 2852 BC to 2070 BC.
Tianjin, formerly romanized as Tientsin, is a coastal metropolis in northern China and one of the four national central cities of the People's Republic of China (PRC), with a total population of 15,469,500, and is also the world's 11th-most populous city proper.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province-level autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhist doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia.
Tieling is one of 14 prefecture-level citys in Liaoning province of the People's Republic of China.Tieling is a city where coal mining is an important industry.
Tieling County is a county in northeast Liaoning Province of Northeast China.
Tong Jian (born August 15, 1979 in Harbin, Heilongjiang) is a Chinese pair skater.
Tonghua is an industrial city in the south of Jilin province, People's Republic of China.
Tonghua County is a county in southwestern Jilin province, Northeast China.
The Torghut (Mongolian: Торгууд/Torguud, "Guardsman" or "the Silks") are one of the four major subgroups of the Four Oirats.
The transition from Ming to Qing or the Ming–Qing transition, also known as the Manchu conquest of China, was a period of conflict between the Qing dynasty, established by Manchu clan Aisin Gioro in Manchuria (contemporary Northeastern China), and the Ming dynasty of China in the south (various other regional or temporary powers were also associated with events, such as the short-lived Shun dynasty).
A tributary state is a term for a pre-modern state in a particular type of subordinate relationship to a more powerful state which involved the sending of a regular token of submission, or tribute, to the superior power.
A tribute (/ˈtrɪbjuːt/) (from Latin tributum, contribution) is wealth, often in kind, that a party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance.
Tulišen (also spelled Tulishen or Tulixen, Manchu:,; 1667–1741) was a Manchu official and diplomat during the early Qing dynasty.
The Tumu Crisis (Тумугийн тулалдаан); also called the Crisis of Tumu Fortress or Battle of Tumu, was a frontier conflict between the Oirat tribes of Mongols and the Chinese Ming dynasty which led to the capture of the Zhengtong Emperor on September 1, 1449, and the defeat of an army of 500,000 men by a much smaller force.
The Tungusic languages (also known as Manchu-Tungus, Tungus) form a language family spoken in Eastern Siberia and northeast China by Tungusic peoples.
Tungusic peoples are the peoples who speak Tungusic languages.
Udege (Удэгейцы in Russian; ethnonym: удээ and удэхе, or Udihe, Udekhe, and Udeghe correspondingly) are a people who live in the Primorsky Krai and Khabarovsk Krai regions in Russia, the native population of this region.
Ulanqab or Ulan Chab (style, Ulaɣančab qota; Улаанцав хот, Ulāncaw hot) is a region administered as a prefecture-level city in south-central Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Washington Press is an American academic publishing house.
A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.
Vladivostok (p, literally ruler of the east) is a city and the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, located around the Golden Horn Bay, not far from Russia's borders with China and North Korea.
Wafangdian, formerly Fuxian or Fu County, is one of the two "northern county-level cities", the other being Zhuanghe, under the administration of Dalian, located in the south of Liaoning province, China.
Wangkui County is a county of western Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China.
Weichang Manchu and Mongol Autonomous County (Manchu:; Mölendroff: weicang manju monggo beye dasangga siyan) is a Manchu and Mongol autonomous county located in far northeastern Hebei province, China.
Wen'an is a county of east-central Hebei province, China, on the upper reaches of the Daqing River (大清河), a tributary of the Hai River.
The Wild Jurchens or Haidong Jurchens were a grouping of the Jurchens as identified by the Chinese of the Ming Dynasty.
Wu Sangui (courtesy name Changbai (長白) or Changbo (長伯); 1612 – 2 October 1678) was a Chinese military general who was instrumental in the fall of the Ming Dynasty and the establishment of the Qing Dynasty in 1644.
Wuchang forms part of the urban core of and is one of 13 districts of Wuhan, the capital of Hubei Province, China. It is the oldest of the three cities that merged into modern-day Wuhan, and stood on the right (southeastern) bank of the Yangtze River, opposite the mouth of the Han River. The two other cities, Hanyang and Hankou, were on the left (northwestern) bank, separated from each other by the Han. The name "Wuchang" remains in common use for the part of urban Wuhan south of the Yangtze River. Administratively, however, it is split between several districts of the City of Wuhan. The historic center of Wuchang lies within the modern Wuchang District, which has an area of and a population of 1,003,400. Other parts of what is colloquially known as Wuchang are within Hongshan District (south and south-east) and Qingshan District (north-east). Presently, on the right bank of the Yangtze, it borders the districts of Qingshan (for a very small section) to the northeast and Hongshan to the east and south; on the opposite bank it borders Jiang'an, Jianghan and Hanyang. On 10 October 1911, the New Army stationed in the city started the Wuchang Uprising, a turning point of the Xinhai Revolution that overthrew the Qing dynasty and established the Republic of China.
Aisin-Gioro Xiqia (Aisin-Gioro Hsi-hsia;; 1883–1950), commonly known monomymously as Xi Qia or Xi Xia (Hsi Hsia;; Hepburn: Ki Kō), was a general in command of the Kirin Provincial Army of the Republic of China, who defected to the Japanese during the Invasion of Manchuria in 1931, and who subsequently served as a cabinet minister in Manchukuo.
Xiangsheng, also known as crosstalk, is a traditional Chinese comedic performing arts, and one of China's most popular cultural elements.
The Xibe language (sibe gisun, also Sibo, Sibe, Xibo language) is a Tungusic language spoken by members of the Xibe minority of China.
Xifeng County is a county of northeastern Liaoning province, China, bordering Jilin to the north and east.
Xihu District is a District under the administration of Benxi City, Liaoning, People's Republic of China.
Xinbin Manchu Autonomous County (Manchu:; Mölendroff: sinbin manju beye dasangga siyan), or simply Xinbin County (postal: Sinpin), is one of the three counties under the administration of Fushun City, in the east of Liaoning Province, Northeast China.
Xingcheng, former name Ningyuan (宁远), is a county-level city of southwest Liaoning province, China, with a population of approximately 140,000 urban inhabitants, and is located on the Liaodong Bay, i.e. the northern coast of the Bohai Sea.
Xinglong County is a county of northeastern Hebei, China, bordering Beijing Municipality to the west.
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.
Xiuyan Manchu Autonomous County (Manchu:; Mölendroff: siuyan manju beye dasangga siyan) is a county in the southeast of Liaoning province, People's Republic of China, and is also one of the 11 Manchu autonomous counties and one of 117 autonomous counties nationally.
The Yalu River, also called the Amrok River or Amnok River, is a river on the border between North Korea and China.
Yanbian (Chosŏn'gŭl: 연변, Yeonbyeon) is an autonomous prefecture in northeastern Jilin Province, China.
The Yihequan, or Fists of Harmony and Justice (also named Yihetuan, League of Harmony and Justice), was a Chinese secret society known for having triggered the Boxer Rebellion.
Yi County or Yixian is a county in Hebei province of China, administratively under the jurisdiction of the prefecture-level city of Baoding.
Yi County or Yixian is a county in west-central Liaoning Province in Northeast China, and is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Jinzhou.
Ying Lianzhi (November 23, 1867 – January 10, 1926), also known as Ying Hua, was a Manchu Bannerman, a prominent Catholic layman who agitated for church reform, founder of the prominent newspaper Ta Kung Pao, and instrumental in founding The Catholic University of Peking.
Yitong Manchu Autonomous County (Manchu:; Mölendroff: itu manju beye dasangga siyan) is located in western Jilin province, People's Republic of China, south of the provincial capital, Changchun.
The Yonghe Temple ("Palace of Peace and Harmony"), also known as the Yonghe Lamasery, or popularly as the Lama Temple, is a temple and monastery of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism located in Dongcheng District, Beijing, China.
Yongji is a county of central Jilin province, China, located just outside of Jilin City.
The Yongle Emperor (Yung-lo in Wade–Giles; 2 May 1360 – 12 August 1424) — personal name Zhu Di (WG: Chu Ti) — was the third emperor of the Ming dynasty in China, reigning from 1402 to 1424.
The Yongning Temple Stele is a Ming Dynasty stele with a trilingual inscription that was erected in 1413 to commemorate the founding of the Yongning Temple (永寕寺) in the Nurgan outpost, near the mouth of the Amur River, by the eunuch Yishiha.
The Yongzheng Emperor (13 December 1678 – 8 October 1735), born Yinzhen, was the fifth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the third Qing emperor to rule over China proper.
Youyi County is a county of eastern Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.
Zhang Binglin (December 25, 1868 – June 14, 1936), also known as Zhang Taiyan, was a Chinese philologist, textual critic, philosopher, and revolutionary.
Zhang Zuolin (19 March 1875Xiao, Lin, and Li 1184 June 1928) was the warlord of Manchuria from 1916–28, during the Warlord Era in China.
Zhangwu County is a county in the north of Liaoning province, China.
Zhao Hongbo (born September 22, 1973) is a male Chinese pair skater.
, formerly romanized as Chekiang, is an eastern coastal province of China.
Zhonghua minzu, translated as "Chinese nation" or "Chinese races", is a key political term that is entwined with modern Chinese history of nation-building and race.
The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.
Zhuanghe is one of the two "northern county-level cities", the other being Wafangdian, under the administration of Dalian, located in the south of Liaoning province, People's Republic of China.
Zidishu, translated as Bannerman Song or Scion Book, was a popular Chinese folk ballad song during the Qing dynasty (1644–1912), mostly composed and performed by Manchu people.
The zuihuai is a specimen of the pagoda tree (Styphnolobium japonicum) located in Jingshan Park, Beijing, China.
Zunhua is a county-level city under the administration of Tangshan, Hebei, China.
The Twenty-second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13.2% over the 248,709,873 people enumerated during the 1990 Census.
The 9th Infantry Regiment ("Manchu") is a parent infantry regiment of the United States Army.
Banner people, Banner person, Bannerman (ethnic group), Bannermen (ethnic group), Ethnic Manchu, History of Manchu, Man people, Man-tsu, Manchu, Manchu People, Manchurian people, Manchus, Manzhurian, Măn, Mănzú, Mǎnzú, Red tasseled Manchus, Traditional Manchu clothing, ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ, 满族.