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Index Manchuria

Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia. [1]

173 relations: Ainu people, Alexander Vovin, Amur River, Attack on Pearl Harbor, Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island, British Empire, Buddhism, Buyeo, Cao Wei, Carboniferous, Changbai Mountains, Changchun, Chengde, Chifeng, Chinese Civil War, Chinese Eastern Railway, Chinese Tartary, Christopher I. Beckwith, Chuang Guandong, Communist Party of China, Conrad Malte-Brun, Convention of Peking, Daoguang Emperor, Declaration of war, Donghu people, Dust, Eastern Orthodox Church, Edme Mentelle, Empire of Japan, Eurasia, Gavan McCormack, Gelisol, Glacial period, Glacier, Gobi Desert, Goguryeo, Gojoseon, Great Wall of China, Greater Khingan, Guandong, Guangdong, Han Chinese, Han dynasty, Harbin, Harbin Russians, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Herbert Giles, Himalayas, Hinggan League, ..., Hiroshima, Hong Taiji, Huanggutun incident, Hulunbuir, Ice sheet, Inner Mongolia, James Marshall Unger, Japanese invasion of Manchuria, Jeju Island, Jesuit China missions, Jianzhou Jurchens, Jilin, Jin dynasty (1115–1234), Jin dynasty (265–420), Jin–Song Wars, Jinzhou, Juha Janhunen, Jurchen people, Khitan people, Korean Peninsula, Koreanic languages, Kunlun Mountains, Kuomintang, Kwantung Leased Territory, Liao dynasty, Liaodong Peninsula, Liaoning, Liaoshen Campaign, Loess, Manchu language, Manchu people, Manchukuo, Manchuria under Ming rule, Manchuria under Qing rule, Manchuria under Yuan rule, Military colours, standards and guidons, Ming campaign against the Uriankhai, Ming dynasty, Mohe people, Mollisol, Monsoon, Mukden Incident, Naghachu, Nanai people, Ning'an, North China, North China Craton, Northern Yuan dynasty, Nuclear weapon, Nurgan Regional Military Commission, Nurhaci, Old Korean, Orthent, Outer Manchuria, Pangaea, Parlance, Permafrost, Precambrian, Primorsky Krai, Provinces of China, Puppet state, Puyi, Qianlong Emperor, Qing dynasty, Qinhuangdao, Quaternary, Religion in Northeast China, Republic of China (1912–1949), Russian conquest of Siberia, Russian Revolution, Russo-Japanese War, Sakhalin, Sea of Japan, Shandong Peninsula, Shanhai Pass, Shun dynasty, Siberia, Siberia (continent), Siberian High, Sino-Soviet border conflict, Song dynasty, South Manchuria Railway, Soviet invasion of Manchuria, Soviet Union, Staging area, Stanovoy Range, Supercontinent, Sushen, Taklamakan Desert, Tang dynasty, Tartary, Tian Shan, Tieling, Till, Tongliao, Treaty of Aigun, Treaty of Nerchinsk, Triassic, Tungusic languages, Tungusic peoples, Udege people, Ulch people, Ulchsky District, Unequal treaty, University of Hawaii Press, Ussuri krai, Ussuri River, Vassili Poyarkov, Viceroy of the Three Northeast Provinces, Vladivostok, Warlord, Willow Palisade, World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, World Scientific, World War I, Wu Sangui, Wuhuan, Xianbei, Xinhai Revolution, Yerofey Khabarov, Yongle Emperor, Yuan dynasty, Zhang Zuolin. Expand index (123 more) »

Ainu people

The Ainu or the Aynu (Ainu アィヌ ''Aynu''; Japanese: アイヌ Ainu; Russian: Айны Ajny), in the historical Japanese texts the Ezo (蝦夷), are an indigenous people of Japan (Hokkaido, and formerly northeastern Honshu) and Russia (Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, and formerly the Kamchatka Peninsula).

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Alexander Vovin

Alexander Vladimirovich Vovin (Александр Владимирович Вовин, born 1961 in Saint Petersburg, Russia) is a Russian-American linguist and philologist, currently directeur d'études at the School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences (École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS)) in Paris, France.

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Amur River

The Amur River (Even: Тамур, Tamur; река́ Аму́р) or Heilong Jiang ("Black Dragon River";, "Black Water") is the world's tenth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China (Inner Manchuria).

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Attack on Pearl Harbor

The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, on the morning of December 7, 1941.

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Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island

Bolshoi Ussuriysky Island (о́стров Большо́й Уссури́йский), or Heixiazi Island (lit. "black bear island"), is a sedimentary island at the confluence of the Ussuri and Amur rivers.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Buyeo, or Puyŏ (Korean: 부여; Hanja: 夫餘 Korean pronunciation: pu.jʌ), was an ancient kingdom centred around the middle of Jilin province in Manchuria and existing as an independent polity from before the late 2nd century BC to the mid-4th century AD.

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Cao Wei

Wei (220–266), also known as Cao Wei, was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280).

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The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya.

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Changbai Mountains

The Changbai Mountains are a major mountain range in Northeast Asia.

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Changchun is the capital and largest city of Jilin Province, and is also the core city of Northeast Asia.

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Chengde, previously known as Jehol or Rehe, is a prefecture-level city in Hebei province, situated northeast of Beijing.

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Chifeng, also known as Ulankhad (style (Улаанхад хот) Ulaɣanqada qota, "red cliff"), is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China.

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Chinese Civil War

The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).

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Chinese Eastern Railway

The Chinese Eastern Railway or CER,, Dōngqīng Tiělù; Китайско-Восточная железная дорога or КВЖД, Kitaysko-Vostochnaya Zheleznaya Doroga or KVZhD), also known as the Chinese Far East Railway and North Manchuria Railway, is the historical name for a railway across Manchuria (northeastern China).

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Chinese Tartary

Chinese Tartary (see also Tartary) is an archaic geographical term used especially during the time of the Qing Dynasty.

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Christopher I. Beckwith

Christopher I. Beckwith (born 1945) is a professor in the Department of Central Eurasian Studies at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana.

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Chuang Guandong

Chuang Guandong (IPA:; literally "Crashing into Guandong" with Guandong being an older name for Manchuria) is descriptive of the rush into Manchuria of the Han Chinese population, especially from the Shandong Peninsula and Zhili, during the hundred-year period starting at the last half of the 19th century.

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Communist Party of China

The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.

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Conrad Malte-Brun

Conrad Malte-Brun (12 August 177514 December 1826), born Malthe Conrad Bruun, and sometimes referred to simply as Malte-Brun, was a Dano-French geographer and journalist.

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Convention of Peking

The Convention or First Convention of Peking, sometimes now known as the Convention of Beijing, is an agreement comprising three distinct treaties concluded between the Qing dynasty of China and the United Kingdom, French Empire, and Russian Empire in 1860.

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Daoguang Emperor

The Daoguang Emperor (16 September 1782 – 25 February 1850) was the eighth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the sixth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1820 to 1850.

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Declaration of war

A declaration of war is a formal act by which one state goes to war against another.

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Donghu people

Donghu (IPA:; literally: "Eastern foreigners" or "Eastern barbarians") was a confederation of nomadic people that was first recorded from the 7th century BCE and was destroyed by the Xiongnu in 150 BCE.

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Dust are fine particles of matter.

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.

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Edme Mentelle

Edme Mentelle (11 October 1730 - 28 April 1816) was a French geographer.

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Empire of Japan

The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.

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Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.

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Gavan McCormack

Gavan McCormack is a researcher specializing in East Asia who is Emeritus Professor and Visiting Fellow, Division of Pacific and Asian History of the Australian National University.

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Gelisols are an order in USDA soil taxonomy.

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Glacial period

A glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances.

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A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.

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Gobi Desert

The Gobi Desert is a large desert region in Asia.

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Goguryeo (37 BCE–668 CE), also called Goryeo was a Korean kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula and the southern and central parts of Manchuria.

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Gojoseon, originally named Joseon, was an ancient Korean kingdom.

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Great Wall of China

The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe with an eye to expansion.

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Greater Khingan

The Greater Khingan Range (IPA:; Их Хянганы нуруу, Ih Hyangani’ nurū; Manchu: Amba Hinggan), is a volcanic mountain range in northeast China.

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Guandong may refer to.

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Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.

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Han Chinese

The Han Chinese,.

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Han dynasty

The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.

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Harbin is the capital of Heilongjiang province, and largest city in the northeastern region of the People's Republic of China.

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Harbin Russians

The term Harbin Russians or Russian Harbinites refers to several generations of Russians who lived in the city of Harbin, in Manchuria from approximately 1898 to the mid-1960s.

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Hebei (postal: Hopeh) is a province of China in the North China region.

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Heilongjiang (Wade-Giles: Heilungkiang) is a province of the People's Republic of China.

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Herbert Giles

Herbert Allen Giles (8 December 184513 February 1935) was a British diplomat and sinologist who was the professor of Chinese at Cambridge University for 35 years.

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The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.

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Hinggan League

The Hinggan League (p; ᠬᠢᠩᠭ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠠᠢᠮᠠᠭ, tr. Hinggan Aimag) is a prefecture-level subdivision of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China.

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is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshu - the largest island of Japan.

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Hong Taiji

Hong Taiji (28November 159221 September1643), sometimes written as Huang Taiji and also referred to as Abahai in Western literature, was an Emperor of the Qing dynasty.

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Huanggutun incident

The Huanggutun Incident, or, was an assassination plotted and committed on June 4, 1928, by the Japanese Kwantung Army that targeted Fengtian warlord Zhang Zuolin.

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Hulunbuir or Hulun Buir (style, Kölün buyir, Cyrillic: Хөлөнбуйр, Khölönbuir;, Hūlúnbèi'ěr) is a region that is governed as a prefecture-level city in northeastern Inner Mongolia, in China.

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Ice sheet

An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than, this is also known as continental glacier.

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Inner Mongolia

Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (Ѳвѳр Монголын Ѳѳртѳѳ Засах Орон in Mongolian Cyrillic), is one of the autonomous regions of China, located in the north of the country.

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James Marshall Unger

James Marshall Unger, (born May 28, 1947 in Cleveland, Ohio), is emeritus professor of Japanese at the Ohio State University.

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Japanese invasion of Manchuria

The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on 18 September 1931, when the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan invaded Manchuria immediately following the Mukden Incident.

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Jeju Island

Jeju Island (Hangul: 제주도, Jejudo; previously Cheju-do) is the largest island off the coast of the Korean Peninsula, and the main island of Jeju Province of South Korea.

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Jesuit China missions

The history of the missions of the Jesuits in China is part of the history of relations between China and the Western world.

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Jianzhou Jurchens

The Jianzhou Jurchens (Chinese: 建州女真) were one of the three major groups of Jurchens as identified by the Ming dynasty.

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Jilin, formerly romanized as Kirin is one of the three provinces of Northeast China.

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Jin dynasty (1115–1234)

The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin, lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China.

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Jin dynasty (265–420)

The Jin dynasty or the Jin Empire (sometimes distinguished as the or) was a Chinese dynasty traditionally dated from 266 to 420.

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Jin–Song Wars

Map showing the Song-Jurchen Jin wars The Jin–Song Wars were a series of conflicts between the Jurchen Jin dynasty (1115–1234) and Han Chinese Song dynasty (960–1279).

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Jinzhou is a prefecture-level city of Liaoning province, People's Republic of China.

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Juha Janhunen

Juha Janhunen (born 12 February 1952 in Pori) is a Finnish linguist whose wide interests include Uralic and Mongolic languages.

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Jurchen people

The Jurchen (Manchu: Jušen; 女真, Nǚzhēn), also known by many variant names, were a Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until around 1630, at which point they were reformed and combined with their neighbors as the Manchu.

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Khitan people

The Khitan people were a nomadic people from Northeast Asia who, from the 4th century, inhabited an area corresponding to parts of modern Mongolia, Northeast China and the Russian Far East.

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Korean Peninsula

The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula of Eurasia located in East Asia.

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Koreanic languages

The Koreanic languages are a language family consisting of the modern Korean language together with extinct ancient relatives closer to it than to any other proposed links.

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Kunlun Mountains

The Kunlun Mountains (Хөндлөн Уулс, Khöndlön Uuls) are one of the longest mountain chains in Asia, extending more than.

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The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.

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Kwantung Leased Territory

The Kwantung Leased Territory was a Russian-leased territory (1898–1905), then a Japanese-leased territory (1905–1945) in the southern part of the Liaodong Peninsula (遼東半島) in the Republic of China that existed from 1898 to 1945.

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Liao dynasty

The Liao dynasty (Khitan: Mos Jælud), also known as the Liao Empire, officially the Great Liao, or the Khitan (Qidan) State (Khitan: Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur), was an empire in East Asia that ruled from 907 to 1125 over present-day Mongolia and portions of the Russian Far East, northern China, and northeastern Korea.

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Liaodong Peninsula

The Liaodong Peninsula is a peninsula in Liaoning Province of Northeast China, historically known in the West as Southeastern Manchuria.

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Liaoning is a province of China, located in the northeast of the country.

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Liaoshen Campaign

The Liaoshen Campaign, abbreviation of Liaoning-Shenyang Campaign, was the first of the three major campaigns (along with Huaihai Campaign and Pingjin Campaign) launched by the Communist People's Liberation Army (PLA) against the Nationalist Kuomintang government during the late stage of the Chinese Civil War.

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Loess (from German Löss) is a clastic, predominantly silt-sized sediment that is formed by the accumulation of wind-blown dust.

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Manchu language

Manchu (Manchu: manju gisun) is a critically endangered Tungusic language spoken in Manchuria; it was the native language of the Manchus and one of the official languages of the Qing dynasty (1636–1911) of China.

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Manchu people

The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.

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Manchukuo was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945.

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Manchuria under Ming rule

Manchuria under Ming rule refers to the domination of the Ming dynasty over Manchuria, including today's Northeast China and Outer Manchuria.

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Manchuria under Qing rule

Manchuria under Qing rule was the rule of the Qing dynasty over Manchuria, including today's Northeast China and Outer Manchuria.

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Manchuria under Yuan rule

Manchuria under Yuan rule refers to the Yuan dynasty's rule over Manchuria, including modern Northeast China and Outer Manchuria from the beginning to the end of the dynasty.

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Military colours, standards and guidons

In military organizations, the practice of carrying colours, standards or guidons, both to act as a rallying point for troops and to mark the location of the commander, is thought to have originated in Ancient Egypt some 5,000 years ago.

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Ming campaign against the Uriankhai

The Ming campaign against the Uriankhai of 1387 was an offensive military expedition campaign of Ming China's army led by General Feng Sheng against the Uriankhai horde of the Mongol chieftain Naghachu in Manchuria.

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Ming dynasty

The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.

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Mohe people

The Mohe, Malgal, or Mogher were a Tungusic people who lived primarily in modern Northeast Asia.

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Mollisols are a soil order in USDA soil taxonomy.

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Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.

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Mukden Incident

The Mukden Incident, or Manchurian Incident, was a staged event engineered by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the Japanese invasion in 1931 of northeastern China, known as Manchuria.

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Naghachu (script, d. 1388), also written as Nahacu, was a Uriankhai leader and general of the Northern Yuan dynasty in Manchuria, which was under Liaoyang province of the former Yuan dynasty.

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Nanai people

The Nanai people are a Tungusic people of the Far East, who have traditionally lived along Heilongjiang (Amur), Songhuajiang (Sunggari) and Ussuri rivers on the Middle Amur Basin.

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Ning'an (Chinese: 宁安; Pinyin: Níng'ān) is a city located approximately 20 km southwest of Mudanjiang, in Heilongjiang province of China.

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North China

North China (literally "China's north") is a geographical region of China, lying North of the Qinling Huaihe Line.

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North China Craton

The North China Craton is a continental crustal block with one of Earth's most complete and complex record of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic processes.

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Northern Yuan dynasty

The Northern Yuan dynasty, was a Mongol régime based in the Mongolian homeland.

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Nuclear weapon

A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).

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Nurgan Regional Military Commission

The Nurgan Regional Military Commission was a Chinese administrative seat established in Manchuria during the Ming dynasty, located on the banks of the Amur River, about 100 km from the sea, at modern Tyr, Russia.

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Nurhaci (alternatively Nurhachi; 21 February 1559 – 30 September 1626) was a Jurchen chieftain of Jianzhou, a vassal of Ming, who rose to prominence in the late 16th century in Manchuria.

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Old Korean

Old Korean is the historical variety of the Korean language or Koreanic languages dating from the beginning of Three Kingdoms of Korea to the latter part of Later Silla, roughly from the fourth to tenth centuries CE.

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In USDA soil taxonomy, orthents are defined as entisols that lack horizon development due to either steep slopes or parent materials that contain no permanent weatherable minerals (such as ironstone).

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Outer Manchuria

Outer Manchuria or Outer Northeast China (Chinese: 外满洲 (Wài Mǎnzhōu) or 外东北 (Wài Dōngběi); Russian: Приаму́рье or Priamurye) is an unofficial term for a territory in Northeast Asia that was formerly part of the Chinese Qing dynasty and now belongs to Russia.

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Pangaea or Pangea was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras.

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No description.

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In geology, permafrost is ground, including rock or (cryotic) soil, at or below the freezing point of water for two or more years.

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The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic Eon.

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Primorsky Krai

Primorsky Krai (p; 프리모르스키 지방) is a federal subject (a krai) of Russia, located in the Far East region of the country and is a part of the Far Eastern Federal District.

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Provinces of China

Provincial-level administrative divisions or first-level administrative divisions, are the highest-level Chinese administrative divisions.

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Puppet state

A puppet state is a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power.

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Puyi or Pu Yi (7 February 190617 October 1967), of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, was the last Emperor of China and the twelfth and final ruler of the Qing dynasty.

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Qianlong Emperor

The Qianlong Emperor (25 September 1711 – 7 February 1799) was the sixth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper.

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Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.

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Qinhuangdao (秦皇岛) is a port city on the coast of China in northeastern Hebei province.

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Quaternary is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS).

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Religion in Northeast China

The predominant religions in Northeast China (including the provinces of Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang, historically also known as Manchuria) are Chinese folk religions led by local shamans.

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Republic of China (1912–1949)

The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.

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Russian conquest of Siberia

The Russian conquest of Siberia took place in the 16th and 17th centuries, when the Khanate of Sibir had become a loose political structure of vassalages that were being undermined by the activities of Russian explorers.

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Russian Revolution

The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.

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Russo-Japanese War

The Russo–Japanese War (Russko-yaponskaya voina; Nichirosensō; 1904–05) was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.

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Sakhalin (Сахалин), previously also known as Kuye Dao (Traditional Chinese:庫頁島, Simplified Chinese:库页岛) in Chinese and in Japanese, is a large Russian island in the North Pacific Ocean, lying between 45°50' and 54°24' N.

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Sea of Japan

The Sea of Japan (see below for other names) is a marginal sea between the Japanese archipelago, Sakhalin, the Korean Peninsula and Russia.

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Shandong Peninsula

The Shandong Peninsula is a peninsula in Shandong province in eastern China, between the Bohai Sea to the north and the Yellow Sea to the south.

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Shanhai Pass

Shanhai Pass is one of the major passes in the Great Wall of China.

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Shun dynasty

The Shun dynasty, or Great Shun, was a short-lived dynasty created in the Ming-Qing transition from Ming to Qing rule in Chinese history.

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Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.

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Siberia (continent)

Siberia, also known as Angaraland (or simply Angara) and Angarida, is an ancient craton located in the heart of Siberia.

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Siberian High

The Siberian High (also Siberian Anticyclone) is a massive collection of cold dry air that accumulates in the northeastern part of Eurasia from September until April.

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Sino-Soviet border conflict

The Sino-Soviet border conflict was a seven-month undeclared military conflict between the Soviet Union and China at the height of the Sino-Soviet split in 1969.

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Song dynasty

The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.

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South Manchuria Railway

The South Manchuria Railway (南滿洲鐵道: Japanese Minamimanshū Tetsudō; Chinese Nánmǎnzhōu Tiědào), officially South Manchuria Railway Company (南満洲鐵道株式會社: Minamimanshū Tetsudō Kabushikigaisha; Nánmǎnzhōu Tiědào Zhūshìhuìshè), or 南鐵 Mantetsu for short (Mǎntiě in Chinese), was a large National Policy Company (国策会社) of Japan whose primary function was the operation of railways on the Dalian–Fengtian (Mukden)–Changchun (called Xinjing from 1931 to 1945) corridor in northeastern China, as well as on several branch lines.

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Soviet invasion of Manchuria

The Soviet invasion of Manchuria, formally known as the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation (Манчжурская стратегическая наступательная операция, lit. Manchzhurskaya Strategicheskaya Nastupatelnaya Operatsiya) or simply the Manchurian Operation (Маньчжурская операция), began on 9 August 1945 with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Staging area

A staging area (otherwise staging point, staging base or staging post) is a location where organisms, people, vehicles, equipment or material are assembled before use.

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Stanovoy Range

The Stanovoy Range (Станово́й хребе́т, Stanovoy khrebet), also known as Sükebayatur and Sükhbaatar in Mongolian, or Outer Khingan Range is a mountain range located in southeastern parts of the Russian Far East.

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In geology, a supercontinent is the assembly of most or all of Earth's continental blocks or cratons to form a single large landmass.

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Sushen is the modern Chinese name for an ancient ethnic group of people who lived in the northeastern part of China (in the area of modern Jilin and Heilongjiang) and what is in modern times the Russian Maritime Province and some other Siberian provinces.

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Taklamakan Desert

The Taklamakan Desert (Xiao'erjing: تَاكْلامَاقًا شَاموْ; تەكلىماكان قۇملۇقى; Такәламаган Шамә), also spelled "Taklimakan" and "Teklimakan", is a desert in southwest Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwest China.

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Tang dynasty

The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

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Tartary (Latin: Tartaria) or Great Tartary (Latin: Tartaria Magna) was a name used from the Middle Ages until the twentieth century to designate the great tract of northern and central Asia stretching from the Caspian Sea and the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, settled mostly by Turko-Mongol peoples after the Mongol invasion and the subsequent Turkic migrations.

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Tian Shan

The Tian Shan,, also known as the Tengri Tagh, meaning the Mountains of Heaven or the Heavenly Mountain, is a large system of mountain ranges located in Central Asia.

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Tieling is one of 14 prefecture-level citys in Liaoning province of the People's Republic of China.Tieling is a city where coal mining is an important industry.

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Closeup of glacial till. Note that the larger grains (pebbles and gravel) in the till are completely surrounded by the matrix of finer material (silt and sand), and this characteristic, known as ''matrix support'', is diagnostic of till. Glacial till with tufts of grass Till or glacial till is unsorted glacial sediment.

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Tongliao (style Tüŋliyou qota, Тонляо хот) is a prefecture-level city in eastern Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China.

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Treaty of Aigun

The Treaty of Aigun (Russian: Айгунский договор) was an 1858 unequal treaty between the Russian Empire, and the empire of the Qing Dynasty, the Manchu rulers of China, that established much of the modern border between the Russian Far East and Manchuria (the original homeland of the Manchu people and the Qing Dynasty), which is now known as Northeast China.

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Treaty of Nerchinsk

The Treaty of Nerchinsk of 1689 (Нерчинский договор, Nerčinskij dogovor; Manchu:,Möllendorff: nibcoo-i bade bithe;, Xiao'erjing: نِبُچُ تِيَوْيُؤ) was the first treaty between Russia and China.

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The Triassic is a geologic period and system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period Mya.

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Tungusic languages

The Tungusic languages (also known as Manchu-Tungus, Tungus) form a language family spoken in Eastern Siberia and northeast China by Tungusic peoples.

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Tungusic peoples

Tungusic peoples are the peoples who speak Tungusic languages.

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Udege people

Udege (Удэгейцы in Russian; ethnonym: удээ and удэхе, or Udihe, Udekhe, and Udeghe correspondingly) are a people who live in the Primorsky Krai and Khabarovsk Krai regions in Russia, the native population of this region.

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Ulch people

The Ulch (ульчи, obsoletehttp://bse.sci-lib.com/article084324.html --> ольчи; self designation: нани, nani) are an indigenous paleo-asian people of the Russian Far East who now speak a Tungusic language, Ulch.

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Ulchsky District

Ulchsky District (У́льчский райо́н) is an administrativeResolution #143-pr and municipalLaw #194 district (raion), one of the seventeen in Khabarovsk Krai, Russia.

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Unequal treaty

Unequal treaty is the name given by the Chinese to a series of treaties signed with Western powers during the 19th and early 20th centuries by Qing dynasty China after suffering military defeat by the West or when there was a threat of military action by those powers.

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University of Hawaii Press

The University of Hawaii Press is a university press that is part of the University of Hawaiokinai.

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Ussuri krai

Ussuri krai is an unofficial name for a part of Primorsky Krai and Khabarovsky Krai that consisted of the Ussuri and South-Ussuri Okrugs.

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Ussuri River

The Ussuri River or Wusuli River (река Уссури), runs through Khabarovsk and Primorsky Krais, Russia, and the southeast region of Northeast China.

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Vassili Poyarkov

Vassili Danilovich Poyarkov (Василий Данилович Поярков in Russian, ? - after 1668) was the first Russian explorer of the Amur region.

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Viceroy of the Three Northeast Provinces

The Viceroy of the Three Northeast Provinces, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of the Three Northeast Provinces and Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Generals of the Three Provinces, Director of Civil Affairs of Fengtian (Manchu: dergi ilan goloi uheri kadalara amban), sometimes referred to as the Viceroy of Manchuria, was a regional viceroy in China during the Qing dynasty.

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Vladivostok (p, literally ruler of the east) is a city and the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, located around the Golden Horn Bay, not far from Russia's borders with China and North Korea.

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A warlord is a leader able to exercise military, economic, and political control over a subnational territory within a sovereign state due to their ability to mobilize loyal armed forces.

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Willow Palisade

Willow Palisade (ᠪᡳᡵᡝᡤᡝᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᡝ|v.

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World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions

The World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions (WGSRPD) is a biogeographical system developed by the international Biodiversity Information Standards (TDWG) organization, formerly the International Working Group on Taxonomic Databases.

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World Scientific

World Scientific Publishing is an academic publisher of scientific, technical, and medical books and journals headquartered in Singapore.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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Wu Sangui

Wu Sangui (courtesy name Changbai (長白) or Changbo (長伯); 1612 – 2 October 1678) was a Chinese military general who was instrumental in the fall of the Ming Dynasty and the establishment of the Qing Dynasty in 1644.

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The Wuhuan (Old Chinese: ʔˤa ɢʷˁar, Mongol romanization:Uhuan) were a Proto-Mongolic nomadic people who inhabited northern China, in what is now the provinces of Hebei, Liaoning, Shanxi, the municipality of Beijing and the autonomous region of Inner Mongolia.

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The Xianbei were proto-Mongols residing in what became today's eastern Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Northeast China.

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Xinhai Revolution

The Xinhai Revolution, also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Revolution of 1911, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty (the Qing dynasty) and established the Republic of China (ROC).

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Yerofey Khabarov

Yerofey Pavlovich Khabarov or Svyatitsky (Ерофей Павлович Хабаров (Святицкий), Yerofej Pavlovič Habarov (Svjatickij); the first name is often spelled Ярофей (Yarofei) in contemporary accounts; 1603 – after 1671), was a Russian entrepreneur and adventurer, best known for his exploring the Amur river region and his attempts to colonize the area for Russia.

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Yongle Emperor

The Yongle Emperor (Yung-lo in Wade–Giles; 2 May 1360 – 12 August 1424) — personal name Zhu Di (WG: Chu Ti) — was the third emperor of the Ming dynasty in China, reigning from 1402 to 1424.

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Yuan dynasty

The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.

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Zhang Zuolin

Zhang Zuolin (19 March 1875Xiao, Lin, and Li 1184 June 1928) was the warlord of Manchuria from 1916–28, during the Warlord Era in China.

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Redirects here:

Machuria, Manchouria, Manchuria (China), Manchuria (region), Manchuria, China, Mandchouria, Mandchuria, Mandsjuria, Mantchouri, Manzhou, 满洲, 關東.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchuria

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