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Manchukuo was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945. [1]

269 relations: Abraham Kaufman, Actions in Inner Mongolia (1933–36), Anti-Japanese resistance volunteers in China, Authoritarianism, Battle of Beiping–Tianjin, Battle of Lake Khasan, Battles of Khalkhin Gol, BBC News, Benxihu Colliery, Bernardo Bertolucci, Binjiang Province, Biological warfare, Black Dragon Society, Blagoveshchensk, Boeing B-29 Superfortress, Buffer state, Capital city, Changchun, Changshan, Cheongsam, Chiang Kai-shek, China, Chinese Civil War, Chinese Eastern Railway, Chinese era name, Chinese language, Chita, Zabaykalsky Krai, Chuang Guandong, Client state, Collaborationist Chinese Army, Collective farming, Commanding officer, Communist Party of China, Concordia Association, Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, Constitutional monarchy, Convention of Peking, Costa Rica, Culture of Mongolia, Dandong, Denmark, Dictatorship, Direct-controlled municipality, Dominican Republic, East Asia Development Board, Eastern Front (World War II), El Salvador, Ella Maillart, Emperor of China, Empire of Japan, ..., Evacuation of Manchukuo, Fengtian clique, Finland, Five Races Under One Union (Manchukuo), Francoist Spain, Gavan McCormack, Gen'yōsha, General Affairs State Council, Great Depression, Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, Guard of honour, Han Chinese, Harbin, Haruki Murakami, Heilongjiang, Herbert Giles, Hirohito, History of the Republic of China, Holy See, Hong Taiji, Igor Ivanov, Illegal drug trade, Imperial Japanese Army, Imperial Japanese Navy, Imperial Majesty (style), Independent State of Croatia, Inner Mongolia, Intercity Baseball Tournament, International Military Tribunal for the Far East, Interwar period, Inukai Tsuyoshi, Japan Self-Defense Forces, Japan–Manchukuo Protocol, Japanese destroyer Kashi (1916), Japanese invasion of Manchuria, Japanese language, Japanese orphans in China, Japanese people, Japanese repatriation from Huludao, Japanization, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Jewish settlement in the Japanese Empire, Jilin, Jilin City, Jin Yuzhang, Jinzhou, Joshua A. Fogel, Jurchen people, Kamikaze, Kaoru Otsuki, Kashgar, Katsuragawa Hoshū, Kawasaki Army Type 88 Reconnaissance Aircraft, Kenpeitai, Kingdom of Bulgaria, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Romania, Koreans, Koreans in China, Kuomintang, Kwantung Army, Kwantung Leased Territory, Lüshunkou District, League of Nations, Legislative council, Liaodong Peninsula, Liaoning, Linjiang, List of administrative divisions of Manchukuo, List of East Asian leaders in the Japanese sphere of influence (1931–1945), List of emperors of the Qing dynasty, Liu Changchun, Lytton Report, Manchu language, Manchu people, Manchukuo, Manchukuo Film Association, Manchukuo Imperial Air Force, Manchukuo Imperial Army, Manchukuo Imperial Guards, Manchukuo Imperial Navy, Manchukuo national football team, Manchukuo National Railway, Manchukuo Temporary Government, Manchukuo yuan, Manchuria, Manchuria Aviation Company, Mandarin Chinese, Manzhouli, Mao suit, Mao Zedong, Marco Polo Bridge Incident, Mark Peattie, Masahiko Amakasu, Masaki Kobayashi, Mass grave, Mengjiang, Ming dynasty, Mining accident, Mitsubishi Ki-57, Mongolian language, Mongolian People's Army, Mongolian People's Republic, Mongols, Mukden Incident, Museum of the Imperial Palace of Manchukuo, Nakajima Army Type 91 Fighter, Nakajima Ki-27, Nakajima Ki-43, Nanai people, National Anthem of Manchukuo, National Revolutionary Army, Nationalist government, Nazi Germany, Nieuport-Delage NiD 29, Nobusuke Kishi, Nomonhan, Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army, Northeast China, One-party state, Oroqen people, Osaka University, Outer Manchuria, Pacification of Manchukuo, People's Liberation Army, Personalism, Peter Fleming (writer), Philipp Franz von Siebold, Pinyin, Postage stamp, Prefectures of the People's Republic of China, Prime Minister of Japan, Privy council, Protectorate, Provinces of China, Puppet state, Puyi, Qing dynasty, Qiqihar, Red Army, Regent, Reginald Johnston, Regnal name, Rehe Province, Reichswehr, Republic, Republic of China (1912–1949), Resident (title), Richard Sorge, Russian Civil War, Russian Empire, Russian Fascist Party, Russian Revolution, Russo-Japanese War, Second Opium War, Second Philippine Republic, Shenyang, Shun dynasty, Simon Kaspé, Slovak Republic (1939–1945), Sorghum bicolor, South Korea, South Manchuria Railway, Soviet Army, Soviet invasion of Manchuria, Soviet Union, Soviet–Japanese border conflicts, Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact, State Shinto, Stimson Doctrine, Sun Yat-sen, Surrender of Japan, Tachikawa Ki-55, Tachikawa Ki-9, Tankette, Tōten Miyazaki, Tōyama Mitsuru, Tenkō, Thailand, The Good, the Bad, the Weird, The Human Condition (film series), The Japan Times, The Last Emperor, The Wind-Up Bird Chronicle, Tientsin Incident (1931), Tong Linge, Tongmenghui, Twilight in the Forbidden City, Unit 731, United States, United States Department of State, University of Hawaii Press, Ural Federal University, Variety (magazine), Viceroy of the Three Northeast Provinces, Vichy France, Vivisection, Vladivostok, Wade–Giles, Wang Jingwei, Wang Jingwei regime, War crime, Warlord Era, Western (genre), White émigré, Whitman Publishing, Willow Palisade, World War II, Xing'an Province, Yalta Conference, Yingkou, Yoshiko Yamaguchi, Zaibatsu, Zhang Jinghui, Zhang Xueliang, Zhang Zuolin, Zheng Xiaoxu, 1932 Summer Olympics. 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Abraham Kaufman


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Actions in Inner Mongolia (1933–36)

The Inner Mongolian Campaign in the period from 1933 to 1936 were part of the ongoing invasion of northern China by the Empire of Japan prior to the official start of hostilities in the Second Sino-Japanese War.

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Anti-Japanese resistance volunteers in China

After the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, and until 1933, large volunteer armies waged war against Japanese and Manchukuo forces over much of Northeast China.

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Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.

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Battle of Beiping–Tianjin

The Battle of Beiping–Tianjin, also known as the Battle of Beijing and the Peiking-Tientsin Operation or by the Japanese as the (25–31 July 1937) was a series of battles of the Second Sino-Japanese War fought in the proximity of Beiping (now Beijing) and Tianjin.

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Battle of Lake Khasan

The Battle of Lake Khasan (July 29 – August 11, 1938), also known as the Changkufeng Incident (Russian: Хасанские бои, Chinese and Japanese: 張鼓峰事件; Chinese Pinyin: Zhānggǔfēng Shìjiàn; Japanese Romaji: Chōkohō Jiken) in China and Japan, was an attempted military incursion by Manchukuo (Japanese) into the territory claimed by the Soviet Union.

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Battles of Khalkhin Gol

The Battles of Khalkhyn Gol were the decisive engagements of the undeclared Soviet–Japanese border conflicts fought among the Soviet Union, Mongolia, Japan and Manchukuo in 1939.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Benxihu Colliery

Benxihu (Honkeiko) Colliery, located in Benxi, Liaoning, China, was first mined in 1905.

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Bernardo Bertolucci

Bernardo Bertolucci (born 16 March 1941) is an Italian director and screenwriter, whose films include The Conformist, Last Tango in Paris, 1900, The Last Emperor (for which he won the Academy Award for Best Director), The Sheltering Sky, Stealing Beauty and The Dreamers.

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Binjiang Province

Binjiang Province was one of the provinces of Manchukuo.

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Biological warfare

Biological warfare (BW)—also known as germ warfare—is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war.

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Black Dragon Society

The, or Amur River Society, was a prominent paramilitary, ultranationalist right-wing group in Japan.

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Blagoveshchensk (p, lit. the city of the Annunciation) is a city and the administrative center of Amur Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Amur and Zeya Rivers, opposite to the Chinese city of Heihe.

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Boeing B-29 Superfortress

The Boeing B-29 Superfortress is a four-engine propeller-driven heavy bomber designed by Boeing, which was flown primarily by the United States during World War II and the Korean War.

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Buffer state

A buffer state is a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers.

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Capital city

A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.

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Changchun is the capital and largest city of Jilin Province, and is also the core city of Northeast Asia.

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A is a traditional Chinese dress (or robe, long jacket or tunic) worn by men.

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The cheongsam (from Cantonese;, or) is a body-hugging one-piece Chinese dress for women, also known as qipao (from Mandarin) or qípáo, and was ROC's mandarin gown.

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Chiang Kai-shek

Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih or Jiang Jieshi and known as Chiang Chungcheng, was a political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and then in exile in Taiwan.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chinese Civil War

The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).

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Chinese Eastern Railway

The Chinese Eastern Railway or CER,, Dōngqīng Tiělù; Китайско-Восточная железная дорога or КВЖД, Kitaysko-Vostochnaya Zheleznaya Doroga or KVZhD), also known as the Chinese Far East Railway and North Manchuria Railway, is the historical name for a railway across Manchuria (northeastern China).

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Chinese era name

A Chinese era name is the regnal year, reign period, or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperor's reign and naming certain Chinese rulers.

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Chinese language

Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.

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Chita, Zabaykalsky Krai

Chita (p) is a city and the administrative center of Zabaykalsky Krai, Russia, located at the confluence of the Chita and Ingoda Rivers and on the Trans-Siberian Railway, east of Irkutsk.

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Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Chuang Guandong

Chuang Guandong (IPA:; literally "Crashing into Guandong" with Guandong being an older name for Manchuria) is descriptive of the rush into Manchuria of the Han Chinese population, especially from the Shandong Peninsula and Zhili, during the hundred-year period starting at the last half of the 19th century.

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Client state

A client state is a state that is economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state in international affairs.

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Collaborationist Chinese Army

The term Collaborationist Chinese Army refers to the military forces of the puppet governments founded by Imperial Japan in mainland China during the Second Sino-Japanese War.

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Collective farming

Collective farming and communal farming are various types of "agricultural production in which multiple farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise." That type of collective is often an agricultural cooperative in which member-owners jointly engage in farming activities.

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Commanding officer

The commanding officer (CO) or, if the incumbent is a general officer, commanding general (CG), is the officer in command of a military unit.

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Communist Party of China

The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.

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Concordia Association

The Concordia Association (Japanese Hepburn: Manshū-koku Kyōwakai) was a political party in Manchukuo.

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Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples

The Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples in Rome is the congregation of the Roman Curia responsible for missionary work and related activities.

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Constitutional monarchy

A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.

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Convention of Peking

The Convention or First Convention of Peking, sometimes now known as the Convention of Beijing, is an agreement comprising three distinct treaties concluded between the Qing dynasty of China and the United Kingdom, French Empire, and Russian Empire in 1860.

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Costa Rica

Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.

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Culture of Mongolia

The Culture of Mongolia has been heavily influenced by the Mongol nomadic way of life.

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Dandong, formerly known as Andong, is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Liaoning province, People's Republic of China.

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Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.

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A dictatorship is an authoritarian form of government, characterized by a single leader or group of leaders with either no party or a weak party, little mass mobilization, and limited political pluralism.

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Direct-controlled municipality

A direct-controlled municipality is the highest level classification for cities used by unitary state, with status equal to that of the provinces in the respective countries.

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Dominican Republic

The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.

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East Asia Development Board

The East Asia Development Board, or, was a cabinet level agency in the Empire of Japan that operated between 1938 and 1942.

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Eastern Front (World War II)

The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.

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El Salvador

El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.

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Ella Maillart

Ella Maillart (or Ella K. Maillart; 20 February 1903, Geneva – 27 March 1997, Chandolin) was a Swiss adventurer, travel writer and photographer, as well as a sportswoman.

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Emperor of China

The Emperor or Huangdi was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty that unified China in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917.

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Empire of Japan

The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.

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Evacuation of Manchukuo

The Evacuation of Manchukuo occurred during the Soviet Red Army's invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo as part of the wider Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation of August 1945.

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Fengtian clique

The Fengtian Clique was one of several mutually hostile cliques or factions that split from the Beiyang Clique in the Republic of China's Warlord Era.

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Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.

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Five Races Under One Union (Manchukuo)

Five Races Under One Union was used as a national motto in Manchukuo, for the five races of the Manchus, the Japanese, the Han, the Mongols and the Koreans.

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Francoist Spain

Francoist Spain (España franquista) or the Franco regime (Régimen de Franco), formally known as the Spanish State (Estado Español), is the period of Spanish history between 1939, when Francisco Franco took control of Spain after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War establishing a dictatorship, and 1975, when Franco died and Prince Juan Carlos was crowned King of Spain.

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Gavan McCormack

Gavan McCormack is a researcher specializing in East Asia who is Emeritus Professor and Visiting Fellow, Division of Pacific and Asian History of the Australian National University.

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The was an influential Pan-Asianist group and secret society active in the Empire of Japan, and was considered to be an ultranationalist group by GHQ in the International Military Tribunal for the Far East.

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General Affairs State Council

The General Affairs State Council was the de facto executive administrative branch of the government of the Japanese-controlled Empire of Manchuria from 1934-1945.

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Great Depression

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.

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Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

The was an imperial concept created and promulgated for occupied Asian populations during 1930–1945 by the Empire of Japan.

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Guard of honour

A guard of honour (en-GB), guard of honor (en-US), also honour guard (en-GB), honor guard (en-US), also ceremonial guard, is a guard, usually military in nature, appointed to receive or guard a head of state or other dignitary, the fallen in war, or to attend at state ceremonials, especially funerals.

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Han Chinese

The Han Chinese,.

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Harbin is the capital of Heilongjiang province, and largest city in the northeastern region of the People's Republic of China.

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Haruki Murakami

is a Japanese writer.

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Heilongjiang (Wade-Giles: Heilungkiang) is a province of the People's Republic of China.

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Herbert Giles

Herbert Allen Giles (8 December 184513 February 1935) was a British diplomat and sinologist who was the professor of Chinese at Cambridge University for 35 years.

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was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from 25 December 1926, until his death on 7 January 1989.

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History of the Republic of China

The History of the Republic of China begins after the Qing dynasty in 1912, when the formation of the Republic of China as a constitutional republic put an end to 4,000 years of Imperial rule.

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Holy See

The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.

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Hong Taiji

Hong Taiji (28November 159221 September1643), sometimes written as Huang Taiji and also referred to as Abahai in Western literature, was an Emperor of the Qing dynasty.

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Igor Ivanov

Igor Sergeyevich Ivanov (born 23 September 1945) is a Russian politician who was Foreign Minister of Russia from 1998 to 2004.

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Illegal drug trade

The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws.

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Imperial Japanese Army

The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA; Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun; "Army of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945.

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Imperial Japanese Navy

The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN; Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍 or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun, "Navy of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1868 until 1945, when it was dissolved following Japan's defeat and surrender in World War II.

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Imperial Majesty (style)

Imperial Majesty (His/Her Imperial Majesty, abbreviated as HIM) is a style used by Emperors and Empresses.

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Independent State of Croatia

The Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH; Unabhängiger Staat Kroatien; Stato Indipendente di Croazia) was a World War II fascist puppet state of Germany and Italy.

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Inner Mongolia

Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (Ѳвѳр Монголын Ѳѳртѳѳ Засах Орон in Mongolian Cyrillic), is one of the autonomous regions of China, located in the north of the country.

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Intercity Baseball Tournament

The Intercity Baseball Tournament (都市対抗野球大会 Toshi Taikō yakyū taikai) of Japan, commonly known as "Summer All-star" (真夏の球宴 manatsu no kyūen), is an annual nationwide City baseball tournament.

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International Military Tribunal for the Far East

The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), also known as the Tokyo Trial or the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal, was a military trial convened on April 29, 1946, to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for joint conspiracy to start and wage war (categorized as "Class A" crimes), conventional war crimes ("Class B") and crimes against humanity ("Class C").

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Interwar period

In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.

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Inukai Tsuyoshi

was a Japanese politician, cabinet minister, and Prime Minister of Japan from 13 December 1931 to 15 May 1932.

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Japan Self-Defense Forces

The (JSDF), occasionally referred to as the Japan Defense Forces (JDF), Self-Defense Forces (SDF), or Japanese Armed Forces, are the unified military forces of Japan that were established in 1954, and are controlled by the Ministry of Defense.

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Japan–Manchukuo Protocol

The Japan–Manchukuo Protocol (日満議定書) was signed on 15 September 1932, between Japan and the state of Manchukuo.

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Japanese destroyer Kashi (1916)

The Kashi was a Japanese destroyer of the Momo-class, built in Japan, that served in the last part of World War One, and throughout World War Two, as part of the Imperial Japanese Navy, and the Imperial Manchukuo Navy, before being returned to the Imperial Japanese Navy.

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Japanese invasion of Manchuria

The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on 18 September 1931, when the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan invaded Manchuria immediately following the Mukden Incident.

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Japanese language

is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.

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Japanese orphans in China

Japanese orphans in China consist primarily of children left behind by Japanese families following the Japanese repatriation from Huludao in the aftermath of World War II.

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Japanese people

are a nation and an ethnic group that is native to Japan and makes up 98.5% of the total population of that country.

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Japanese repatriation from Huludao

The Japanese repatriation from Huludao (Japanese: 葫蘆島在留日本人大送還 Koro-tō Zairyū Nihonjin Dai-sōkan or) refers to sending back to Japan the Japanese people who were left in Northeast China after the end of World War II in 1945.

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Japanization is the process in which Japanese culture dominates, assimilates, or influences other cultures, in general.

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Jewish Autonomous Oblast

The Jewish Autonomous Oblast (Евре́йская автоно́мная о́бласть, Yevreyskaya avtonomnaya oblast; ייִדישע אװטאָנאָמע געגנט, yidishe avtonome GegntIn standard Yiddish: ייִדישע אױטאָנאָמע געגנט, Yidishe Oytonome Gegnt) is a federal subject of Russia in the Russian Far East, bordering Khabarovsk Krai and Amur Oblast in Russia and Heilongjiang province in China.

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Jewish settlement in the Japanese Empire

Shortly prior to and during World War II, and coinciding with the Second Sino-Japanese War, tens of thousands of Jewish refugees were resettled in the Japanese Empire.

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Jilin, formerly romanized as Kirin is one of the three provinces of Northeast China.

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Jilin City

Jilin City (postal: Kirin) Is the second-largest city and former capital of Jilin province in northeast China.

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Jin Yuzhang

Jin Yuzhang (born May 1942) is an heir to the Qing emperors of China, though he himself does not care for the claim nor acknowledges it.

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Jinzhou is a prefecture-level city of Liaoning province, People's Republic of China.

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Joshua A. Fogel

Joshua A. Fogel (born 1950 in Brooklyn, New York; Chinese name: 傅佛果) is a Sinologist, historian, and translator who specializes in the history of modern China, especially on the cultural and political relations between China and Japan.

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Jurchen people

The Jurchen (Manchu: Jušen; 女真, Nǚzhēn), also known by many variant names, were a Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until around 1630, at which point they were reformed and combined with their neighbors as the Manchu.

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, officially, were a part of the Japanese Special Attack Units of military aviators who initiated suicide attacks for the Empire of Japan against Allied naval vessels in the closing stages of the Pacific campaign of World War II, designed to destroy warships more effectively than possible with conventional air attacks.

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Kaoru Otsuki

, born in Yokohama, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, was the second wife of Sun Yat-sen, founder of the Republic of China.

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Kashgar is an oasis city in Xinjiang, People's Republic of China.

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Katsuragawa Hoshū

was a Japanese physician and scholar of rangaku (Western studies).

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Kawasaki Army Type 88 Reconnaissance Aircraft

The Kawasaki Army Type 88 Reconnaissance Aircraft was a Japanese single-engined biplane designed for Kawasaki by Richard Vogt.

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The was the military police arm of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1881 to 1945.

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Kingdom of Bulgaria

The Kingdom of Bulgaria (Царство България, Tsarstvo Bǎlgariya), also referred to as the Tsardom of Bulgaria and the Third Bulgarian Tsardom, was a constitutional monarchy in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, which was established on 5 October (O.S. 22 September) 1908 when the Bulgarian state was raised from a principality to a kingdom.

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Kingdom of Hungary

The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).

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Kingdom of Italy

The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.

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Kingdom of Romania

The Kingdom of Romania (Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy in Southeastern Europe which existed from 1881, when prince Carol I of Romania was proclaimed King, until 1947, when King Michael I of Romania abdicated and the Parliament proclaimed Romania a republic.

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Koreans (in South Korean; alternatively in North Korean,; see names of Korea) are an East Asian ethnic group originating from and native to Korea and southern and central Manchuria.

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Koreans in China

The population of Koreans in China include millions of descendants of Korean immigrants with citizenship of the People's Republic of China, as well as smaller groups of South and North Korean expatriates, with a total of roughly 2.3 million people, making it the largest ethnic Korean population living outside the Korean Peninsula.

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The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.

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Kwantung Army

The Kwantung Army was an army group of the Imperial Japanese Army in the first half of the 20th century.

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Kwantung Leased Territory

The Kwantung Leased Territory was a Russian-leased territory (1898–1905), then a Japanese-leased territory (1905–1945) in the southern part of the Liaodong Peninsula (遼東半島) in the Republic of China that existed from 1898 to 1945.

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Lüshunkou District

Lüshunkou District (also Lyushunkou District) is a district of Dalian, in Liaoning province, China.

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League of Nations

The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.

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Legislative council

A legislative council is the name given to the legislature, or one of the legislative chambers of a nation, colony, or subnational division such as a province or state; or, in the United States, a council within a legislature which supervises nonpartisan legislative support staff.

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Liaodong Peninsula

The Liaodong Peninsula is a peninsula in Liaoning Province of Northeast China, historically known in the West as Southeastern Manchuria.

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Liaoning is a province of China, located in the northeast of the country.

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Linjiang (listed as Linkiang on old maps) is a county-level city in southern Jilin province, People's Republic of China, located to the east of Tonghua, and not far from the border with North Korea.

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List of administrative divisions of Manchukuo

The administrative divisions of Manchukuo consisted of a number of anto plus the special municipalities of Xinjing (新京特別市) and Harbin (哈爾浜特別市), and the Beiman Special Region (北満特別区).

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List of East Asian leaders in the Japanese sphere of influence (1931–1945)

This is a list of some Asian leaders and politicians, with a commitment to the Japanese cause, in the Yen Block or Greater Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere Pan-Asian economic associations previous to and during the Pacific War period, between 1931–1945.

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List of emperors of the Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty (1644–1912) was the last imperial dynasty of China.

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Liu Changchun

Liu Changchun (listed in official Olympic records as "Liu, Cheng-Chun";The Games of the Xth Olympiad, Los Angeles, 1932: Official Report, The Xth Olympiade Committee of the Games of Los Angeles, U.S.A. 1932 Ltd., 1933.

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Lytton Report

are the findings of the Lytton Commission, entrusted in 1931 by the League of Nations in an attempt to evaluate the Mukden Incident, which led to the Empire of Japan's seizure of Manchuria.

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Manchu language

Manchu (Manchu: manju gisun) is a critically endangered Tungusic language spoken in Manchuria; it was the native language of the Manchus and one of the official languages of the Qing dynasty (1636–1911) of China.

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Manchu people

The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.

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Manchukuo was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945.

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Manchukuo Film Association

(Chinese: 株式會社滿洲映畫協會), also known as the "Manchuria Film Production", was a Japanese film production company in Manchukuo in the 1930s and 1940s.

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Manchukuo Imperial Air Force

The Manchukuo Imperial Air Force was the air force of the Empire of Manchuria, a puppet state of Imperial Japan.

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Manchukuo Imperial Army

The Manchukuo Imperial Army was the ground force of the military of the Empire of Manchukuo, a puppet state established by Imperial Japan in Manchuria, a region of northeastern China.

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Manchukuo Imperial Guards

The Manchukuo Imperial Guards were the elite unit of the Manchukuo armed forces created in 1933.

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Manchukuo Imperial Navy

The Manchukuo Imperial Navy (Jiāngshàng Jūn) was the navy of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo.

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Manchukuo national football team

The Manchukuo National Football Team() was an international football team from Manchukuo and Japanese-occupied eastern Inner Mongolia, created by former Qing Dynasty officials with help from Imperial Japan in 1932.

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Manchukuo National Railway

The Manchukuo National Railway (滿洲國有鐵道, Chinese: Mǎnzhōu Guóyǒu Tiědào; Japanese: Manshū Kokuyū Tetsudō) was the state-owned national railway company of Manchukuo.

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Manchukuo Temporary Government

The Manchukuo Temporary Government is an organisation established in 2004 in Hong Kong.

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Manchukuo yuan

The Manchukuo yuan (滿洲國圓) was the official unit of currency of the Empire of Manchukuo, from June 1932 to August 1945.

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Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.

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Manchuria Aviation Company

Manchuria Aviation Company(traditional Chinese/Kyūjitai: 滿洲航空株式會社; simplified Chinese: 满州航空株式会社; Shinjitai: 満州航空株式会社; Japanese Hepburn: Manshū Kōkū Kabushiki Gaisha, "MKKK") was the national airline of Manchukuo.

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Mandarin Chinese

Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.

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Manzhouli (Маньчжу́рия; Манжуур хот) is a sub-prefecture-level city located in Hulunbuir prefecture-level city, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China (PRC).

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Mao suit

The Yat-Sen Suit, also called the Mao suit, Chinese tunic suit or Zhongshan suit, is a style of Chinese menswear associated in China with Sun Yat-sen (better known to mainland Chinese as "Sun Zhongshan"), although it is more commonly associated in the West with Mao Zedong.

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Mao Zedong

Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.

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Marco Polo Bridge Incident

The Marco Polo Bridge Incident, also known by several other names, was a battle between the Republic of China's National Revolutionary Army and the Imperial Japanese Army.

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Mark Peattie

Mark R. Peattie (Nice, France, May 3, 1930 – San Rafael, California, January 22, 2014) was an American academic and Japanologist.

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Masahiko Amakasu

was an officer in the Imperial Japanese Army imprisoned for his involvement in the Amakasu Incident, the extrajudicial execution of anarchists after the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake, who later became head of the Manchukuo Film Association.

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Masaki Kobayashi

was a Japanese film director, best known for the epic trilogy The Human Condition (1959–1961), the samurai film Seppuku (1962), and Ghost Stories (1964).

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Mass grave

A mass grave is a grave containing multiple human corpses, which may or may not be identified prior to burial.

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Mengjiang (Mengkiang;; Hepburn: Mōkyō), also known in English as Mongol Border Land or the Mongol United Autonomous Government, was an autonomous area in Inner Mongolia, existing initially as a puppet state of the Empire of Japan before being under nominal Chinese sovereignty of the Nanjing Nationalist Government from 1940 (which itself was a puppet state).

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Ming dynasty

The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.

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Mining accident

A mining accident is an accident that occurs during the process of mining minerals.

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Mitsubishi Ki-57

The Mitsubishi Ki-57 was a Japanese passenger transport aircraft, developed from the Ki-21 bomber, during the early 1940s.

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Mongolian language

The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.

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Mongolian People's Army

The Mongolian People's Army (Mongolian: Монголын Ардын Арми or Монгол Ардын Хувьсгалт Цэрэг) or Mongolian People's Revolutionary Army was an institution of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party constituting as the armed forces of the Mongolian People's Republic.

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Mongolian People's Republic

The Mongolian People's Republic (Бүгд Найрамдах Монгол Ард Улс (БНМАУ), Bügd Nairamdakh Mongol Ard Uls (BNMAU)), commonly known as Outer Mongolia, was a unitary sovereign socialist state which existed between 1924 and 1992, coterminous with the present-day country of Mongolia in East Asia.

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The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

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Mukden Incident

The Mukden Incident, or Manchurian Incident, was a staged event engineered by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the Japanese invasion in 1931 of northeastern China, known as Manchuria.

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Museum of the Imperial Palace of Manchukuo

The Museum of the Imperial Palace of Manchukuo is a museum in the northeastern corner of Changchun, Jilin province, northeast China.

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Nakajima Army Type 91 Fighter

The Nakajima Army Type 91 Fighter was a Japanese fighter of the 1930s.

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Nakajima Ki-27

The was the main fighter aircraft used by the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force up until 1940.

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Nakajima Ki-43

The Nakajima Ki-43 Hayabusa (隼, "Peregrine Falcon", "Army Type 1 Fighter" (一式戦闘機)) was a single-engine land-based tactical fighter used by the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force in World War II.

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Nanai people

The Nanai people are a Tungusic people of the Far East, who have traditionally lived along Heilongjiang (Amur), Songhuajiang (Sunggari) and Ussuri rivers on the Middle Amur Basin.

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National Anthem of Manchukuo

The National Anthem of Manchukuo was one of the many national symbols of independence and sovereignty created to foster a sense of legitimacy for Manchukuo in both an effort to secure international diplomatic recognition and to foster a sense of nationalism among its inhabitants.

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National Revolutionary Army

The National Revolutionary Army (NRA), sometimes shortened to Revolutionary Army (革命軍) before 1928, and as National Army (國軍) after 1928, was the military arm of the Kuomintang (KMT, or the Chinese Nationalist Party) from 1925 until 1947 in the Republic of China.

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Nationalist government

The Nationalist government, officially the National Government of the Republic of China, refers to the government of the Republic of China between 1 July 1925 to 20 May 1948, led by the Kuomintang (KMT, Chinese Nationalist Party).

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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Nieuport-Delage NiD 29

The Nieuport-Delage NiD.29 was a French single-seat biplane fighter (C.I category) designed and built by Nieuport-Delage for the French Air Force.

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Nobusuke Kishi

was a Japanese politician and the 56th and 57th Prime Minister of Japan from 25 February 1957 to 12 June 1958, and from then to 19 July 1960.

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Nomonhan is a small village in Mongolia, near the border between Mongolia and Inner Mongolia, China, south of the city of Manzhouli.

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Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army

The Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army was the main anti-Japanese guerrilla army in the northeast part (Manchuria) of China after the occupation of Manchuria by Japan in 1931.

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Northeast China

Northeast China or Dongbei is a geographical region of China.

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One-party state

A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.

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Oroqen people

The Oroqen people (Mongolian:; also spelt Orochen or Orochon) are an ethnic group in northern China.

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Osaka University

, or, is a national university located in Osaka, Japan.

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Outer Manchuria

Outer Manchuria or Outer Northeast China (Chinese: 外满洲 (Wài Mǎnzhōu) or 外东北 (Wài Dōngběi); Russian: Приаму́рье or Priamurye) is an unofficial term for a territory in Northeast Asia that was formerly part of the Chinese Qing dynasty and now belongs to Russia.

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Pacification of Manchukuo

The Pacification of Manchukuo was a Japanese anti-insurgency campaign during the Second Sino-Japanese War to suppress any armed resistance to the newly established puppet state of Manchukuo from various anti-Japanese volunteer armies in occupied Manchuria and later the Communist Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army.

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People's Liberation Army

The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Communist Party of China (CPC).

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Personalism is a philosophical school of thought searching to describe the uniqueness of 1) God as Supreme Person or 2) a human person in the world of nature, specifically in relation to animals. One of the main points of interest of personalism is human subjectivity or self-consciousness, experienced in a person's own acts and inner happenings—in "everything in the human being that is internal, whereby each human being is an eyewitness of its own self". Other principles.

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Peter Fleming (writer)

Lieutenant Colonel Robert Peter Fleming (31 May 1907 – 18 August 1971) was a British adventurer, soldier and travel writer.

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Philipp Franz von Siebold

Philipp Franz Balthasar von Siebold (17 February 1796 – 18 October 1866) was a German physician, botanist, and traveler.

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Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.

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Postage stamp

A postage stamp is a small piece of paper that is purchased and displayed on an item of mail as evidence of payment of postage.

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Prefectures of the People's Republic of China

Prefectures, formally a kind of prefecture-level divisions as a term in the context of China, are used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China.

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Prime Minister of Japan

The is the head of government of Japan.

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Privy council

A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically, but not always, in the context of a monarchic government.

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A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.

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Provinces of China

Provincial-level administrative divisions or first-level administrative divisions, are the highest-level Chinese administrative divisions.

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Puppet state

A puppet state is a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power.

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Puyi or Pu Yi (7 February 190617 October 1967), of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, was the last Emperor of China and the twelfth and final ruler of the Qing dynasty.

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Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.

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Qiqihar is the second largest city in the Heilongjiang province of China, located in the west central part of the province.

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Red Army

The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

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A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.

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Reginald Johnston

Sir Reginald Fleming Johnston, KCMG, CBE (13 October 1874–6 March 1938) was a Scottish diplomat who served as the tutor and advisor to Puyi, the last Emperor of China.

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Regnal name

A regnal name, or reign name, is a name used by some monarchs and popes during their reigns, and used subsequently to refer to them.

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Rehe Province

Rehe (ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ), also known as Jehol, is a former Chinese special administrative region and province.

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The Reichswehr (English: Realm Defence) formed the military organisation of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when it was united with the new Wehrmacht (Defence Force).

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A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.

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Republic of China (1912–1949)

The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.

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Resident (title)

A Resident, or in full Resident Minister, is a government official required to take up permanent residence in another country.

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Richard Sorge

Richard Sorge (October 4, 1895 – November 7, 1944) was a Soviet military intelligence officer, active before and during World War II, working as an undercover German journalist in both Nazi Germany and the Empire of Japan.

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Russian Civil War

The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Russian Fascist Party

The Russian Fascist Party (RFP) (Российская фашистская партия), sometimes called the All-Russian Fascist Party, was a minor Russian émigré movement that was based in Manchukuo during the 1930s and 1940s.

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Russian Revolution

The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.

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Russo-Japanese War

The Russo–Japanese War (Russko-yaponskaya voina; Nichirosensō; 1904–05) was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.

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Second Opium War

The Second Opium War (第二次鴉片戰爭), the Second Anglo-Chinese War, the Second China War, the Arrow War, or the Anglo-French expedition to China, was a war pitting the United Kingdom and the French Empire against the Qing dynasty of China, lasting from 1856 to 1860.

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Second Philippine Republic

The Second Philippine Republic, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas; きょうわこく|Firipin kyōwakoku; Spanish: República de Filipinas), or known in the Philippines as Japanese-sponsored Philippine Republic, was a puppet state established on October 14, 1943, during the Japanese occupation.

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Shenyang, formerly known by its Manchu name Mukden or Fengtian, is the provincial capital and the largest city of Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China, as well as the largest city in Northeast China by urban population.

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Shun dynasty

The Shun dynasty, or Great Shun, was a short-lived dynasty created in the Ming-Qing transition from Ming to Qing rule in Chinese history.

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Simon Kaspé

Simon Kaspé (died 1933) was a Jewish resident of Harbin, Manchuria, who was kidnapped, ransomed, tortured and murdered by a gang of fascist Strangers always: a Jewish family in wartime Shanghai' by Rena Krasno.

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Slovak Republic (1939–1945)

The (First) Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), otherwise known as the Slovak State (Slovenský štát), was a client state of Nazi Germany which existed between 14 March 1939 and 4 April 1945.

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Sorghum bicolor

Sorghum bicolor, commonly called sorghum and also known as great millet, durra, jowari, or milo, is a grass species cultivated for its grain, which is used for food for humans, animal feed, and ethanol production.

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South Korea

South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.

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South Manchuria Railway

The South Manchuria Railway (南滿洲鐵道: Japanese Minamimanshū Tetsudō; Chinese Nánmǎnzhōu Tiědào), officially South Manchuria Railway Company (南満洲鐵道株式會社: Minamimanshū Tetsudō Kabushikigaisha; Nánmǎnzhōu Tiědào Zhūshìhuìshè), or 南鐵 Mantetsu for short (Mǎntiě in Chinese), was a large National Policy Company (国策会社) of Japan whose primary function was the operation of railways on the Dalian–Fengtian (Mukden)–Changchun (called Xinjing from 1931 to 1945) corridor in northeastern China, as well as on several branch lines.

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Soviet Army

The Soviet Army (SA; Советская Армия, Sovetskaya Armiya) is the name given to the main land-based branch of the Soviet Armed Forces between February 1946 and December 1991, when it was replaced with the Russian Ground Forces, although it was not taken fully out of service until 25 December 1993.

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Soviet invasion of Manchuria

The Soviet invasion of Manchuria, formally known as the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation (Манчжурская стратегическая наступательная операция, lit. Manchzhurskaya Strategicheskaya Nastupatelnaya Operatsiya) or simply the Manchurian Operation (Маньчжурская операция), began on 9 August 1945 with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Soviet–Japanese border conflicts

The Soviet–Japanese border conflicts (also known as the Soviet-Japanese Border War) was a series of battles and skirmishes between the forces of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Empire of Japan, as well as their respective client states of Mongolia and Manchukuo.

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Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact

The, also known as the, was a pact between the Soviet Union and the Empire of Japan signed on April 13, 1941, two years after the brief Soviet–Japanese Border War.

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State Shinto

describes the Empire of Japan's ideological use of the native folk traditions of Shinto.

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Stimson Doctrine

The Stimson Doctrine is the policy of nonrecognition of states created as a result of aggression.

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Sun Yat-sen

Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)Singtao daily.

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Surrender of Japan

The surrender of Imperial Japan was announced on August 15 and formally signed on September 2, 1945, bringing the hostilities of World War II to a close.

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Tachikawa Ki-55

The Tachikawa Ki-55 was a Japanese advanced trainer.

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Tachikawa Ki-9

The was an intermediate training aircraft of the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force built by Tachikawa Aircraft Company Ltd in the 1930s.

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A tankette is a tracked armoured fighting vehicle that resembles a small tank, roughly the size of a car.

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Tōten Miyazaki

or Torazō Miyazaki (1871–1922) was a Japanese philosopher who aided and supported Sun Yat-sen during the Xinhai Revolution.

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Tōyama Mitsuru

was a nationalist political leader in early 20th century Japan and founder of the Genyosha nationalist secret society.

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is a Japanese term referring to the ideological reversal of numerous Japanese socialists who, between 1925 and 1945, renounced the left and (in many cases) embraced the "national community." Tenkō was performed especially under duress, most often in police custody, and was a condition for release (although surveillance and harassment would continue).

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Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.

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The Good, the Bad, the Weird

The Good, the Bad, the Weird is a 2008 South Korean action western film directed by Kim Jee-woon, starring Song Kang-ho, Lee Byung-hun, and Jung Woo-sung.

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The Human Condition (film series)

is a Japanese epic film trilogy made between 1959 and 1961, based on the six-volume novel published from 1956 to 1958 by Junpei Gomikawa.

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The Japan Times

The Japan Times is Japan's largest and oldest English-language daily newspaper.

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The Last Emperor

The Last Emperor (L'ultimo imperatore) is a 1987 British-Italian epic biographical drama film about the life of Puyi, the last Emperor of China, whose autobiography was the basis for the screenplay written by Mark Peploe and Bernardo Bertolucci.

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The Wind-Up Bird Chronicle

is a novel published in 1994–1995 by Japanese author Haruki Murakami.

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Tientsin Incident (1931)

The Tientsin incident of 1931 was the operation planned by the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan to place Puyi on the throne of the Japanese-controlled Manchuria.

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Tong Linge

Tong Linge (29 October 1892–1937) or Tung Ling-ko of Manchu ethnicity was the Deputy Commander of the Chinese 29th Corps (29th Route Army) in 1937 during the Marco Polo Bridge Incident and Battle of Beiping-Tianjin.

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The Tongmenghui (or T'ung-meng Hui, variously translated Chinese United League, United League, Chinese Revolutionary Alliance, Chinese Alliance, United Allegiance Society) was a secret society and underground resistance movement founded by Sun Yat-sen, Song Jiaoren, and others in Tokyo, Japan, on 20 August 1905.

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Twilight in the Forbidden City

Twilight in the Forbidden City is Reginald Johnston's 486-page memoir of Henry Puyi, who had been the Xuantong Emperor of the Qing dynasty.

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Unit 731

was a covert biological and chemical warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) of World War II.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Department of State

The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.

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University of Hawaii Press

The University of Hawaii Press is a university press that is part of the University of Hawaiokinai.

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Ural Federal University

The Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B. N. Yeltsin (Уральский федеральный университет имени первого Президента России Б.Н. Ельцина, Uralʹskiĭ federalʹnyĭ universitet imeni pervogo Prezidenta Rossii B.N. Yelʹtsina, often shortened to UrFU, УрФУ) (formed by a merger of the Ural State Technical University and Ural State University) is one of the leading educational institutions in the Ural region.

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Variety (magazine)

Variety is a weekly American entertainment trade magazine and website owned by Penske Media Corporation.

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Viceroy of the Three Northeast Provinces

The Viceroy of the Three Northeast Provinces, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of the Three Northeast Provinces and Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Generals of the Three Provinces, Director of Civil Affairs of Fengtian (Manchu: dergi ilan goloi uheri kadalara amban), sometimes referred to as the Viceroy of Manchuria, was a regional viceroy in China during the Qing dynasty.

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Vichy France

Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.

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Vivisection is surgery conducted for experimental purposes on a living organism, typically animals with a central nervous system, to view living internal structure.

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Vladivostok (p, literally ruler of the east) is a city and the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, located around the Golden Horn Bay, not far from Russia's borders with China and North Korea.

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Wade–Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese.

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Wang Jingwei

Wang Jingwei (Wang Ching-wei; 4 May 1883 – 10 November 1944); born as Wang Zhaoming (Wang Chao-ming), but widely known by his pen name "Jingwei", was a Chinese politician.

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Wang Jingwei regime

The Wang Jingwei regime is the common name of the Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China (p), a puppet state of the Empire of Japan, located in eastern China.

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War crime

A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.

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Warlord Era

The Warlord Era (19161928) was a period in the history of the Republic of China when the control of the country was divided among former military cliques of the Beiyang Army and other regional factions, which was spread across in the mainland regions of Sichuan, Shanxi, Qinghai, Ningxia, Guangdong, Guangxi, Gansu, Yunnan, and Xinjiang.

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Western (genre)

The Western is a genre of various arts which tell stories set primarily in the later half of the 19th century in the American Old West, often centering on the life of a nomadic cowboy or gunfighter armed with a revolver and a rifle who rides a horse.

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White émigré

A white émigré was a Russian subject who emigrated from Imperial Russia in the wake of the Russian Revolution and Russian Civil War, and who was in opposition to the contemporary Russian political climate.

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Whitman Publishing

Whitman Publishing is a book publisher that primarily produces coin and stamp collecting books and materials.

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Willow Palisade

Willow Palisade (ᠪᡳᡵᡝᡤᡝᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᡝ|v.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Xing'an Province

Hsingan (or Xing'an) refers to a former province, which once occupied western Heilongjiang and part of northwest Jilin provinces of China.

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Yalta Conference

The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code named the Argonaut Conference, held from 4 to 11 February 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization.

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Yingkou is a prefecture-level city of Liaoning province, People's Republic of China.

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Yoshiko Yamaguchi

(12 February 1920 – 7 September 2014) was a Chinese-born Japanese actress and singer who made a career in China, Japan, Hong Kong, and the United States.

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is a Japanese term referring to industrial and financial business conglomerates in the Empire of Japan, whose influence and size allowed control over significant parts of the Japanese economy from the Meiji period until the end of World War II.

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Zhang Jinghui

Zhang Jinghui (Chang Ching-hui;; Hepburn: Chō Keikei); (1871 – 1 November 1959) was a Chinese general and politician during the Warlord era.

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Zhang Xueliang

Zhang Xueliang or Chang Hsueh-liang or Chang Hsiao-liang (3 June 1901 – 15 October 2001), occasionally called Peter Hsueh Liang Chang and nicknamed the "Young Marshal" (少帥), was the effective ruler of northeast China and much of northern China after the assassination of his father, Zhang Zuolin, by the Japanese on 4 June 1928.

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Zhang Zuolin

Zhang Zuolin (19 March 1875Xiao, Lin, and Li 1184 June 1928) was the warlord of Manchuria from 1916–28, during the Warlord Era in China.

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Zheng Xiaoxu

Zheng Xiaoxu (Cheng Hsiao-hsu;; Hepburn: Tei Kōsho) (2 April 1860 – 28 March 1938) was a Chinese statesman, diplomat and calligrapher.

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1932 Summer Olympics

The 1932 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the X Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was held from July 30 to August 14, 1932, in Los Angeles, California, United States.

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2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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Chief Executive of Manchukuo, Dai Manshū Teikoku, Emperor of Manchukuo, Empire of Great Manchuria, Empire of Greater Manchuria, Empire of Manchuria, Great Empire of Manchuria, Great Manchu Empire, Great Manchuria, Greater Empire of Manchuria, Greater Manchuria, Heads of State of Manchukuo, Imperial Japanese colonialism in Manchukuo, Japanese colonialism in Manchukuo, List of heads of state of Manchukuo, Mamchukuo, Manchoukuo, Manchu State, Manchuguo, Manchukoku, Manchukou, Manchukuo Empire, Manchukuo as Imperial Japanese Army political project, Manchukuo regime, Manchurian independence, Manchurian puppet government, Manchutikuo, Manjuguk, Manjukuo, Manshū Teikoku, Manshū-koku, Manzhouguo, Manzhouguó, Military of Manchukuo, Mǎnzhōuguó, Observations in depth of Army creation of Manchu political project, 大満州帝国, 大满洲帝国, 大滿洲帝國, 満州国, 満州帝国, 满洲国, 满洲帝国, 滿洲國, 滿洲帝國.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchukuo

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