203 relations: Abdication, Anti-Japanese volunteer armies, Authoritarianism, Battle of Lake Khasan, Battles of Khalkhin Gol, Benxihu Colliery, Bernardo Bertolucci, Biological warfare, Capital city, Central Bank of Manchou, Changchun, Changshan, Cheongsam, Chiang Kai-shek, China, Chinese Civil War, Chinese culture, Chinese Eastern Railway, Chinese era name, Chinese language, Chuang Guandong, Collaborationist Chinese Army, Collective farming, Commanding officer, Communist Party of China, Concordia Association, Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, Constitutional monarchy, Convention of Peking, Dalian, Dandong, Denmark, Direct-controlled municipality, Dominican Republic, East Asia Development Board, El Salvador, Empire of Japan, Evacuation of Manchukuo, Fengtian clique, Finland, Five Races Under One Union (Manchukuo), Francoist Spain, Gavan McCormack, General Affairs State Council, Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, Han Chinese, Harbin, Haruki Murakami, Heilongjiang, Herbert Giles, ..., History of the Republic of China, Hoankyoku, Holy See, Hong Taiji, Illegal drug trade, Imperial Majesty (style), Independent State of Croatia, Inner Mongolia, Intercity Baseball Tournament, International Military Tribunal for the Far East, Interwar period, Japan Self-Defense Forces, Japan–Manchukuo Protocol, Japanese invasion of Manchuria, Japanese language, Japanese orphans in China, Japanese people, Japanese repatriation from Huludao, Japanization, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Jewish settlement in the Japanese Empire, Jilin, Jilin City, Jin Yuzhang, Jurchen people, Kashgar, Kingdom of Bulgaria, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Romania, Koreans, Koreans in China, Kuomintang, Kwantung Army, Kwantung Leased Territory, Lüshunkou District, League of Nations, Legislative council, Liaodong Peninsula, Liaoning, Linjiang, List of administrative divisions of Manchukuo, List of East Asian leaders in the Japanese sphere of influence (1931–1945), Liu Changchun, Lytton Report, Manchu language, Manchu people, Manchukuo, Manchukuo Film Association, Manchukuo national football team, Manchukuo Temporary Government, Manchukuo yuan, Manchuria, Manchuria Airplane Manufacturing Company, Manchuria Aviation Company, Manchurian Industrial Development Company, Mandarin Chinese, Mao suit, Mao Zedong, Marco Polo Bridge Incident, Mark Peattie, Masahiko Amakasu, Mass grave, Mengjiang, Ming dynasty, Mining accident, Monarchy, Mongolian language, Mongolian People's Republic, Mongols, Mukden Incident, Museum of the Imperial Palace of the Manchu State, National Anthem of Manchukuo, National Revolutionary Army, Nationalist government, Nazi Germany, Nobusuke Kishi, Nomonhan, Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army, Northeast China, Outer Manchuria, Pacification of Manchukuo, People's Liberation Army, Personalism, Pinyin, Political party, Postage stamp, Prefectures of the People's Republic of China, Prime minister, Privy council, Protectorate, Provinces of China, Puppet state, Puyi, Qing dynasty, Qiqihar, Red Army, Regent, Reginald Johnston, Regnal name, Rehe Province, Reichswehr, Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China, Republic of China (1912–49), Resident (title), Russian Empire, Russian Revolution, Russo-Japanese War, Second Opium War, Second Philippine Republic, Shenyang, Showa Steel Works, Shun dynasty, Single-party state, Slovak Republic (1939–45), Sorghum bicolor, South Korea, South Manchuria Railway, Soviet Army, Soviet invasion of Manchuria, Soviet Union, Stimson Doctrine, Surrender of Japan, Thailand, The Good, the Bad, the Weird, The Human Condition (film series), The Japan Times, The Last Emperor, The Wind-Up Bird Chronicle, Tientsin Incident (1931), Twilight in the Forbidden City, Unit 731, Viceroy of the Three Northeast Provinces, Vichy France, Vivisection, Vladivostok, Wade–Giles, War crime, Warlord, Western (genre), White émigré, Willow Palisade, World War II, Xing'an Province, Yalta Conference, Yingkou, Yoshiko Yamaguchi, Zaibatsu, Zhang Jinghui, Zhang Zuolin, Zheng Xiaoxu, 1932 Summer Olympics, 1Q84. Expand index (153 more) » « Shrink index
Abdication is the act of formally relinquishing monarchical authority.
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After the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, and until 1933, large volunteer armies waged war against Japanese and Manchukuo forces over much of Northeast China.
Authoritarianism is a form of government.
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The Battle of Lake Khasan (July 29, 1938 – August 11, 1938) and also known as the Changkufeng Incident (Russian: Хасанские бои, Chinese and Japanese: 張鼓峰事件; Chinese Pinyin: Zhānggǔfēng Shìjiàn; Japanese Romaji: Chōkohō Jiken) in China and Japan, was an attempted military incursion by Manchukuo (Japanese) into the territory claimed by the Soviet Union.
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The Battles of Khalkhyn Gol (Халхын голын дайн; ノモンハン事件; Japanese Romaji Nomon-Han Jiken; бои на реке Халхин-Гол) were the decisive engagement of the undeclared Soviet–Japanese border conflicts fought among the Soviet Union, Mongolia and the Empire of Japan in 1939.
Benxihu (Honkeiko) Colliery, located in Benxi, Liaoning, China, was first mined in 1905.
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Bernardo Bertolucci (born 16 March 1940) is an Italian film director and screenwriter, whose films include The Conformist, Last Tango in Paris, 1900, The Last Emperor, The Sheltering Sky and The Dreamers.
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Biological warfare (BW)—also known as germ warfare—is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war.
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A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality enjoying primary status in a country, state, province, or other region, usually as its seat of government.
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The Central Bank of Manchou (Japanese Hepburn: Manshū Chūō Ginkō), was the central bank of the Japan-sponsored state of Manchukuo.
Changchun is the capital and largest city of Jilin Province, located in the northeast of the People's Republic of China.
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In traditional Chinese dress, a is the male equivalent of the women's cheongsam (qipao).
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The cheongsam is a body-hugging one-piece Chinese dress for women, also known in Mandarin Chinese as qipao (旗袍; Wade-Giles ch'i-p'ao), and Mandarin gown in English.
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Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was a Chinese political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975.
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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.
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The Chinese Civil War was a civil war in China fought between forces loyal to the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China, and forces loyal to the Communist Party of China (CPC).
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Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest cultures.
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The Chinese Eastern Railway or CER,, Dōngqīng Tiělù; Китайско-Восточная железная дорога or КВЖД, Kitaysko-Vostochnaya Zheleznaya Doroga or KVZhD), also known as the Chinese Far East Railway and Manchurian Railway, is the historical name for a railway across Manchuria (northeastern China).
A Chinese era name is the regnal year, reign period, or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperor's reign and naming certain Chinese rulers (see the imperial naming conventions).
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Chinese (汉语 / 漢語; Hànyǔ or 中文; Zhōngwén) is a group of related but in many cases mutually unintelligible language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
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Chuang Guandong (literally "Crashing into Guandong" with Guandong being an older name for Manchuria), is descriptive of the rush into Manchuria of the Han Chinese population, especially from the Shandong Peninsula and Zhili, during the hundred-year period starting at the last half of the 19th century.
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The Collaborationist Chinese Army in the Second Sino-Japanese War went under different names at different times and in different places depending on which collaborationist leader or puppet régime troops served.
Collective farming and communal farming are various types of agricultural production in which several farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise.
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The commanding officer (CO), or if it is an officer in the ranks of general, commanding general (CG), is the officer in command of a military unit.
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The Communist Party of China (CPC) is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
The Concordia Association (Japanese Hepburn: Manshū-koku Kyōwakai) was a political party in Manchukuo.
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The Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples (Congregatio pro Gentium Evangelizatione) in Rome is the congregation of the Roman Curia responsible for missionary work and related activities.
A constitutional monarchy, limited monarchy or parliamentary monarchy (also called a crowned republic) is a form of government in which governing powers of the monarch are restricted by a constitution.
The Convention of Peking (or First Convention of Peking) is an agreement comprising three distinct treaties concluded between the Qing Empire (China) and the United Kingdom, France, and Russia in 1860.
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Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China.
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Dandong, previously known as Andong, is a prefecture-level city in southeastern-eastern Liaoning province, People's Republic of China.
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Denmark (Danmark) is a country in Northern Europe.
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A direct-controlled municipality is the highest level classification for cities used by unitary state, with status equal to that of the provinces in the respective countries.
The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a country on the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago in the Caribbean region.
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The was a cabinet level agency in the Empire of Japan that operated between 1938 and 1942.
El Salvador (Pipil: Kūskatan), officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.
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The was the historical Japanese nation-state that existed from the Meiji Restoration on January 3, 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
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The Evacuation of Manchukuo occurred during the Soviet Red Army's invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo as part of the wider Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation of August 1945.
The Fengtian Clique was one of several mutually hostile cliques or factions that split from the Beiyang Clique in the Republic of China's Warlord Era.
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Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe bordered by Sweden to the west, Norway to the north, and Russia to the east; Estonia lies to the south across the Gulf of Finland.
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Five Races Under One Union was used as a national motto in Manchukuo, for the five races of the Manchus, the Japanese, the Han, the Mongols and the Koreans.
Francoist Spain (also historically known as Nationalist Spain during the Spanish Civil War) refers to the period of Spanish history between 1939, when Francisco Franco took control of Spain from the government of the Second Spanish Republic after winning the Civil War, and 1978, when the Spanish Constitution of 1978 went into effect.
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Gavan McCormack is a researcher specialising in East Asia who is Emeritus Professor and Visiting Fellow, Division of Pacific and Asian History of the Australian National University.
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The General Affairs State Council was the de facto executive administrative branch of the government of the Japanese-controlled Empire of Manchukuo from 1934-1945.
The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere (大東亞共榮圏 Dai-tō-a Kyōeiken) was an imperial propaganda concept created and promulgated for occupied Asian populations during the first third of the Shōwa era by the government and military of the Empire of Japan.
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is the capital and largest city of Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China.
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is a contemporary Japanese writer.
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Heilongjiang is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country.
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Herbert Allen Giles (8 December 1845 – 13 February 1935) was a British diplomat, sinologist, and professor of Chinese language.
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The History of the Republic of China begins after the Qing dynasty in 1912, when the formation of the Republic of China as a constitutional republic put an end to 4,000 years of Imperial rule.
The Hoankyoku (Hiragana: ほあんきょく) was an intelligence agency established in the State of Manchuria.
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The Holy See (Sancta Sedes) is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Bishop of Rome—the Pope.
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Hong Taiji (28November 159221 September1643), sometimes written as Huang Taiji and also referred to as Abahai in Western literature, was an Emperor of the Qing dynasty.
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Drug dealing is the exchange of illegal drugs for payment.
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Imperial Majesty (His/Her Imperial Majesty, abbreviated as HIM) is a style used by emperors and empresses.
The Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, Независна Држава Хрватска, NDH; Unabhängiger Staat Kroatien; Stato Indipendente di Croazia), often referred to simply by the abbreviation NDH, was a World War II puppet state of Germany and Italy, which was established in parts of Axis-occupied Yugoslavia.
Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: in Mongolian script, and in Mongolian Cyrillic), officially Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region, is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China, located in the north of the country, containing most of China's border with Mongolia (the rest of the China-Mongolia border is taken up by the Xinjiang autonomous region and Gansu province) and a small section of the border with Russia.
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The Intercity Baseball Tournament (都市対抗野球大会 Toshi Taikō yakyū taikai) of Japan, commonly known as "Summer All-star" (真夏の球宴 manatsu no kyūen), is an annual nationwide City baseball tournament.
The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), also known as the Tokyo Trials, the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal, or simply the Tribunal, was convened on April 29, 1946, to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for three types of war crimes.
In the context of the history of the twentieth century, the interwar period or interbellum (Latin: inter-, "between" + bellum, "war") was the period between the end of World War I and the beginning of World War II—the period beginning with the Armistice with Germany that concluded World War I in 1918 and the following Paris Peace Conference in 1919, and ending in 1939 with the invasion of Poland and the start of World War II.
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The, or JSDF, occasionally referred to as JSF, JDF, or SDF, are the unified military forces of Japan that were established in 1954.
The Japan–Manchukuo Protocol (日満議定書) was signed on 15 September 1932, between Japan and the state of Manchukuo.
The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on September 18, 1931, when the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan invaded Manchuria immediately following the Mukden Incident.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 125 million speakers, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
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Japanese orphans in China consist primarily of children left behind by Japanese families repatriating to Japan in the aftermath of World War II.
The are an ethnic group native to Japan.
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The Japanese Repatriation from Huludao (Japanese: 葫蘆島在留日本人大送還 Koro-tō Zairyū Nihonjin Dai-sōkan or) refers to sending back to Japan the Japanese people who were left in Northeast China after the end of World War II in 1945.
Japanization is the process in which Japanese culture dominates, assimilates, or influences other cultures, in general.
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The Jewish Autonomous Oblast (Евре́йская автоно́мная о́бласть, Yevreyskaya avtonomnaya oblast; ייִדישע אווטאָנאָמע געגנט, yidishe avtonome gegntIn standard Yiddish:, yidishe oytonome gegnt) is a federal subject of Russia (an autonomous oblast) in the Russian Far East, bordering with Khabarovsk Krai and Amur Oblast of Russia and with Heilongjiang province of China.
Shortly prior to and during World War II, and coinciding with the Second Sino-Japanese War, tens of thousands of Jewish refugees were resettled in the Japanese Empire.
Jilin (former official name: Kirin) is one of the three provinces of Northeast China.
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Jilin City (Postal map spelling: Kirin) Is the second-largest city and former capital of Jilin province in Northeast China.
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Jin Yuzhang (born May 1942) is the titular head of the Aisin-Gioro clan, the imperial family of the Qing dynasty (1644–1912), and thus, strictly speaking, the pretender to the thrones of China and Manchukuo, though Jin himself does not lay this claim.
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The Jurchens or Jurcheds (Jurchen language: jušen) were a Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until the 17th century, at which point they began referring to themselves as the Manchu people.
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Kashgar (known in Chinese as Kashi) is an oasis city with an approximate population of 350,000.
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The Kingdom of Bulgaria, also referred to as the Tsardom of Bulgaria and the Third Bulgarian Tsardom was a constitutional monarchy, created on 22 September 1908 (old style), as а result of an elevation of the Bulgarian state to kingdom from principality.
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The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000-1946 with the exception of 1918-1920).
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The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state founded in 1861 when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy.
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The Kingdom of Romania (Romanian: Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy which existed between 13 March 1881 and 30 December 1947, specified by the first three Constitutions of Romania (1866, 1923, 1938).
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The Koreans (alternatively, see names of Korea) are a historic people based in the Korean Peninsula and Manchuria.
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The population of Koreans in China include millions of descendants of Korean immigrants with citizenship of the People's Republic of China, as well as smaller groups of South and North Korean expatriates, with a total of roughly 2.3 million people, making it the largest ethnic Korean population living outside the Korean Peninsula.
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The Kuomintang of China (or; KMT), or sometimes spelled as Guomindang (GMD) by its Pinyin transliteration, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC).
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The Kwantung Army was an army group of the Imperial Japanese Army in the first half of the 20th century.
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The Kwantung Leased Territory was a territory in the southern part of the Liaodong Peninsula (遼東半島) in Manchuria that existed from 1898 to 1945.
Lüshunkou District or Lyushunkou District is one of six districts of Dalian, Liaoning province, People's Republic of China.
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The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, "Société des Nations" abbreviated as SDN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
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A legislative council is the name given to the legislature, or one of the chambers of the legislature of many nations and colonies.
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The Liáodōng Peninsula is a peninsula in Liaoning Province of Northeast China, historically known in the West as Southeastern Manchuria.
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Liaoning is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northeast of the country.
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Linjiang (listed as Linkiang on old maps) is a county-level city in southern Jilin Province, China, located to the east of Tonghua, and not far from the border with North Korea.
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The administrative divisions of Manchukuo consisted of a number of anto plus the special municipalities of Xinjing (新京特別市) and Harbin (哈爾浜特別市), and the Beiman Special Region (北満特別区).
This is a list of some Asian leaders and politicians, with a commitment to the Japanese cause, in the Yen Block or Greater Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere Pan-Asian economic associations previous to and during the Pacific War period, between 1931-1945.
Liu Changchun (listed in official Olympic records as "Liu, Cheng-Chun";The Games of the Xth Olympiad, Los Angeles, 1932: Official Report, The Xth Olympiade Committee of the Games of Los Angeles, U.S.A. 1932 Ltd., 1933.
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are the findings of the Lytton Commission, entrusted in 1931 by the League of Nations in an attempt to determine the causes of the Mukden Incident, which led to the Empire of Japan’s seizure of Manchuria.
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Manchu (Manchu: manju gisun) is a severly endangered Tungusic language spoken in Northeast China; it was the native language of the Manchus and one of the official languages of the Qing dynasty (1636-1911).
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The Manchu are a Chinese ethnic minority and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.
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Manchukuo was a puppet state in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia, which was governed under a form of constitutional monarchy.
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(Chinese: 株式會社滿洲映畫協會), also known as the "Manchuria Film Production", was a Japanese film production company in Manchukuo in the 1930s and 1940s.
The Manchukuo National Soccer Team() was an international soccer team from Manchukuo and Japanese-occupied eastern Inner Mongolia, created by former Qing Dynasty officials with help from Imperial Japan in 1932.
The Manchukuo Temporary Government is an organisation established in 2004 in Hong Kong.
The Manchukuo yuan (滿洲國圓) was the official unit of currency of the Empire of Manchukuo, from June 1932 to August 1945.
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Manchuria is a modern name given to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
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The Manchuria Airplane Manufacturing Company (traditional:滿洲國飛行機製造株式會社; simplified: 満州国飛行機製造株式会社 Japanese Hepburn: Manshū Koku Hikōki Seizō Kabushiki Kaisha; Chinese) was an aircraft company in Manchukuo in the 1930s and 1940s, producing a variety of mostly military aircraft and aircraft components.
Manchuria Aviation Company(traditional Chinese/Kyūjitai: 滿洲航空株式會社; simplified Chinese: 满州航空株式会社; Shinjitai: 満州航空株式会社; Japanese Hepburn: Manshū Kōkū Kabushiki Gaisha, "MKKK") was the national airline of Manchukuo.
The was an industrial conglomerate, or zaibatsu, in the Japanese controlled Empire of Manchukuo, established at the instigation of the Imperial Japanese Army to further the industrialization of Manchukuo, and in particular, to make it self-sufficient in strategic heavy industries.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
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The modern Chinese tunic suit is a style of male attire traditionally known in China as the Zhongshan suit (after Sun Yat-Sen, otherwise Romanized as Sun Zhongshan), and later as the Mao suit (after Mao Zedong).
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Mao Zedong, also transliterated as Mao Tse-tung and commonly referred to as Chairman Mao (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), was a Chinese Communist revolutionary and the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he governed as Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
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The Marco Polo Bridge Incident, also known as the Lugouqiao (Lugou Bridge) Incident (盧溝橋事變) or the July 7 Incident (七七事變), was a battle between the Republic of China's National Revolutionary Army and the Imperial Japanese Army, often used as the marker for the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945).
Mark R. Peattie (May 3, 1930 - January 22, 2014) was an American academic and Japanologist.
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was an officer in the Imperial Japanese Army imprisoned for his involvement in the Amakasu Incident, the extrajudicial execution of anarchists after the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake, who later became head of the Manchukuo Film Association.
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A mass grave is a grave containing multiple number of human corpses, which may or may not be identified prior to burial.
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Mengjiang (Mengkiang;; Hepburn: Mōkyō), also known in English as Mongol Border Land, was an autonomous area in Inner Mongolia, existing as a puppet state of the Empire of Japan under nominal Chinese sovereignty.
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The Ming dynasty, or the Great Ming, also called the Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
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A mining accident is an accident that occurs during the process of mining minerals.
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A monarchy is a form of government in which sovereignty is actually or nominally embodied in one or several individual(s) reigning until death or abdication.
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The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script:, Mongɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: Монгол хэл, Mongol khel) is the official language of Mongolia and largest-known member of the Mongolic language family.
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The Mongolian People's Republic (Бүгд Найрамдах Монгол Ард Улс (БНМАУ), Bügd Nairamdakh Mongol Ard Uls (BNMAU)) was a socialist state in Central Asia which existed between 1924 and 1992.
The Mongols (Mongolian: Монголчууд, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
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The Mukden Incident, or Manchurian Incident, was a staged event engineered by rogue Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the Japanese invasion in 1931 of northeastern China, known as Manchuria.
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The Museum of the Imperial Palace of the Manchu State is a museum in the northeastern corner of Changchun, Jilin province, northeast China.
The National Anthem of Manchukuo was one of the many national symbols of independence and sovereignty created to foster a sense of legitimacy for Manchukuo in both an effort to secure international diplomatic recognition and to foster a sense of patriotism among its inhabitants.
The National Revolutionary Army (NRA), sometimes shortened to Revolutionary Army (革命軍) before 1928, and as National Army (國軍) after 1928, was the military arm of the Kuomintang (KMT, or the Chinese Nationalist Party) from 1925 until 1947 in the Republic of China.
The Nationalist government refers to the government of the Republic of China between 1927 to 1948, led by the Kuomintang (KMT) party.
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Nazi Germany or the Third Reich (Drittes Reich) are common English names for the period of history in Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
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was a Japanese politician and the 56th and 57th Prime Minister of Japan from 25 February 1957 to 12 June 1958, and from then to 19 July 1960.
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Nomonhan is a small village near the border between Mongolia and Inner Mongolia, China, south of the Chinese city of Manzhouli.
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The Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army (Chinese: 東北抗日聯軍 Korean: 동북항일연군/동북항일련군) was the main anti-Japanese guerrilla army in the northeast part (Manchuria) of China after the occupation of Manchuria by Japan in 1931.
Northeast China, historically also known as Manchuria, is a geographical region of China.
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Outer Manchuria (known as "外滿洲" in Chinese; Приаму́рье Priamurye in Russian) is an unofficial term for a territory in Northeast Asia, which was formerly controlled by the Qing dynasty and now belonging to Russia.
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The Pacification of Manchukuo was a campaign to pacify the resistance to the newly established puppet state of Manchukuo between the Anti-Japanese Volunteer Armies of Manchuria and later the Communist Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army and the Imperial Japanese Army and the forces of the Manchukuo government during the Second Sino-Japanese War which took place from March 1932 until 1941, which resulted in a Japanese victory.
The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces of China under the leadership of the Communist Party (CPC).
Personalism is a philosophical school of thought searching to describe the uniqueness of 1) God as (Supreme) Person or 2) a human person in the world of nature, specifically in relation to animals. One of the main points of interest of personalism is human subjectivity or self-consciousness, experienced in a person's own acts and inner happenings—in "everything in the human being that is internal, whereby each human being is an eye witness of its own self". Other principles.
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Pinyin, or Hanyu Pinyin, is the official phonetic system for transcribing the Mandarin pronunciations of Chinese characters into the Latin alphabet in China, Taiwan, and Singapore. It is often used to teach Standard Chinese and a pinyin without diacritic markers is often used in foreign publications to spell Chinese names familiar to non-Chinese and may be used as an input method to enter Chinese characters into computers. The Hanyu Pinyin system was developed in the 1950s based on earlier forms of romanization. It was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and revised several times. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for romanization alone rather than for educational and computer input purposes. The word Hànyǔ means the spoken language of the Han people and pīnyīn literally means "spelled-out sounds".
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A political party is an organization of people which seeks to achieve goals common to its members through the acquisition and exercise of political power.
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A postage stamp is a small piece of paper that is purchased and displayed on an item of mail as evidence of payment of postage.
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Prefectures, formally prefecture-level divisions as a term in the context of China, are used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China.
A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.
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A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically, but not always, in the context of a monarchic government.
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A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.
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Provinces, formally provincial-level administrative divisions or first-level administrative divisions(), are the highest-level Chinese administrative divisions.
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A puppet state is a metaphor of a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power, it is nominally sovereign but effectively controlled by a foreign or otherwise alien power, for reasons such as financial interests, in fact anything but the common good.
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Puyi (7 February 1906 – 17 October 1967), of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, commonly known as Henry Pu Yi (Pu-yi), was the last Emperor of China and the twelfth and final ruler of the Qing dynasty.
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The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing, also called the Empire of the Great Qing, or the Manchu dynasty, was the last imperial dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917.
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Qiqihar (Manchu: Cicigar) is one of the 13 Larger Municipalities in China, and the second largest city in the Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China.
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The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия; РККА, or Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya: RKKA, frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия; KA, in English: Red Army) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and after 1922 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
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A regent (from the Latin regens, " ruling") is "a person appointed to administer a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated." The rule of a regent or regents is called a regency.
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Sir Reginald Fleming Johnston, KCMG, CBE (13 October 1874–6 March 1938) was a Scottish academic and diplomat who served as the tutor and advisor to Puyi, the last Emperor of China and as the last colonial governor of Weihaiwei.
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A regnal name, or reign name, is a name used by some monarchs and popes during their reigns.
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Rehe (ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ), also known as Jehol, is a former Chinese Special administrative district and province.
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The Reichswehr (English: Reich Defence) formed the military organization of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when it was united with the newly founded Wehrmacht ("Defence Force").
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The Reorganized National Government was the name of the collaborationist government established in the Republic of China from 1940-1945.
The Republic of China governed the present-day territories of China, Mongolia and Taiwan at differing times between 1912 and 1949.
A Resident, or in full Resident Minister, is a government official required to take up permanent residence in another country.
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The Russian Empire (Pre-reform Russian orthography: Россійская Имперія, Modern Russian: Российская империя, translit: Rossiyskaya Imperiya) was a state that existed from 1721 until overthrown by the short-lived liberal February Revolution in 1917.
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The Russian Revolution is the collective term for a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917, which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the eventual rise of the Soviet Union.
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The Russo-Japanese War (8 February 1904 – 5 September 1905) was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.
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The Second Opium War, the Second Anglo-Chinese War, the Second China War, the Arrow War, or the Franco-British expedition to China, was a war pitting the British Empire and the Second French Empire against the Qing dynasty (present day China), lasting from 1856 to 1860.
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The Second Philippine Republic, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Firipin kyōwakoku, Repúbliká ng Pilipinas), or known in the Philippines as Japanese-sponsored Philippine Republic, was a puppet state established on October 14, 1943, during the Japanese occupation.
Shenyang, formerly known by its Manchu name Mukden or as Fengtian, is the provincial capital and largest city of Liaoning Province, as well as the largest city in Northeast China by urban population.
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The was a Japanese government-sponsored steel mill that was one of the showpieces of the industrialization program for Manchukuo in the late 1930s.
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The Shun dynasty, or Great Shun was a short-lived dynasty created in the Ming-Qing transition from Ming to Qing rule in Chinese history.
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A single-party state, one-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which a single political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
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The (First) Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika) otherwise known as the Slovak State (Slovenský štát) was a client state of Nazi Germany which existed between 14 March 1939 and 4 April 1945.
Sorghum bicolor, commonly called sorghum and also known as durra, jowari, or milo, is a grass species cultivated for its grain, which is used for food, both for animals and humans, and for ethanol production.
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South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (lit. The Republic of Great Han; ROK), and commonly referred to as Korea, is a sovereign state in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula.
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South Manchuria Railway was built as a part of the Chinese Eastern Railway in 1898-1903 by Imperial Russia according to the Russian-Chinese convention and the Convention of Peking 1860.
The Soviet Army (Советская Армия, Sovetskaya Armiya) is the name given to the main land-based branch of the Soviet Armed Forces between February 1946 and December 1991, when it was replaced with the Russian Ground Forces, although it was not taken fully out of service until 25 December 1993.
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The Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation (Манчжурская стратегическая наступательная операция, lit. Manchzhurskaya Strategicheskaya Nastupatelnaya Operaciya) began on 9 August 1945, with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo and was the last campaign of the Second World War and the largest of the 1945 Soviet–Japanese War which resumed hostilities between the Soviet Union and the Empire of Japan after almost six years of peace.
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.
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The Stimson Doctrine is a policy of the United States federal government, enunciated in a note of January 7, 1932, to Japan and China, of non-recognition of international territorial changes that were executed by force.
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The surrender of the Empire of Japan was announced by Imperial Japan on August 15 and formally signed on September 2, 1945, bringing the hostilities of World War II to a close.
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Thailand (or; ประเทศไทย), officially the Kingdom of Thailand (ราชอาณาจักรไทย), formerly known as Siam (สยาม), is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Mainland Southeast Asia.
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The Good, the Bad, the Weird is a 2008 South Korean western film, directed by Kim Jee-woon, starring Song Kang-ho, Lee Byung-hun, and Jung Woo-sung.
is a Japanese epic film trilogy made between 1959 and 1961, based on the six-volume novel published from 1956 to 1958 by Junpei Gomikawa.
The Japan Times is an English-language newspaper published in Japan by, a subsidiary of Nifco, a leading manufacturer of plastic fasteners for the automotive and home design industries.
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The Last Emperor is a 1987 biographical film about the life of Puyi, the last Emperor of China, whose autobiography was the basis for the screenplay written by Mark Peploe and Bernardo Bertolucci.
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is a novel published in 1994–1995 by Japanese author Haruki Murakami.
The Tientsin incident of 1931 was the operation planned by the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan to place Puyi on the throne of the Japanese-controlled Manchuria.
Twilight in the Forbidden City is Reginald Johnston's 486-page memoir of Henry Puyi, who had been the Xuantong Emperor of the Qing dynasty.
was a covert biological and chemical warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) of World War II.
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The Viceroy of Three Northeast Provinces, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Three Northeast Provinces and Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Generals of the Three Provinces, Director of Civil Affairs of Fengtian, was the one of nine regional viceroys of the Qing dynasty in China.
Vichy France is the Allies' description of the government of the French State (État français), following its relocation to the spa town of Vichy, headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain from 1940 to 1944 during World War II.
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Vivisection is surgery conducted for experimental purposes on a living organism, typically animals with a central nervous system, to view living internal structure.
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Vladivostok (p, literally ruler of the East) is a city and the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, located at the head of the Golden Horn Bay, not far from Russia's borders with China and North Korea.
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Wade–Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a romanization system for Mandarin Chinese.
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A war crime is a serious violation of the laws and customs of war (also known as international humanitarian law) giving rise to individual criminal responsibility.
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A warlord is a person who has both military and civil control over a subnational area due to the presence of armed forces who are loyal to the warlord rather than to a central authority.
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The Western is a genre of various arts, such as comics, fiction, film, games, radio, and television.
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A white émigré refers to a Russian subject who emigrated from Imperial Russia in the wake of the Russian Revolution and Russian Civil War, and who was in opposition to the contemporary Russian political climate.
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Willow Palisade (ᠪᡳᡵᡝᡤᡝᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᡝ|v.
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World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.
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Hsingan (or Xing'an) refers to a former province, which once occupied western Heilongjiang and part of northwest Jilin provinces of China.
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The Yalta Conference, sometimes called the Crimea Conference and codenamed the Argonaut Conference, held from February 4 to 11, 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, represented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Premier Joseph Stalin, respectively, for the purpose of discussing Europe's post-war reorganization.
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Yingkou is a prefecture-level city of Liaoning province, People's Republic of China.
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Yoshiko Yamaguchi (12 February 1920 – 7 September 2014) was a Chinese-born Japanese actress and singer who made a career in China, Japan, Hong Kong, and the United States.
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is a Japanese term referring to industrial and financial business conglomerates in the Empire of Japan, whose influence and size allowed control over significant parts of the Japanese economy from the Meiji period until the end of World War II.
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Zhang Jinghui (Chang Ching-hui;; Hepburn: Chō Keikei); (1871 – 1 November 1959) was a Chinese general and politician during the Warlord era.
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Zhang Zuolin ((1875–1928) was the warlord of Manchuria from 1916 to 1928 (see Warlord Era in China). He successfully invaded China proper in October 1924 in the Second Zhili-Fengtian War. He gained control of Peking, including China's internationally recognized government, in April 1926. The economy of Manchuria, the basis of Zhang's power, was overtaxed by his adventurism and collapsed in the winter of 1927-1928. Zhang was defeated by the Nationalists under Chiang Kai-shek in May 1928. He was killed by a bomb planted by a Japanese Kwantung Army officer on 4 June 1928. Although Zhang had been Japan's proxy in China, Japanese militarists were infuriated by his failure to stop the advance of the Nationalists. Zhang was fiercely anti-Republican and supported the restoration of the Qing dynasty. His nicknames include the "Old Marshal" (大帥, P: Dàshuài, W: Ta-shuai), "Rain Marshal" (雨帥, P: Yǔshuài, W: Yü-shuai) and "Mukden Tiger". The American press referred to him as "Marshal Chang Tso-lin, Tuchun of Manchuria.".
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Zheng Xiaoxu (Cheng Hsiao-hsu;; Hepburn: Tei Kōsho) (2 April 1860 – 28 March 1938) was a Chinese statesman, diplomat and calligrapher.
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The 1932 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the X Olympiad, was a major world wide multi-athletic event which was celebrated in 1932 in Los Angeles, California, United States.
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is a novel by Haruki Murakami, first published in three volumes in Japan in 2009–10.
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Chief Executive of Manchukuo, Dai Manshū Teikoku, Emperor of Manchukuo, Empire of Great Manchuria, Empire of Greater Manchuria, Empire of Manchuria, Great Empire of Manchuria, Great Manchu Empire, Great Manchuria, Greater Empire of Manchuria, Greater Manchuria, Heads of State of Manchukuo, Imperial Japanese colonialism in Manchukuo, Japanese colonialism in Manchukuo, List of heads of state of Manchukuo, Mamchukuo, Manchoukuo, Manchu State, Manchuguo, Manchukoku, Manchukou, Manchukuo Empire, Manchukuo as Imperial Japanese Army political project, Manchutikuo, Manjuguk, Manjukuo, Manshū Teikoku, Manshū-koku, Manzhouguo, Manzhouguó, Military of Manchukuo, Mǎnzhōuguó, Observations in depth of Army creation of Manchu political project, 大満州帝国, 大满洲帝国, 大滿洲帝國, 満州国, 満州帝国, 满洲国, 满洲帝国, 滿洲國, 滿洲帝國.