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Mandarin Chinese

Index Mandarin Chinese

Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. [1]

230 relations: 'Phags-pa script, A Dictionary of the Chinese Language, Affix, Affricate consonant, Alessandro Valignano, Alveolo-palatal consonant, Analytic language, Anhui, Apical consonant, Arabic script, Austroasiatic languages, Austronesian languages, Baoding, Baxter's transcription for Middle Chinese, Beijing, Beijing dialect, Beijing Mandarin (division of Mandarin), Bopomofo, Cambridge University Press, Cantonese, Central Plains Mandarin, Checked tone, Chen Duxiu, Chengde, Chengdu, China, Chinese characters, Chinese classics, Chinese dictionary, Chinese emigration, Chinese postal romanization, Chongqing, Classical Chinese, Classifier (linguistics), Consonant voicing and devoicing, Continuous and progressive aspects, Cyrillic script, Dalian, Diglossia, Diphthong, Ditransitive verb, Dongfang, Hainan, Dream of the Red Chamber, Dungan language, Folk etymology, Four tones (Middle Chinese), Fricative consonant, Fujian, Gan Chinese, Gansu, ..., Glottal stop, Grammar, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical case, Grammatical mood, Grammatical number, Grammatical particle, Grammatical person, Grammatical tense, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Gyami, Hainan, Hakka Chinese, Han dynasty, Harbin, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Historical capitals of China, Homophone, Hong Kong, Hu Shih, Huaxia, Hubei, Huizhou (region), Huizhou Chinese, Hunan, Hutong, Iasyr Shivaza, Inflection, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jiaoliao Mandarin, Jilu Mandarin, Jin Chinese, Jin dynasty (1115–1234), Jinan, Jiujiang, Kazakhstan, Koiné language, Kunming, Kyrgyzstan, Labial consonant, Language Atlas of China, Languages of Singapore, Lanyin Mandarin, Lanzhou, Latin script, Li Fang-Kuei, Li Rong (linguist), Liaodong Peninsula, Liaoning, Lingua franca, List of languages by number of native speakers, List of varieties of Chinese, Liuzhou, Lower Yangtze Mandarin, Luoyang, Macau, Mainland China, Mainland Chinese Braille, Malay language, Manchu people, Manchuria, Mandarin (bureaucrat), Mathews' Chinese-English Dictionary, Menggu Ziyun, Middle Chinese, Min Chinese, Ming dynasty, Minjiang dialect, Mutual intelligibility, Nanjing, Nanping, Nantong, Nasal consonant, National language, National Languages Committee, New Culture Movement, New Xiang, Ningxia, North China Plain, Northeastern Mandarin, Official language, Old Chinese, Old Mandarin, Old National Pronunciation, Old Xiang, Palatal approximant, Palatalization (sound change), Peking opera, Perfective aspect, Phoneme, Phonology, Pinghua, Pinyin, Portuguese language, Pragmatics, Pronoun, Pronunciation, Qing dynasty, Qu (poetry), R-colored vowel, Reduplication, Retroflex consonant, Rime dictionary, Rime table, Robert Morrison (missionary), Sanqu, Sanskrit, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shandong Peninsula, Shanghainese, Shanxi, Shenyang, Shijiazhuang, Sichuan, Sichuanese dialects, Simplified Chinese characters, Singapore, Society of Jesus, Sonorant, South China, Southwestern Mandarin, Standard Chinese, Standard Chinese phonology, Stop consonant, Subject–verb–object, Syllabic consonant, Syllable, Tai languages, Taiwan, Taiwanese Braille, Tang dynasty, Tenuis consonant, Tianjin, Tianjin dialect, Tianshui, Tone (linguistics), Tone contour, Traditional Chinese characters, Transcription into Chinese characters, Triphthong, Two-cell Chinese Braille, United Nations, Varieties of Chinese, Velar consonant, Vocabulary, Voiceless alveolar fricative, Walter de Gruyter, Wang Li (linguist), Warring States period, Water Margin, Written Chinese, Written vernacular Chinese, Wu Chinese, Wuhan, Xi'an, Xiang Chinese, Xiao'erjing, Xibe language, Xichang, Xinjiang, Yangtze, Yangzhou, Yantai, Yellow River, Yinchuan, Yongzheng Emperor, Yuan dynasty, Yuan Jiahua, Yue Chinese, Yunnan, Zhejiang, Zhengzhou, Zhongyuan Yinyun, Zhou Zhenhe. Expand index (180 more) »

'Phags-pa script

The ‘Phags-pa script (дөрвөлжин үсэг "Square script") is an alphabet designed by the Tibetan monk and State Preceptor (later Imperial Preceptor) Drogön Chögyal Phagpa for Kublai Khan, the founder of the Yuan dynasty, as a unified script for the written languages within the Yuan.

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A Dictionary of the Chinese Language

A Dictionary of the Chinese Language, in Three Parts or Morrison's Chinese dictionary (1815-1823), compiled by the Anglo-Scottish missionary Robert Morrison was the first Chinese-English, English-Chinese dictionary.

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In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.

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Affricate consonant

An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).

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Alessandro Valignano

Alessandro Valignano (Chinese: 范禮安 Fàn Lǐ’ān) (February 1539 – January 20, 1606) was an Italian Jesuit missionary born in Chieti, part of the Kingdom of Naples, who helped supervise the introduction of Catholicism to the Far East, and especially to Japan.

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Alveolo-palatal consonant

In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants, sometimes synonymous with pre-palatal consonants, are intermediate in articulation between the coronal and dorsal consonants, or which have simultaneous alveolar and palatal articulation.

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Analytic language

In linguistic typology, an analytic language is a language that primarily conveys relationships between words in sentences by way of helper words (particles, prepositions, etc.) and word order, as opposed to utilizing inflections (changing the form of a word to convey its role in the sentence).

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Anhui is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the eastern region of the country.

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Apical consonant

An apical consonant is a phone (speech sound) produced by obstructing the air passage with the tip of the tongue.

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Arabic script

The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.

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Austroasiatic languages

The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.

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Austronesian languages

The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.

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Baoding is a prefecture-level city in central Hebei province, approximately southwest of Beijing.

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Baxter's transcription for Middle Chinese

William H. Baxter's transcription for Middle Chinese is an alphabetic notation recording phonological information from medieval sources, rather than a reconstruction.

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Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.

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Beijing dialect

The Beijing dialect, also known as Pekingese, is the prestige dialect of Mandarin spoken in the urban area of Beijing, China.

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Beijing Mandarin (division of Mandarin)

In Chinese dialectology, Beijing Mandarin refers to a major branch of Mandarin Chinese, encompassing a number of dialects spoken in areas of Beijing, Hebei, Inner Mongolia, Liaoning and Tianjin, the most important of which is the Beijing dialect, which provides the phonological basis for Standard Chinese.

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Zhuyin fuhao, Zhuyin, Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) or Mandarin Phonetic Symbols is the major Chinese transliteration system for Taiwanese Mandarin.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.

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Central Plains Mandarin

Central Plains Mandarin, or Zhongyuan Mandarin, is a variety of Mandarin Chinese spoken in the central and southern parts of Shaanxi, Henan, southwestern part of Shanxi, southern part of Gansu, far southern part of Hebei, northern Anhui, northern parts of Jiangsu, southern Xinjiang and southern Shandong.

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Checked tone

A checked tone, commonly known by its Chinese calque entering tone, is one of four syllable types in the phonology in Middle Chinese.

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Chen Duxiu

Chen Duxiu (October 8, 1879 – May 27, 1942) was a Chinese revolutionary socialist, educator, philosopher, and author, who co-founded the Chinese Communist Party (with Li Dazhao) in 1921, serving from 1921 to 1927 as its first General Secretary.

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Chengde, previously known as Jehol or Rehe, is a prefecture-level city in Hebei province, situated northeast of Beijing.

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Chengdu, formerly romanized as Chengtu, is a sub-provincial city which serves as the capital of China's Sichuan province.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chinese characters

Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.

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Chinese classics

Chinese classic texts or canonical texts refers to the Chinese texts which originated before the imperial unification by the Qin dynasty in 221 BC, particularly the "Four Books and Five Classics" of the Neo-Confucian tradition, themselves a customary abridgment of the "Thirteen Classics".

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Chinese dictionary

Chinese dictionaries date back over two millennia to the Han Dynasty, which is a significantly longer lexicographical history than any other language.

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Chinese emigration

Waves of Chinese emigration (also known as the Chinese diaspora) have happened throughout history.

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Chinese postal romanization

Postal romanization was a system of transliterating Chinese place names developed by the Imperial Post Office in the early 1900s.

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Chongqing, formerly romanized as Chungking, is a major city in southwest China.

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Classical Chinese

Classical Chinese, also known as Literary Chinese, is the language of the classic literature from the end of the Spring and Autumn period through to the end of the Han Dynasty, a written form of Old Chinese.

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Classifier (linguistics)

A classifier (abbreviated or), sometimes called a measure word or counter word, is a word or affix that is used to accompany nouns and can be considered to "classify" a noun depending on the type of its referent.

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Consonant voicing and devoicing

In phonology, voicing (or sonorization) is a sound change where a voiceless consonant becomes voiced due to the influence of its phonological environment; shift in the opposite direction is referred to as devoicing or desonorization.

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Continuous and progressive aspects

The continuous and progressive aspects (abbreviated and) are grammatical aspects that express incomplete action ("to do") or state ("to be") in progress at a specific time: they are non-habitual, imperfective aspects.

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Cyrillic script

The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).

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Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning Province, China.

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In linguistics, diglossia is a situation in which two dialects or languages are used by a single language community.

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A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.

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Ditransitive verb

In grammar, a ditransitive verb is a verb which takes a subject and two objects which refer to a theme and a recipient.

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Dongfang, Hainan

Dongfang is one of the seven county-level cities of Hainan province, China.

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Dream of the Red Chamber

Dream of the Red Chamber, also called The Story of the Stone, composed by Cao Xueqin, is one of China's Four Great Classical Novels.

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Dungan language

The Dungan language is a Sinitic language spoken primarily in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan by the Dungan people, an ethnic group related to the Hui people of China.

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Folk etymology

Folk etymology or reanalysis – sometimes called pseudo-etymology, popular etymology, or analogical reformation – is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one.

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Four tones (Middle Chinese)

The four tones of Chinese poetry and dialectology are four traditional tone classes of Chinese words.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Fujian (pronounced), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China.

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Gan Chinese

Gan is a group of Chinese varieties spoken as the native language by many people in the Jiangxi province of China, as well as significant populations in surrounding regions such as Hunan, Hubei, Anhui, and Fujian.

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Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.

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Glottal stop

The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.

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In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.

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Grammatical aspect

Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.

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Grammatical case

Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.

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Grammatical mood

In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.

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Grammatical number

In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").

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Grammatical particle

In grammar the term particle (abbreviated) has a traditional meaning, as a part of speech that cannot be inflected, and a modern meaning, as a function word associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning.

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Grammatical person

Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).

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Grammatical tense

In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.

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Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.

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Guangxi (pronounced; Zhuang: Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is a Chinese autonomous region in South Central China, bordering Vietnam.

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Guizhou, formerly romanized as Kweichow, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country.

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The Gyami ("Han Chinese") were a Han people of Sichuan at the foot of the Tibetan Plateau who were reported by Brian Houghton Hodgson in 1874.

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Hainan is the smallest and southernmost province of the People's Republic of China (PRC), consisting of various islands in the South China Sea.

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Hakka Chinese

Hakka, also rendered Kejia, is one of the major groups of varieties of Chinese, spoken natively by the Hakka people throughout southern China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and throughout the diaspora areas of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and in overseas Chinese communities around the world.

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Han dynasty

The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.

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Harbin is the capital of Heilongjiang province, and largest city in the northeastern region of the People's Republic of China.

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Hebei (postal: Hopeh) is a province of China in the North China region.

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Heilongjiang (Wade-Giles: Heilungkiang) is a province of the People's Republic of China.

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Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country.

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Historical capitals of China

There are traditionally four historical capitals of China, collectively referred to as the "Four Great Ancient Capitals of China".

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A homophone is a word that is pronounced the same (to varying extent) as another word but differs in meaning.

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Hong Kong

Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.

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Hu Shih

Hu Shih (17 December 1891 – 24 February 1962) was a Chinese philosopher, essayist and diplomat.

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Huaxia is a historical concept representing the Chinese nation and civilization.

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Hubei is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the Central China region.

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Huizhou (region)

Huīzhōu is a historical region in southeastern China.

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Huizhou Chinese

Huizhou or Hui, is a group of closely related varieties of Chinese spoken over a small area in and around the historical region of Huizhou (for which it is named), in about ten or so mountainous counties in southern Anhui, plus a few more in neighbouring Zhejiang and Jiangxi.

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Hunan is the 7th most populous province of China and the 10th most extensive by area.

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Hutong are a type of narrow street or alley commonly associated with northern Chinese cities, especially Beijing.

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Iasyr Shivaza

Iasyr (Yasyr) Shivaza or Shiwaza (Ясыр Шывазы;, Xiao'erjing: يَاصِعَر شِوَذِ; Ясыр Шиваза, Yasır Şivaza, ياسىر شىۋازا; Ясыр Джумазович Шиваза, Jasyr Dzhumazovich Shivaza) (18 May 1906 – 18 June 1988) was a Soviet Dungan poet, writer, editor, and scholar.

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In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.

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Jiangsu, formerly romanized as Kiangsu, is an eastern-central coastal province of the People's Republic of China.

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Jiangxi, formerly spelled as Kiangsi Gan: Kongsi) is a province in the People's Republic of China, located in the southeast of the country. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze river in the north into hillier areas in the south and east, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to the northwest. The name "Jiangxi" derives from the circuit administrated under the Tang dynasty in 733, Jiangnanxidao (道, Circuit of Western Jiangnan; Gan: Kongnomsitau). The short name for Jiangxi is 赣 (pinyin: Gàn; Gan: Gōm), for the Gan River which runs across from the south to the north and flows into the Yangtze River. Jiangxi is also alternately called Ganpo Dadi (贛鄱大地) which literally means the "Great Land of Gan and Po".

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Jiaoliao Mandarin

Jiaoliao or Jiao–Liao Mandarin is a primary dialect of Mandarin Chinese, spoken on the Shandong Peninsula, from Yantai to Qingdao, Ganyu District in northeastern Jiangsu and Liaodong Peninsula, from Dalian to Dandong, and along the Yalu River and the Ussuri River, in northeast China.

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Jilu Mandarin

Jilu or Ji–Lu Mandarin, formerly known as Beifang Mandarin "Northern Mandarin", is a dialect of Mandarin Chinese spoken in the Chinese provinces of Hebei (Jì) and the western part of Shandong (Lǔ).

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Jin Chinese

Jin is a group of Chinese dialects or languages spoken by roughly 63 million people in northern China.

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Jin dynasty (1115–1234)

The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin, lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China.

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Jinan, formerly romanized as Tsinan, is the capital of Shandong province in Eastern China.

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Jiujiang, formerly transliterated Kiukiang or Kew Keang, is a prefecture-level city located on the southern shores of the Yangtze River in northwest Jiangxi Province, People's Republic of China.

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Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.

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Koiné language

In linguistics, a koiné language, koiné dialect, or simply koiné (Ancient Greek κοινή, "common ") is a standard language or dialect that has arisen as a result of contact between two or more mutually intelligible varieties (dialects) of the same language.

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Kunming is the capital and largest city of Yunnan province in southwest China.

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The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.

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Labial consonant

Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.

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Language Atlas of China

The Language Atlas of China, published in two parts in 1987 and 1989, maps the distribution of both the varieties of Chinese and minority languages of China.

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Languages of Singapore

According to the Constitution of Singapore, the single national language of Singapore is Malay, which plays a symbolic role, as Malays are constitutionally recognized as the indigenous peoples of Singapore, and it is the government's duty to protect their language and heritage.

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Lanyin Mandarin

Lan–Yin Mandarin (Lanyin) is a branch of Mandarin Chinese traditionally spoken throughout Gansu province and in the northern part of Ningxia.

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Lanzhou is the capital and largest city of Gansu Province in Northwest China.

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Latin script

Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.

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Li Fang-Kuei

Li Fang-Kuei (20 August 190221 August 1987) was a Chinese linguist, known for his studies of the varieties of Chinese, and for his reconstructions of Old Chinese and Proto-Tai.

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Li Rong (linguist)

Li Rong (4 February 1920 – 31 December 2002) was a Chinese linguist known for his work on Chinese dialectology.

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Liaodong Peninsula

The Liaodong Peninsula is a peninsula in Liaoning Province of Northeast China, historically known in the West as Southeastern Manchuria.

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Liaoning is a province of China, located in the northeast of the country.

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Lingua franca

A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.

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List of languages by number of native speakers

This article ranks human languages by their number of native speakers.

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List of varieties of Chinese

The following is a list of Chinese languages and dialects, many of which are mutually unintelligible.

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Liuzhou is a prefecture-level city in north-central Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China.

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Lower Yangtze Mandarin

Lower Yangtze Mandarin is one of the most divergent and least mutually-intellegible groups of Mandarin dialects, as it neighbors the Wu, Hui, and Gan groups of varieties of Chinese.

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Luoyang, formerly romanized as Loyang, is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River in the west of Henan province.

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Macau, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.

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Mainland China

Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

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Mainland Chinese Braille

(Mainland) Chinese Braille is a braille script used for Standard Mandarin in China.

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Malay language

Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.

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Manchu people

The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.

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Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.

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Mandarin (bureaucrat)

A mandarin (Chinese: 官 guān) was a bureaucrat scholar in the government of imperial China and Vietnam.

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Mathews' Chinese-English Dictionary

A Chinese-English Dictionary: Compiled for the China Inland Mission by R. H. Mathews (1931) or Mathews' Chinese-English Dictionary (1943), edited by the Australian Congregationalist missionary Robert Henry Mathews (1877-1970), was the standard Chinese-English dictionary for decades.

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Menggu Ziyun

Menggu Ziyun ("Rimes in Mongol Script") is a 14th-century rime dictionary of Chinese as written in the 'Phags-pa script that was used during the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368).

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Middle Chinese

Middle Chinese (formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese recorded in the Qieyun, a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions.

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Min Chinese

Min or Miin (BUC: Mìng ngṳ̄) is a broad group of Chinese varieties spoken by over 70 million people in the southeastern Chinese province of Fujian as well as by migrants from this province in Guangdong (around Chaozhou-Swatou, or Chaoshan area, Leizhou peninsula and Part of Zhongshan), Hainan, three counties in southern Zhejiang, Zhoushan archipelago off Ningbo, some towns in Liyang, Jiangyin City in Jiangsu province, and Taiwan.

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Ming dynasty

The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.

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Minjiang dialect

Minjiang dialect, is a branch of Sichuanese, spoken mainly in the Min River (Mínjiāng) valley or along the Yangtze in the southern and western parts of the Sichuan Basin.

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Mutual intelligibility

In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.

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Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.

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Nanping is a third-tier prefecture-level city in northwestern Fujian Province, China.

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Nantong (former names: Nan-t'ung, Nantung, Tongzhou, or Tungchow; Qihai dialect) is a prefecture-level city in Jiangsu province, China.

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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National language

A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.

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National Languages Committee

The National Languages Committee was established in 1928 by the Ministry of Education of the Taiwan (ROC) with the purpose of standardizing and popularizing the usage of Standard Chinese (also called Mandarin) in the Republic of China.

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New Culture Movement

The New Culture Movement of the mid 1910s and 1920s sprang from the disillusionment with traditional Chinese culture following the failure of the Chinese Republic, founded in 1912 to address China’s problems.

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New Xiang

New Xiang, also known as Chang-Yi (长益片 / 長益片) is the dominant form of Xiang Chinese.

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Ningxia (pronounced), officially the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest part of the country.

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North China Plain

The North China Plain is based on the deposits of the Yellow River and is the largest alluvial plain of China.

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Northeastern Mandarin

Northeastern Mandarin (or 东北官话/東北官話 Dōngběiguānhuà "Northeast Mandarin") is the subgroup of Mandarin varieties spoken in Northeast China with the exception of the Liaodong Peninsula.

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Official language

An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.

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Old Chinese

Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese.

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Old Mandarin

Old Mandarin or Early Mandarin was the speech of northern China during the Jin and Yuan dynasties (12th to 14th centuries).

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Old National Pronunciation

The Old National Pronunciation was the system established for the phonology of standard Chinese as decided by the Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation from 1913 onwards, and published in the 1919 edition of the Guóyīn Zìdiǎn (國音字典, "Dictionary of National Pronunciation").

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Old Xiang

Old Xiang, also known as Lou-Shao (娄邵片 / 婁邵片) is a conservative form of Xiang Chinese.

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Palatal approximant

The voiced palatal approximant is a type of consonant used in many spoken languages.

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Palatalization (sound change)

In linguistics, palatalization is a sound change that either results in a palatal or palatalized consonant or a front vowel, or is triggered by one of them.

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Peking opera

Peking opera, or Beijing opera, is a form of Chinese opera which combines music, vocal performance, mime, dance and acrobatics.

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Perfective aspect

The perfective aspect (abbreviated), sometimes called the aoristic aspect, is a grammatical aspect used to describe an action viewed as a simple whole—a unit without interior composition.

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A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.

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Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.

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Pinghua (Yale: Pìhng Wá; sometimes disambiguated as /广西平话) is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken mainly in parts of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, with some speakers in Yunnan province.

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Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.

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Portuguese language

Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.

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Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics and semiotics that studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning.

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In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.

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Pronunciation is the way in which a word or a language is spoken.

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Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.

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Qu (poetry)

The Qu form of poetry is a type of Classical Chinese poetry form, consisting of words written in one of a number of certain, set tone patterns, based upon the tunes of various songs.

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R-colored vowel

In phonetics, an r-colored or rhotic vowel (also called a retroflex vowel, vocalic r, or a rhotacized vowel) is a vowel that is modified in a way that results in a lowering in frequency of the third formant.

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Reduplication in linguistics is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word (or part of it) or even the whole word is repeated exactly or with a slight change.

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Retroflex consonant

A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.

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Rime dictionary

A rime dictionary, rhyme dictionary, or rime book is an ancient type of Chinese dictionary that collates characters by tone and rhyme, instead of by radical.

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Rime table

A rime table or rhyme table is a Chinese phonological model, tabulating the syllables of the series of rime dictionaries beginning with the Qieyun (601) by their onsets, rhyme groups, tones and other properties.

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Robert Morrison (missionary)

Robert Morrison, FRS (5 January 1782 – 1 August 1834), was an Anglo-Scottish Protestant missionary to Portuguese Macao, Qing-era Guangdong, and Dutch Malacca, who was also a pioneering sinologist, lexicographer, and translator considered the "Father of Anglo-Chinese Literature".

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Sanqu refers to a fixed-rhythm form of Classical Chinese poetry, or "literary song".

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Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Shaanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China.

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Shandong (formerly romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the East China region.

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Shandong Peninsula

The Shandong Peninsula is a peninsula in Shandong province in eastern China, between the Bohai Sea to the north and the Yellow Sea to the south.

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No description.

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Shanxi (postal: Shansi) is a province of China, located in the North China region.

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Shenyang, formerly known by its Manchu name Mukden or Fengtian, is the provincial capital and the largest city of Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China, as well as the largest city in Northeast China by urban population.

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Shijiazhuang is the capital and largest city of North China's Hebei Province.

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Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south.

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Sichuanese dialects

Sichuanese (Sichuanese Pinyin: Si4cuan1hua4), or Sichuanese/Szechwanese Mandarin, commonly known as Sichuanese, or Szechwanese is a branch of Southwestern Mandarin, spoken mainly in Sichuan and Chongqing, which was part of Sichuan Province until 1997, and the adjacent regions of their neighboring provinces, such as Hubei, Guizhou, Yunnan, Hunan and Shaanxi.

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Simplified Chinese characters

Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China.

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Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.

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Society of Jesus

The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.

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In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant or resonant is a speech sound that is produced with continuous, non-turbulent airflow in the vocal tract; these are the manners of articulation that are most often voiced in the world's languages.

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South China

South China or Southern China is a geographical and cultural region that covers the southernmost part of China.

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Southwestern Mandarin

Southwestern Mandarin, also known as Upper Yangtze Mandarin, is a primary branch of Mandarin Chinese spoken in much of central and southwestern China, including in Sichuan, Yunnan, Chongqing, Guizhou, most parts of Hubei, the northwestern part of Hunan, the northern part of Guangxi, and some southern parts of Shaanxi and Gansu.

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Standard Chinese

Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.

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Standard Chinese phonology

This article summarizes the phonology (the sound system, or in more general terms, the pronunciation) of Standard Chinese (Standard Mandarin).

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.

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Syllabic consonant

A syllabic consonant or vocalic consonant is a consonant that forms a syllable on its own, like the m, n and l in the English words rhythm, button and bottle, or is the nucleus of a syllable, like the r sound in the American pronunciation of work.

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A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.

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Tai languages

The Tai or Zhuang–Tai languages (ภาษาไท or ภาษาไต, transliteration: or) are a branch of the Kra–Dai language family.

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Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.

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Taiwanese Braille

Taiwanese Braille is the braille script used in Taiwan for Taiwanese Mandarin (Guoyu).

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Tang dynasty

The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

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Tenuis consonant

In linguistics, a tenuis consonant is an obstruent that is unvoiced, unaspirated, unpalatalized, and unglottalized.

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Tianjin, formerly romanized as Tientsin, is a coastal metropolis in northern China and one of the four national central cities of the People's Republic of China (PRC), with a total population of 15,469,500, and is also the world's 11th-most populous city proper.

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Tianjin dialect

Tianjin dialect is a Mandarin dialect spoken in the city of Tianjin, China.

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Tianshui is the second-largest city in Gansu Province, China.

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Tone (linguistics)

Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.

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Tone contour

A tone contour, or contour tone, is a tone in a tonal language which shifts from one pitch to another over the course of the syllable or word.

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Traditional Chinese characters

Traditional Chinese characters (Pinyin) are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946.

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Transcription into Chinese characters

Transcription into Chinese is the use of traditional or simplified characters to transcribe phonetically the sound of terms and names foreign to the Chinese language.

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In phonetics, a triphthong (from Greek τρίφθογγος, "triphthongos", literally "with three sounds," or "with three tones") is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement of the articulator from one vowel quality to another that passes over a third.

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Two-cell Chinese Braille

Two-cell Chinese Braille was designed in the 1970s and is used in parallel with traditional Chinese Braille in China.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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Varieties of Chinese

Chinese, also known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible.

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Velar consonant

Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).

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A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person's language.

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Voiceless alveolar fricative

A voiceless alveolar fricative is a type of fricative consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth.

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Walter de Gruyter

Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.

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Wang Li (linguist)

Wang Li (IPA: /wɑŋ' li:/; 10 August 1900 – 3 May 1986) was a Chinese linguist, educator, translator and poet, described as "the founder of Chinese Linguistics".

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Warring States period

The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.

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Water Margin

Water Margin, also translated as Outlaws of the Marsh, Tale of the Marshes, All Men Are Brothers, Men of the Marshes or The Marshes of Mount Liang, is a Chinese novel attributed to Shi Nai'an.

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Written Chinese

Written Chinese comprises Chinese characters (汉字/漢字; pinyin: Hànzì, literally "Han characters") used to represent the Chinese language.

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Written vernacular Chinese

Written Vernacular Chinese is the forms of written Chinese based on the varieties of Chinese spoken throughout China, in contrast to Classical Chinese, the written standard used during imperial China up to the early twentieth century.

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Wu Chinese

Wu (Shanghainese:; Suzhou dialect:; Wuxi dialect) is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese primarily spoken in the whole Zhejiang province, city of Shanghai, and the southern half of Jiangsu province, as well as bordering areas.

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Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China.

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Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China.

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Xiang Chinese

Xiang or Hsiang, also known as Hunanese, is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese, spoken mainly in Hunan province but also in northern Guangxi and parts of neighboring Guizhou and Hubei provinces.

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Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script" (cf. "original script" referring to the original Perso-Arabic script,, Xiao'erjing: بٌکٍْ; Бынҗин, Вьnⱬin), is the practice of writing Sinitic languages such as Mandarin (especially the Lanyin, Zhongyuan and Northeastern dialects) or the Dungan language in the Perso-Arabic script.

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Xibe language

The Xibe language (sibe gisun, also Sibo, Sibe, Xibo language) is a Tungusic language spoken by members of the Xibe minority of China.

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Xichang, formerly known as Jiandu and Jianchang, is a city in and the seat of the Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, in the south of Sichuan Province, China.

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Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.

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The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.

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Yangzhou, formerly romanized as Yangchow, is a prefecture-level city in central Jiangsu Province, China.

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Yantai, formerly known as Zhifu or Chefoo, is a prefecture-level city on the Bohai Strait in northeastern Shandong Province, China.

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Yellow River

The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of.

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Yinchuan is the capital of the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China, and historically it was the former capital of the Western Xia Empire of the Tanguts.

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Yongzheng Emperor

The Yongzheng Emperor (13 December 1678 – 8 October 1735), born Yinzhen, was the fifth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the third Qing emperor to rule over China proper.

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Yuan dynasty

The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.

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Yuan Jiahua

Yuan Jiahua (January 19034 September 1980) was a Chinese linguist and dialectologist from Zhangjiagang, Jiangsu province.

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Yue Chinese

Yue or Yueh is one of the primary branches of Chinese spoken in southern China, particularly the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi, collectively known as Liangguang.

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Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.

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, formerly romanized as Chekiang, is an eastern coastal province of China.

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Zhengzhou is the capital of Henan Province in the central part of the People's Republic of China.

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Zhongyuan Yinyun

Zhongyuan Yinyun, literally meaning "Rhymes of the central plain", is a rime book from the Yuan dynasty compiled by Zhou Deqing (周德清) in 1324.

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Zhou Zhenhe

Zhou Zhenhe (born 1941) is a Chinese historical geographer and a distinguished senior professor at the Institute of Historical Geography of Fudan University in Shanghai.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandarin_Chinese

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